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International Journal of School and Cognitive Psychology
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A Proposal about Multidisciplinary Nature of Temperament: A Perspective of Individual Differences Based on Temperament According to Nine Types Temperament Model in Preschool Education

Selçuk Z1, Yılmaz ED*2 and Ünal Ö3

1Gazi University, Faculty of Education, Turkey

2Hatay Dörtyol State Hospital, Department of Psychiatry, Turkey

3Psychologist, Self Employed, Turkey

*Corresponding Author:
Enver Demirel Yılmaz
Department of Psychiatry, Dörtyol State Hospital
İstasyon Avenue 31000 Dörtyol/Hatay/Turkey
Tel: +9 0 326 712 22 87
E-mail: [email protected]

Received Date: April 29, 2015 Accepted: September 14, 2015 Published: September 20, 2015

Citation: Selçuk Z, Yilmaz ED, Ünal Ö (2015) A Proposal about Multidisciplinary Nature of Temperament: A Perspective of Individual Differences Based on Temperament According to Nine Types Temperament Model in Preschool Education. Int J Sch Cog Psychol S2:002. doi:10.4172/2469-9837.S2-002

Copyright: © 2015 Selçuk Z, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

 

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Abstract

Background: Number of studies about individual differences based on temperament, effect of personality on education environment and importance of temperament in education have increased day by day. Nowadays, many temperament models are resources for education researches. Moreover, preschool education approach focused on temperament does not attract attention for determination of individual differences and for practice school application. Method: This study includes articles and e-books which are classic in preschool field established between 1980 and 2015. Searches are made by using word series preschool education, temperament, temperament in education ve temperament in classroom in googlebooks, googlescholar and pubmed database. Findings: Temperament which is a multidiciplinary approach could be an integrative parameter, which provides determination of individual differences in behavioral, emotional and cognitive fields. Moreover, determination of individual differences through temperament type, which constitutes core of future personality could provide freedom for that children present their uniqness and also could provide support and development of individual differences especially. Result: This study presents a temperamental perspective to preschool education approach in the context of individual differences introductory to temperament based education approach based on Nine Type Temperament Model (NTTM).

Keywords

Temperament; Individual differences; Nine types temperament model; Preschool education; Personality; Temperament in education

Introduction

Preschool education approaches have a multidisciplinary nature which affect from many disciplines such as child development, psychology, psychiatry, sociology and philosophy as well as from social, economical and political events. (e.g. individual contributions of philosopher, psychologist and educator Dewey [1], philosopher, scientist and artist Steiner [2,3], psychiatrist Montessori [4,5], psychologist Freud [6] and Erikson [7], zoologist and psychologist Piaget, psychologist Vygotsky [8-10] or Second World War and effects of social and political events such as poorness on occurrence of different education approaches)

The main factor, which shapes perspective of preschool education approaches, methods and applications and which constitutes substructure of these approaches are, focused concepts. When Montessori, which is one of the contemporary preschool approaches, is based on concepts such as respects for freedom, individualism of achild and absorbent mind, [5], Head Start; emphasizes the whole child concept which accepts child as a physical, cognitive, and social whole [11,12]; and Reggio Emilia focuses on concepts such as a materials-rich environment and individual creative expression [13]. While democratic education approach; highlights free choice, selfdetermination and the sovereignty of the individual personality concepts [14], Bank Street approach which is known as a developmental interaction approach, which highlights promotion of competence, individuality, and socialization concepts [15]. Differently from these approaches spiritual development, imaginary and freedom concepts are emphasized in Waldorf schools which are based on antroposofic point of wiew [13,16].

An important concept; which shapes basic concepts focused by preschool education approaches, as well as forms differentiation in application, is individual difference [17]. Nowadays, many researchers agree on that core which constitutes ground of individual differences, is temperament [18-21].

Even temperament researchers cannot agree on a mutual definition of temperament [22], they can say about temperament that they can say about temperament that temperament has genetic and constructional ground [e.g. 23-26] it can be observed in early life [23,27,28], it is relatively stable [18,29-32], includes traits which underlies personality [21,33,34]. According to some researchers, it is more important that temperament is a resource for individual differences, than definition of temperament. For example; when Sanson, Smart and Hemphill [35] consider temperament through individual differences in patterns, Rothbart and Derryberry [25] evaluate temperament through constitutional differences.

