Reach Us
+44-1522-440391

Medical, Pharma, Engineering, Science, Technology and Business

Institute of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Tallinn University, Narva mnt. 25,10120 Tallinn, Estonia

- *Corresponding Author:
- Tatjana GRAMUSHNJAK

Institute of Mathematics and Natural Sciences

Tallinn University, Narva mnt. 25,10120 Tallinn, Estonia

**E-mail:**[email protected]

**Received Date:** January 20, 2008; **Revised Date:** April 13, 2008

**Visit for more related articles at** Journal of Generalized Lie Theory and Applications

Let n,m be integers such that n ¸ 3, m > 0 and Ck a cyclic group of order k. All groups which can be presented as a semidirect product (C2n+m × C2n) h C2 are described.

All non-Abelian groups of order < 32 are described in [1] (**Table 1** at the end of the book). M. Jr. Hall and J. K. Senior [3] have given a fully description of all groups of order There exist exactly 51 non-isomorphic groups of order 32. Some of them can be presented as a semidirect product and some of them as a semidirect product As a generalization of the first case, in [2] all groups of the form are described. It turned out that there exist only 17 non-isomorphic groups of this form (for a fixed

n). In this paper we generalize the second case. Namely, we shall describe all finite 2-groups

which can be presented in the form Clearly, each such group G is given by three generators a, b, c and by the defining relations

for some and the ring of residue classes modulo 2^{k}).

The aim of this paper is to prove

**Theorem 1.1. **For fixed and the number of groups which can be given by relations

(1.1) is

All possible values of (p, q, r, s) are given in Propositions 3.1, 3.2, 3.3 if m < n, in 3.1, 3.2 if m = n and in 3.4, 3.5 if m > n.

Let be a group given by (1.1). An element c induces an inner automorphism of order two (the case = 1 is also included) of group

Therefore, we have to find all automorphisms of of order two. The map induces an endomorphism of group if and only if (mod ). This endomorphism

is an automorphism, if and only if (mod 2). This map is an automorphism of order two if and only if (p, q, r, s) satisfy the system

(2.1)

Our purpose is to solve system (2.1). Note that the two first subsystems of (2.1) imply the

following system modulo 2^{n}

: (2.2)

The solutions (p, q, r, s) of system (2.2) form a set M which was described in [2]. In [2] the set M was given as the union of disjoined subsets

Let be a solution of system (2.2), where and denotes the set of all invertible elements of Then p and r can be replaced in (2.1) by

where

Now it is easy to see that system (2.1) is equivalent to the system

(2.3)

where and and (2.4)

Remark, that means the representative of residue class; moreover, we always can choose

Because the length of the paper is limited, for most of statements we give only idea of proof.

**The case**

Assume that Then and system (2.3) takes the form

(3.1)

**Proposition 3.1.** Assume that and q is odd. Then the solutions (p, q, r, s) of (2.1) are of the form where and where There are exactly solutions of this form if exactly solutions if m = 2 and exactly solutions if m = 1.

**Proof. **The condition of the proposition, conditions (2.4) and are satisfied

for solution of (2.2) from the set .While we have Where and if if Since and (mod 2m), the second congruence of (3.1) holds for every From

the first congruence of (3.1) we get the value for y. Now let us find the number of solutions of the system (2.1). We have choices for number choices for odd number choices for

number x. For i_{0} we have z = 4 choices if choices if m = 2 and z = 1 choice if m = 1. This implies that for the number i we have choices and the number of solutions of the system is equal to the number of triples and

**Proposition 3.2.** Assume that q is even and Then the

solutions of (2.1) are:

where and and in the case if then in the case then where and There are exactly solutions of this form if and solutions if m = n.

and

There are exactly 32 solutions of this form.

**Proof. **To prove the proposition, by [2] we must consider the following sets of solutions of (2.2):

where Solving system (3.1) for each solution of (2.2) from given sets we get from the

second congruence in (3.1) the condition for y and from the first congruence in (3.1) the values for x. The solutions of system (2.2) belonging to set vgive us solution 1) of system

(2.1). The solutions of system (2.2) belonging to sets give solution 2) of

system (2.1).

**Proposition 3.3**. Assume that and are both nonzero even numbers, is odd and Then system (2.1) have solutions only if and these solutions are where and if then if there are solutions of this form. If there are solutions.

