alexa A Case of Bullous Pemphigoid with a High Titer of Anti-BP180 NC16a IgG Antibody

ISSN: 2155-9554

Journal of Clinical & Experimental Dermatology Research

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A Case of Bullous Pemphigoid with a High Titer of Anti-BP180 NC16a IgG Antibody

Keiji Sugiura* and Mariko Sugiura
Department of Environmental Dermatology & Allergology, Daiichi Clinic, Japan
*Corresponding Author: Keiji Sugiura, Department of Environmental Dermatology & Allergology, Daiichi Clinic, Nittochi Nagoya Bld, Sakae, Nakaku, Nagoya, Japan, Tel: + 81522040834, Fax: + 81522040834, Email: [email protected]

Received Date: Dec 01, 2017 / Accepted Date: Jan 31, 2018 / Published Date: Feb 08, 2018

Keywords: Bullous pemphigoid; Diabetes mellitus

Letter To Editor

Bullous pemphigoid (BP) is related to various diseases, and it is often difficult to treat because of comorbidities. The coexisting of psoriasis vulgaris (PV) and BP are rare [1]. We reported a case of BP with PV in a male with diabetes mellitus (DM) and chronic renal failure (CRF) [2]. We treated him for three weeks by using the systemic administration of steroid tablets, and his cutaneous conditions were improved. After about four weeks from improvement of his BP, this case recurred with a high titer of anti-BP180 NC16a antibody (18700 U/ml [0-9 U/ml]) (Figure 1). We previously [2] reported that one risk factor for developing BP in psoriasis cases was high titers of anti-180- kDa and 230-kDa IgG antibodies. The anti-BP180 NC16a IgG antibody titer may have been associated with the psoriasis, but the particulars were unknown.

clinical-dermatology-titer-antibody

Figure 1: The titer of anti-BP 180 NC16a antibody.

In our case, Bullous Pemphigoid Disease Area Index (BPDAI) scores (Table 1) [3] at the recurrence of BP were skin activity 83, skin damage 10, scalp activity 4, scalp damage 1, and mucous membrane activity 4, for a total activity score of 91 and total damage score of 11. Because the patient’s disease complications included chronic renal failure (renal dialysis patient) due to diabetes mellitus, steroid medication dose possibility was limited. We used steroid (methylprednisolone 20 mg/day), minocycline, diaminodiphenylsulfone and cyclosporine for the BP, but with little effect. We then treated the patient by plasmapheresis (1-2 times per week), and his skin condition gradually improved. We found that by decreasing his serum immunoglobulin G, the frequency of plasmapheresis could be reduced to once a week.

Skin Activity   Damage
Anatomical Location Erosion/Blisters or new erythema   Post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation or erythema from resolving lesion
  0  absent Number of lesions if ≤ 3 0 absent
  1-3 lesions, up to one 2>cm in any diameter, none>6 cm   1 present
  2-3 lesions, at least two>2 cm diameter, none>6 cm    
  3>3 lesions, none>6  cm diameter    
  5>3 lesions, And/or at least one>6 cm    
  10>3 lesions, and/or at least one lesion>16 cm diameter or entire area    
Ears      
Nose      
Rest of the face      
Neck      
Chest      
Abdomen      
Back, buttocks      
Arms      
Hands      
Legs      
Feet      
Genitals      
Total skin 83/120   12/10
Scalp
Scalp Erosion/Blisters or new erythema Number of lesions if ≤ 3 Post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation or erythema from resolving lesion
  0  absent   0  absent
  1  in one quadrant   1  present
  2  two quadrants    
  3  three quadrants    
  4  affects whole skull    
  10  at least one lesion>6cm    
Total Scalp (0-10) 10/4   1/1
Mucous membrane
Anatomical Location Erosion/Blisters Number of lesions if ≤ 3
  0  absent  
  1 lesion  
  2-3 lesion  
  5>3 lesions or 2 lesions>2 cm  
  10  entire area  
Eyes    
Nose    
Buccal mucosa    
Hard palate    
Soft palate    
Upper gingiva    
Lower gingiva    
Tongue    
Floor of mouth    
Labial bucosa    
Posterior pharynx    
Anogenital    
Total Mucosa 4/120  
Total Activity Score  :91 Total Damage Score:11

Table 1: BPDAI score.

After one month from the end of plasmapheresis, the patient was completely recovered, and his anti-BP180 NC16a IgG antibody titer was decreased (Figure 1) to 499 U/ml, although this was still beyond the normal range (0-9 U/ml). Despite his improved skin condition, we hypothesized two reasons why his anti-BP180 NC16a IgG antibody titer remained outside normal range: (1) some of the antibodies were non-significantly morbid antibodies related with BP; and (2) the continued production of antibodies. The first reason was most likely due to the improving skin condition. The reason that the titer of anti- BP180 NC16a antibody was not within normal range might be that antibodies that were not significant were still being measured. Such non-significant morbid antibodies were uncertain; it might be that these were not morbid and were related to PV [4,5].

This patient’s PV is under good control, and the triggers of his BP are unknown, although his PV might be in a causative factor of the high titer of anti-BP180 NC16a antibody. There were some risk factors for developing BP in psoriasis cases, elderly person, comorbidities and the high titer of both 180 kDa and 230 kDa IgG antibodies [2]. Our case was an elderly patient with psoriasis and CRF due to DM, all of which are closely related to the appearance of BP.

We surmised that about 2.67% (499/18700) of the antibodies in this case were not significantly morbid, and that other patients with BP might also have about 2-3% non-significantly morbid anti-BP180 NC16a IgG antibodies.

The patient’s skin condition is currently good, and he has not experienced further recurrence.

References

Citation: Sugiura K, Sugiura M (2018) A Case of Bullous Pemphigoid with a High Titer of Anti-BP180 NC16a IgG Antibody. J Clin Exp Dermatol Res 9: 441. DOI: 10.4172/2155-9554.1000441

Copyright: © 2018 Sugiura K, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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