Background

Number of researches which are made about importance of temperament in education increase day by day, after study of Keogh and his friends, which focuses on effect of individual differences in education atmosphere [36-40]. As DeLisi and Vaughn [41] point out, important effects of temperament on school success, healthy peer relationships and contiunity of these relationships emphasize importance of temperament in education. Also current studies show that temperament determines individual differences which are very important in many fields in education, such as interpersonel functioning [42], social development [43,44], learning [45,46] and attention [47].

One of the concepts which contributes education in conjunction with temperament and individual differences, is personality. Shiner and Caspi [48] emphasize that personality refers constitutional differences in behavioural, emotional and intellectual tendencies. However, Yılmaz et al. [31-33] suggest that temperament constitutes individual differences by interacting with factors innate/internal (intelligence, gender, genetic structure, age, biological features etc.) and with factors which we have later/external (family, education, social environment, experience, culture, belief etc.). Many researchers search relationship between personality and school through temperamental differences because differences in personalities affect school and school affect personality and temperament differences underlies differences in personalities [20]. For example, many models such as New York Longitudinal Study (NYLS) of Thomas and Chess, the developmental model of temperament of Rohtbart and Derryberry, inhibited and uninhibited temperaments of Kagan, are resource for educational researches [e.g. 49-54].

Another model, which searches temperamental differences and relationship between temperament and personality, is Nine Types Temperament Model (NTTM) [29-34,55,56]. According to NTTM temperament consists of potential traits which determine individual differences in personality (Table 1), determines perception preferences, motivations and tendencies of individuals and also includes the core of behaviour, emotion and thought patterns of personality [33,55]. Adult sample of temperament types based NTTM is evaluated by Nine Type Personality Scale (NTTS) [30], adolescent sample is evaluated by Nine Types Temperament Scale-Adolescent Form (NTTS-A) [34] and junior sample is evaluated by observation and a temperament scale, which is prepared by Yılmaz and his friends. According to NTTM, when temperament which comes from birth does not change for a lifetime, personality which develops on static/unchangeable traits of temperament is a dynamic/changeable construct [33]. Moreover, NTTM suggests that temperament is a key concept for prediction of future personality [31], explains factors; which come from birth and develops according to individual’s temperament type as natural personality and factors which are not found in individual’s temperament type but can be learned lately as synthetic personality [32]. Furthermore, synthetic personality traits, which are learned later, better they can be integrated, more quality and healthier harmonic personality occurs [32]. NTTM, which defines relationship and pathways between temperament and personality, takes attention to effects of individual differences on education [33] and also to effects of education on personality [32].

We hypothesize that temperament can be a natural concept/ parameter of education approaches by providing prediction of future personality traits [21], because of multidisciplinary nature of temperament, which shapes individual differences [33]. The purpose of this study is proposing a temperamental perspective introductory to temperament based education approach based on NTTM, within context of individual differences in preschool education.

Method

Scanning method is used in this research. Articles established between 1980 and 2015 and books about temperament and preschool approach and online versions of these books without date limit are included to this study. Articles are searched in googlescholar and pubmed data base; e-books are searched through googlebooks and googlescholar search engines by using *pre-school education, *temperament, *temperament in education and *temperament in classroom series. Studies which embrace temperament and preschool approaches conceptually are included to this article.

Findings

Individual differences in preschool education approaches

Preschool education approaches come to forefront with aspects of education more than aspects of instruction, distinctly from school age education approaches and give a special importance to personality development and individual differences. For example; when main purpose in Montessori approach is revealing individual human potential [57], Democratic education purposes to gain information, skills and behaviours for individual development and democratic life [58]. Teachers try to gain way of achieving information, problem solving and independent thinking traits in High Scope approach [59]. Bank Street approach defends that individual development traits of all children in a class should be considered and also targets to gain children self confidence, individualism, socializing and integrating with society traits [15]. However, from our perspective, when some traits and values are purposed to gain all students generally, individual differences can be ignored/neglected. However, from the temperament perspective; traits, which children already have or which they gain later by education, differ according to temperament types [32]. For example, some temperament types have their own tendencies to present traits, which are targeted to gain in Bank Street approach mutually such as; self confidence (such as NTT8, NTT3, NTT7, NTT1), individualism (such as NTT4, NTT5, NTT7 ), socializing (such as NTT2, NTT7, NTT8, NTT3) or integrating with society (such as NTT9, NTT6) [33,54]. Either, for example, supporting a child with NTT4, who have potentially has too much individualism trait, can cause difficulty for the child to adapt society [55]; and supporting NTT9 who supports union, avoids conflict and says no hardly [56] for adapting society too much, could cause problems about child’s expression of his individual wishes and demands. Thus, approaches which purpose to gain children some specific traits can be limited to address individual differences of students.