**Proof**. Let us now consider the set The solutions of system (2.2) from this set have the form where and (3.2)

The condition holds only if The second congruence of (3.1), i.e

holds in the case if k = 0 for every and in the case if k = 1 it holds for every Since the first congruence of (3.1), i.e

implies

(3.3)

Since this congruence holds if and only if

The last condition is stronger than (3.2) and implies where is the inverse of the odd number u by modulo Since for v we have values by modulo in the form

where

It follows from (3.3), that in the case m = 1 we have and in the case m > 1 we have

Calculating the number of all obtained solutions, we get the second statement of proposition

**The case** m > n

The condition implies g = 0 and i.e y is even, where System (2.3) has now

the form

(3.4)

**Lemma 3.1.** The solution of the congruence

where

Proof. The solutions of are i.e. if f=1 Then

**Lemma 3.2.** The solution of the congruence

where and and

**Proof.** Denote then Using (2.1)–(2.10)

in [2], we get that the solution of the last congruence is

where

Now let us find x. Since it follows that Analogously .if then and then

Denote by x_{1} solutions from Lemma 3.1 and by x_{2}, z_{2} solutions from Lemma 3.2.

**Proposition 3.4.** Assume that m > n and the number q is odd Then the solutions of (2.1) are: then the where and There are solutions of these forms.

**Proof. **Consider the solutions of system (2.2) belonging to the set M3. The second congruence

of (3.4) holds for every To solve the first congruence of (3.4), consider two cases for z: In the first case using Lemma 3.2, we

get solution 1) and in the second case, using Lemma 3.1, we get solution 2).

**Proposition 3.5. **Assume that m > n, and both numbers q and g are

even. Then (2.1) have solutions only in case f = i = ±1 and these solutions are:

where there are solutions of these forms.

**Proof.** Consider solutions of system (2.2) belonging to the sets Solving system (3.4) and using lemmas 3.1 and 3.2, we get from the set solutions 1), 2), 3), 4) and from sets solution 5). Calculating the number of all obtained

solutions, we get the second statement of the proposition.

Research was supported by the Estonian Science Foundation Research Grant 5900, 2004-2007.

- Coxeter H, Moser W (1972) Generators and relations for discrete groups. Springer-Verlag.
- Gramushnjak T, Puusemp P (2006) Description of a Class of 2-Groups. J Nonlinear Math Phys13: Supplement, 55-65.
- Hall M, Senior J (1964) The groups of order2n, n≤6. Macmillan, New York; Collier–Macmillan, London.

Select your language of interest to view the total content in your interested language

- Adomian Decomposition Method
- Algebra
- Algebraic Geometry
- Analytical Geometry
- Applied Mathematics
- Axioms
- Balance Law
- Behaviometrics
- Big Data Analytics
- Binary and Non-normal Continuous Data
- Binomial Regression
- Biometrics
- Biostatistics methods
- Clinical Trail
- Combinatorics
- Complex Analysis
- Computational Model
- Convection Diffusion Equations
- Cross-Covariance and Cross-Correlation
- Deformations Theory
- Differential Equations
- Differential Transform Method
- Fourier Analysis
- Fuzzy Boundary Value
- Fuzzy Environments
- Fuzzy Quasi-Metric Space
- Genetic Linkage
- Geometry
- Hamilton Mechanics
- Harmonic Analysis
- Homological Algebra
- Homotopical Algebra
- Hypothesis Testing
- Integrated Analysis
- Integration
- Large-scale Survey Data
- Latin Squares
- Lie Algebra
- Lie Superalgebra
- Lie Theory
- Lie Triple Systems
- Loop Algebra
- Matrix
- Microarray Studies
- Mixed Initial-boundary Value
- Molecular Modelling
- Multivariate-Normal Model
- Noether's theorem
- Non rigid Image Registration
- Nonlinear Differential Equations
- Number Theory
- Numerical Solutions
- Operad Theory
- Physical Mathematics
- Quantum Group
- Quantum Mechanics
- Quantum electrodynamics
- Quasi-Group
- Quasilinear Hyperbolic Systems
- Regressions
- Relativity
- Representation theory
- Riemannian Geometry
- Robust Method
- Semi Analytical-Solution
- Sensitivity Analysis
- Smooth Complexities
- Soft biometrics
- Spatial Gaussian Markov Random Fields
- Statistical Methods
- Super Algebras
- Symmetric Spaces
- Theoretical Physics
- Theory of Mathematical Modeling
- Three Dimensional Steady State
- Topologies
- Topology
- mirror symmetry
- vector bundle

- Total views:
**11553** - [From(publication date):

September-2008 - Jan 16, 2019] - Breakdown by view type
- HTML page views :
**7778** - PDF downloads :
**3775**

Peer Reviewed Journals

International Conferences 2019-20