Department of Oral Pathology, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
Received date: August 02, 2016; Accepted date: September 12, 2016; Published date: September 20, 2016
Citation: Renuka S, Gheena S (2016) A Questionnaire Based Study on Awareness of Students in Internship Training or Final Year Across 3 Disciplines Regarding Inter-Professional Education - A Descriptive Cross Sectional Study. J Health Edu Res Dev 4:191. doi:10.4172/2380-5439.1000191
Copyright: © 2016 Renuka S, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
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Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the awareness among internship students regarding inter-professional education.
Objective: Questionnaire will be devised and administered to students of medical, dental and nursing in final year and internship training.
Background: Inter-professional education (IPE) is an important facet for health professionals because it will benefit them while working along with different professionals in their particular work areas. All health care professionals should be educated about inter-professional skills for better communication with other health professionals. Good communication and interaction skills will enhance the quality of treatment and will result in enhanced patient satisfaction.
Reason: Proper inter-professional education is of utmost importance for quality treatment and enhanced patient satisfaction. The main reason of this study is to instil awareness in internship students about inter-professional education and its benefits in their career.
DNA; DNA fingerprinting; Forensic; Crime; Human genome; STR
Calling it as the encoded evidence because it’s made up of nucleotide and around 3000 million nucleotide are passed on from parents to offspring and codes for the character of a person. DNA is present in nearly every cell of our bodies, and we leave cells behind everywhere we go without even realizing it. Flakes of skin drop of blood, hair and saline. In case of forensic we frequently rely upon the use of small bits of DNA to link criminal to the crimes they commit. So how does it work? Why DNA? Nothing else? An overwhelming majority of human genome is identical which is called as junk DNA across all individuals. But there are regions of variations and these variations occur anywhere in the genome and are random. These are called as short tandem repeats also called as STR. These are short DNA sequences repeat and are easily measured and compared between individuals. Example of STR is D75820 5-16 GATA repeats.
These repeats are random and hence not only one loci or region containing STR is compared but rather numbers of regions are compared like the FBI use 13 loci and in India 9 loci containing STR is compared. This is due to the fact that based on the principle of independent assortment.
DNA extraction is done from a sample and even the sliest of samples and even in monograms is enough for analysis. PCR amplification of each of the regions containing STR is done, which reduces the cost of reagents and time of analysis. This is very useful as the partially degraded DNA sample which is often received from the crime scene to be successfully analyzed. STR containing regions are made up of 50-300 hence even the degraded DNA can be analysed. These variable regions are differentiated only by a single base and in the recent time of advancement, automated DNA sequences are analysed and these patterns are compared with a known ladder.
STR and the bands are matched and if matched, the frequency with which this genotype is observed in the population is calculated. This type of calculations takes into account the frequency with each STR. A simple hardy Weinberg calculation is done. But when the DNA from crime scene is in small quantities, poorly preserved, highly degradation or when only partial DNA profile can be obtained. Other evidence should be used and the term should be fusion of forensic.
Though it is a very versatile tool but it also has its problem which is related to it. First, DNA fingerprinting is far more technically demanding than DNA diagnostics and second, the scientific community not agrees on, standards that ensure the reliability of the evidence. DNA diagnostic simply requires the identifying whether each parents has passed the rflp to their offspring’s. DNA fingerprinting by contrast is more like analytically biochemistry, one must determine whether two completely unknown samples are Identical. DNA fingerprinting also depends on interferences about the frequency with which matching rflp patterns will be found by chance, which in turn rest on simplifying assumptions about population genetics.
This doesn’t mean that DNA is not a powerful tool but rather the most powerful but yes with some exceptions. DNA evidence is easy to analyses because genetic material is found in all human cells and with modern technology, the amount of DNA required for analysis can be obtained for even a miniscule biological sample. As forensic science is a science which is largely rooted in probabilities, fusion of evidence and connecting the dots is very important. Lastly, it’s a high time to understand that even the smallest of things brings the biggest of changes in the world.