Another reason for being limited of preschool approaches which aim to gain specific traits to children in addressing individual differences can be about their way of dealing individual differences. For example, philosophy of the whole child which affects view about child education provides an important development by bringing an integrative point of view in physical, emotional and cognitive parts of child development [e.g. 60,61]. However, it can said that introversion/ extraversion in behavioural field, motivation in emotional field, intelligent in cognitive field and ways of learning [62-64] are evaluated still in partial way in considering individual differences in preschool education. However, individual differences in childhood from birth to kindergarten are conceptualized in an integrative way by temperament researchers [65] and many researchers focus concept of temperament in their studies about individual differences which are seen after first tree months of life [66]. Moreover, temperament which is a multidisciplinary concept can be presented as a basic start point and an integrative concept, when it is thought that temperament constitutes core of behaviour [21], affectivity [22] and cognitive traits of individual [32,33,56].

Individual differences or uniqueness

Preschool education approaches emphasize on importance of considering individual differences [e.g. 67-69], so this can reflect as providing a totally free learning atmosphere for children in curriculum (school applications). For example, in Montessori education, children educate themselves and are free for using material, which they want [69]. In High Scope approach, children plan what to do by themselves [70]. In Reggio Emilia approach, projects which underlie instruction are not made by teachers; they are made by students as independent learning units, which come from needs and ideas of children [71]. From our perspective, using applications which set students free for supporting individual differences and which supports individual differences, interchangeably in semantic way, can originate from allowing expressing unique nature of students. Many educators, psychologist, psychiatrist and child development experts agree on that every child has a unique nature [e.g. 72,73]. However, just because every child has unique individual traits does not mean they are completely unlike anyone else [74]. From our perspective, the important point here is to determine not just traits which make children unique, but also determine traits which resemble each other. In this way, individual differences between children can be determined systematically through traits which are resemble or are not resemble each other and opportunities are given to each child freedom for expressing their unique nature, so presenting a suitable education approach which supports individual differences can be possible.

According to NTTM, basic parameter which can provide determining resemblance and differences between children is temperament type. When children differ from each other according to their temperament types, they also have similar/same potential traits with children with same temperament type. However, because various internal and external factors (gender, intelligence, education, experiences etc.) which interact with these traits are never same, children even with same temperament type have unique personalities [33,56]. For example, children who are NTT5 and who are NTT6 are different each other in terms of potential traits. While two children who are both NTT6 temperament type have same potential traits, they are different and unique in terms of way of presenting these traits in personality and their severity of presenting them. Hence, both children have potential tendencies to be indecisive; one of them can present being indecisive trait more severely because he has critical parents. If another one has a supportive family, he can decide easier even he has tendency to be indecisive [55]. On the other hand, organizing events which they can join to expose their potential to be a team player [56] for these children who have NTT6 temperament type, provides to support their individual differences and setting free for their role in the group and for their choice of group friends means having respect for that they present their own unique nature. When feeding a child who has NTT5 with extra books, informative pictures and these kinds of materials means supporting individual difference of the child who is different from NTT6 type, because NTT5 has positive potential to be expert on o topic ; setting the child free about determining his own point of interest allows him to present his own unique nature.

A new temperamental perspective in preschool education based on NTTM

According to Montessori [57], education has two kinds of aims as supporting biological development of child and as preparing him socially for environment. In addition to this, it can be said that Montessori does not emphasize temperament concept, which determines individual differences in development of child [25] and contributes interaction of child with environment [22]. In a similar way, although effects of preschool age on personality development are known clearly by psychologists and child psychiatrists [75-77] it is remarkable that they do not focus on temperament concept, which constitutes core of personality, even they give importance to personality development of preschool education approach. Reason of this situation can be that personality is changeable, so it is sensitive to education, but temperament has a stabile nature [22,33,56]. However, none of temperament traits are needed to change/bad either pure good inherently [46,55]. On the contrary, temperament is a wide spectrum, in which there are traits, which are open to both positiveness and negativeness. Which severeness and which quality unchangeable temperament traits are presented, is closely associated with education gained. In other words, temperament does not change for a life time, but it shapes changeable personality traits with interacting internal and external factors [32,33,56].

When temperament type of a child is known, traits which are open to positiveness and negativeness (risky) are also known. These traits constitute behavioural, emotional and cognitive individual differences [32,56]. In this way, studies can be made about supporting positive traits in temperament type of children and also about gaining traits, which are not found in their own temperament type, so harmonic personality development can be possible [32].

A Bridge which connects psychiatry, psychology and preschool education: temperamental tendency to psychopathology

Temperament addresses potential traits, which children tend to expose and which they do not tend to expose and also determines psychopathologies, which they tend to [29,34]. There are many researchers in literature, which show that temperament traits are related with various pathologies such as externalizing and internalizing problems [e.g. 78,79], attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder [e.g. 34,80], anxiety and depression [e.g. 81,82]. Thus, it can be suggested that when temperament types of students are known, psychopathologies, which they tend to could be predicted [34,83]. In relation to this, preventive education step for a healthy personality can be taken before psychopathology occurs.

A step from conceptional approach to application

Concepts focused by preschool education approaches, education applications and methods of preschool education approaches, contribute to education in important way. For example, Waldorf classes [3], which made from all natural materials and which are decorated in such a way that children can remember their home, Montessori schools [84] which are enriched with furniture, which are built for providing children real life experiences, musical instruments and instruction materials, Reggio Emilia schools which are designed as a comfortable physical environment and ambience have an important role on exposing potentials of children [59]. In addition to these, materials which are designed in such a way that they can expose behavioural, emotional and cognitive potentials of children according to temperament traits of them, can enrich education atmosphere [33]. Besides, determining individual differences of children based on temperament and structuring environment according to individual differences has primary importance. Thus, it should be laid emphasis on both physical environment and psychological environment in preschool education. For example, in Reggio Emilia approach, effects of environment on learning are emphasized and it is suggested that infants and toddlers are put in same class for organizing psychological environment as an adaptive family atmosphere [13]. We also think that effects of psychical environment, psychological environment, interacting with different age groups and also with children who have different individual traits are very important for child development. For example, they focus learning by teaching peers, having social interaction and making collaboration in Montessori approach [69]. According to NTTM, children tend to naturally/automatically to present traits and values which they have in their own nature [32] and they can interchange these traits between each other. Which structural traits and which individual differences children naturally have, are important in an education atmosphere for having rich and quality interactions. It could be effective that a healthy education atmosphere has a rich physical atmosphere and also consists of children with different temperament types in order to support both natural and synthetic personalities of children. Moreover, it can be necessary that class population reflect general society population in order to have a healthy education atmosphere.

In sum, according to us, an education approach which is suitable for individual differences starts with determining individual differences/ temperament type firstly. For this purpose, a scale, which is prepared by Yılmaz at al, is used. After that, a) supporting children in order that they can expose their potential in the most quality way b) gaining them synthetic personality traits, which they do not have in temperament type, but can be learned later and c) preventing psychopathology, which can be caused by traits opening to negativeness (risky), after creating a balanced class in terms of range of temperament type, can be suggested. Traits, which are open to positiveness and negativeness were presented in Table 1. Synthetic traits, which are not seen in children’s temperament type but which could be learned later are seen below, with the purpose of presenting a systematic road map suited to individual differences in preschool education (Table 2). Moreover in Table 3, a basic road map about a preschool education approach which is oriented determining, monitoring and supporting individual differences is suggested (Table 3).

Conclusion

Nowadays, effects of individual differences on education and effects of education which develop related to individual differences on personality are accepted by many researchers from various disciplines. However, it can be said that importance of individual differences in preschool education approach are emphasized, but it is not agreed on through which parameter individual differences will determine. On the other hand, temperament which is a multidisciplinary concept can be an integrative parameter, which can provide to determine individual differences in behavioural, emotional and also cognitive fields.

Main philosophy of temperament based preschool education approach which is based on NTTM can be summarized as being a psychoeducational approach; which focuses education more than instruction in preschool years, emphasizes supporting healthy personality development according to individual differences and adopts giving freedom principle to in order that students can expose their own nature. Moreover, according to temperament based preschool education approach; presenting children an accepting atmosphere, in which they can expose their uniqueness and also supporting especially individual differences, which are based on temperament, can lead children to have a healthy harmonic personality since preschool years. A class, which is ranged richly and balanced according to individual differences, can constitute a natural education atmosphere, in which students can learn from each other.

An integrative preschool approach includes complement and application of many titles such as physical atmosphere, methods and techniques which are used, teacher approach, participation of families and evaluating education consequences. Furthermore, when it is thought that primary factor are concepts which shape education approach, methods and applications , this article becomes a semantic introductory to temperament based education approach. In this way, our ideas about application of education, stay out of this study and this constitutes limitation of this is study.

Temperament Types Types Temperament Model Types
Ntt1-perfection seeking Positive potentials Being fair(being careful for not doing injustice or not being exposed injustice too much), being hardworking, being clear and organized, fallowing rules, being planned, being patient
Risky features Becoming easilystressed/angry, interfering mistakes and deficits of people quickly/ too much, not being able to relax (being too serious)being excessively hypercritical and delicate
Ntt2- seeking to feel emotions Positive potentials Caring about relationships/attachment,sincerity/warmth, compassion, helpfulness and sacrifice, communication skills, being strong, being friendly, being forgiving
Risky features Being affected easily (being sad, crying), being touchy and reproachful, being insistent and cohesive, being jealous
Ntt3-Admirable self image seeking Positive potentials Motivation for success/reachingtargets, resolution of work, not caring about negative feeling, being practical, being champion in competition, motivating people
Risky features Being excessively ambitious, despising others, being insulting, ignoring emotions, being cunning
Ntt4- seeking meaning of emotions Positive potentials Individualism,having an original identity, original creativeness, empathy and sensitiveness, sincerity and neutrality , compassion, a tiny artistic/ aesthetic perspective
Risky features Being vulnerable, being jealous/envying (“i want this too”), being rebellious and contradictious, being melancholic
Ntt5- Seeking the meaning of knowledge Positive potentials Being introvert, being a quite observer, curious about knowing and learning, being researcher being an expert on an interested topic(knowing everything about a topic), tiny sense of humour, analytical thinking/abstraction/conceptualisation
Risky features Being too cold and distant, being distant from emotions, being tight, being sceptical
Ntt6-Intellectual serenity seeking Positive potentials Caring about trust and loyalty, being a team player(being adaptive in group), deliberation, being rigorous and organized, being responsible, recognizing ambivalences, being canny
Risky features Being indecisive, being anxious/worried, inefficacy/insecurity, being dependent
Ntt7-Seeking joy of discovery Positive potentials Being curious about discovery, being extrovert and sociable, being mobile and energetic, being cheerful/ witty, being optimistic, being practical
Risky features Get bored easily/not being able to tolerate anxiety, having attention deficit, being too mobile, being unorganized, being fickle
Ntt8-Absolute power seeking Positive potentials Being A Leader, acting quickly, giving strong decisions (deciding easily and confidently), being brave being protective (prohibitive, protecting weak and needy people) being durable/steady, being generous, being direct/outspoken
Risky features Being angry/intolerant, being aggressive, being oppressive/ repressive, being rude
Ntt9-Sensory motor comfort seeking Positive potentials Being Calm and Adaptive, Avoiding Conflicts, Being Peaceful, Being An Intermediater, Being Patient, Being Flexible/Acquiescent
Risky features Being lazy, being not able to say no, stubborn, being shy
Ntt: Nine types temperament

Table 1: Traits of nine types temperament model types.

Temperament types Synthetic personality traits
Ntt1-perfection seeking Being not afraid of making mistakes, ignoring details/ being practical, thinking flexible, gross and fine motor skills
Ntt2- Seeking to feel emotions Thinking rational, being individual (being able to stay alone), being able to wait and fallowing rules, knowing limits and behavioural and emotional stabilization
Ntt3-Admirable self image seeking Being honest, caring about and giving value to emotional sensivity, empathy, being helpful, going deep in information
Ntt4- Seeking meaning of emotions Being rational/realistic, not being stuck in negative emotions/not inhibiting themselves, being self disciplined, being responsible
Ntt5- Seeking the meaning of knowledge Being social, being able to go into action, being sharing, gross and fine motor skills
Ntt6-Intellectual serenity seeking Self confidence, being individual, being able to decide, not making panic through uncertainty
Ntt7-Seeking joy of discovery Being able to focus attention/ using his energy in harmonic and productive way, fallowing rules, taking responsibility and trying to fulfil responsibility, being tenacious, being able to tolerate anxiety
Ntt8-absolute power seeking Anger management, problem solving skill in rational ways, being forgiving, fallowing proprieties and ceremonies, being able to say sorry
Ntt9-Sensory motor comfort seeking Being active/fulfilling responsibility timely, sedulity, being able to express needs and demands, being able to come forefront-initiative

Table 2: Synthetic personality traits.

1) Determining temperament types of students
Temperament of 48-72 months children is determined by a scale, which is fulfilled by teachers, parents, school counsellor, psychologists and psychiatrists. *Scales, which are fulfilled by teachers and parents, are evaluated by school counsellor or psychologist and so temperament of child is determined.
2) Creating a balanced classroom size according to range of temperament types in society
Every class size is organized similarly to general population according to range of temperament types. (Data, which we get from academic and clinical application based on NTTM, give us information about range of temperament types)
3) Evaluation
3.1. Situation that students present positive, negative and synthetic personality traits belonging their temperament type, is evaluated and recorded.
3.2. School counsellor or psychologist meet with families and every family of students are informed about temperament type of children. At the same time, families are directed about how they could support healthy character and personality development of children.
3.3. If there students, who do not present positive potential traits belonging their temperament type or present risky traits too much;
3.3.1 It is controlled if temperament type of a child is determined correctly or not. If temperament type of the child is determined wrongly, so temperament type is determined again and evaluation is made according to last determined temperament type. 3.3.2. If temperament type of a student is determined correctly; it is requested that school counsellor or psychologist evaluate psychosocial traits of the student and search for reason of why the student does not present positive potentials. 3.3.3. School counsellor or psychologist meet with family and gets information from the family, gives information to the family about temperament type of the student and lead them to support to healthy character and personality development of the student.
4) Studies of supporting individual differences
4.1. Basic Approach Features about Supporting Individual Differences
4.1.1 Supportive studies are made in order that students present their positive potential traits harmonically. 4.1.2. Protective studies are made about risky traits, which are open negativeness. 4.1.3. Studies about gaining synthetic personality traits to students are made. 4.1.4. Gathering of students who contribute each other’s natural and synthetic traits is supported and group studies are made.
4.2. Basic Application Features about Supporting Individual Differences
4.2.1 Physical Atmosphere: A General living area, which can meet physical, emotional, and cognitive needs, are created instead of indispensable areas such as school, classical classes+toilets. For example: Cooking and eating areas, cleaning areas (such as toilets, lavabo, cleaning materials etc.), sport center, a cultivable garden, in which domestic animals wander freely (various paints, free standing easels,music and activity/dance area, tables and study area for individual and group studies, library, computer room etc. 4.2.2 Daily Applications Suited To Individual Differences: It is provided that all children join daily life activities suited to their individual differences. When tasks, which children can expose their positive potentials are given to children, sometimes roles, which they do not tend to, can be also given in order that they can gain traits which they do not have in their temperament types.For example, while tasks such as setting play, bonding friends and directing are given to a child with NTT2 temperament type, which can get easily bored and has strong communication potential, sometimes roles which he does not tend to (cognitive-oriented), such as finding rational solutions, could also be given him.In this way, every child has opportunity to expose their potentials and have a role/develop skills through experiences in areas which they are weak.It is determined which children, in which areas, how often participate according to temperament type. Furthermore, studies about that children gain synthetic personality traits are combined with protective studies about risky traits in their temperament type.For example; giving to a child with NTT1 who has potential to be clean and rigorous, is risky because he couldbe too rigorous and hypercritical, tasks such as creating a new colour by mixing finger paints develops his fine motor skills and also functions as a protection for being extremely rigorous, which is a risky trait. 4.2.3. Teacher approach:Even a teacher is passive for interfering in learning; he is generally active in the case for preparing learning atmosphere, observing education atmosphere and evaluating teaching opportunities.He observes every student, watches opportunity for development, does not interfere, does not help as long as child wants help and does not compensate a behavioural, emotional and cognitive task for him. Generally, it is waited from children that they take their own responsibility and create their own solutions. What is important and developing here, is that teacher should observe well if child can come over experience/difficulty of situation by himself or not, help child if he really cannot come over the difficulty by himself, interfere correctly if the child can come over the difficulty for that child develops by himself. At this point, it is determined if child can come over task by himself or not, by considering temperament type of child.
5) Re-evaluation
5.1. Situation of children’s presenting traits, which are suited their temperament type, positive and negative synthetic traits are re-evaluated by 3 points likert (yes, no, sometimes) and re-evaluation is done by every three months in order to fallow children’s personality development. If school counsellor or psychologist think there are some children who have psychopathology risk, evaluation of these children can be made more often. They should be sent to a child psychologist or psychiatrist outside to school, if it is necessary. 5.2. If there are children, who do not develop or develop slowly for presenting positive potentials belonging their temperament type, or if there are children who expose risky traits extremely after all applications, school counsellor or psychologist meet with family of child and leads to apply for a child psychologist or psychiatrist outside to school.
*3, 4, and 5. Levels are repeated during education year.

Table 3: Basic Road Map of Temperament Based Preschool Approach

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