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ISSN: 2315-7844
Review of Public Administration and Management
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Access to Education: Education Status of Scheduled Tribes in Andhra Pradesh: Attainments and Challenges

Ramdas Rupavath*
Department of Political Science, School of Social Science, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad, India
*Corresponding Author : Rupavath R
Associate Professor
Department of Political Science
School of Social Science
University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad, India
Tel: 91-040-23133218
E-mail: [email protected]
Received: January 04, 2015; Accepted: February 25, 2016; Published: February 29, 2016
Citation: Rupavath R (2016) Access to Education: Education Status of Scheduled Tribes in Andhra Pradesh: Attainments and Challenges. Review Pub Administration Manag 4:183. doi:10.4172/2315-7844.1000183
Copyright: © 2016 Rupavath R. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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Abstract

Various education policies and government initiatives has been focused to improve the literacy rate of the tribal communities. After sixty- four years of independence the tribal people are still lagging behind from the development basically in the education field. Still high drop outs and illiteracy rate is high among the tribal in comparison to other communities. In recent study it has been found that there is 70.9% of the drop out among the tribal. In such milieu, it is high time to find out why tribal communities are still lagging behind from the mainstream of society especially in education sector. There are various aspects of education. This study deals with the aspect of access to education. Participation is an extremely crucial element of learning. It is a proven fact that students learn better and retain more when they are active participants. Learning is an active process and should involve deliberation. The participation and access of the students in the education system includes the interaction between the students and all the stakeholders and vice-versa. Tribal people do not have to assimilate into anything because they have the sovereign dignity and freedom to adapt to any circumstances that will allow them to fulfil their dreams, aspirations and life pursuits. The study includes not only the availability of infrastructure but also participation of the students’ in the class, teachers’ approach, and etc., which plays vital role towards increasing the status of the tribal in the education sector in qualitative and quantitative manner. The study includes both purposive and random sampling methods.

Keywords
Access; Scheduled tribes; Education; Participation; Challenges
Introduction
Education in India is provided by the public sector as well as the private sector with control and funding coming from three levels: central, state and local. Under various articles of the Indian Constitution free and compulsory education is provided as a fundamental right to children between the ages of 6 and 14 [1]. The Indian government lays emphasis on primary education up to the age of fourteen years, referred to as elementary education in India. The Indian government has also banned child labour in order to ensure that the children do not enter unsafe working conditions. However, both free education and the ban on child labour are difficult to enforce due to economic disparity and social conditions. 80% of all recognized schools at the elementary stage are government run or supported, making it the largest provider of education in the country. Some vocational and private educational institutions have been established to meet the demand of the education [2].
Various education policies and government initiatives has been focused to improve the literacy rate of the tribal communities. After Sixty five years of independence the tribal people are still lagging behind from the development basically in the education field. Still high drop outs and illiteracy rate is high among the tribal in comparison of other community. In such milieu, it is high time to find out why tribal communities are still lagging behind from the mainstream of society especially in education sector? [3].
Scheduled Tribe groups have traditionally lived in more remote areas of the country and in closer proximity to forests and natural resources. The remote and difficult geographical terrain inhabited by Scheduled Tribes has isolated them from mainstream of Indian society. This has afforded their measure of cultural autonomy and economic independence [4]. Traditional Scheduled Tribe communities value their close relationship to nature and make optimal use of the natural resource-base for their daily sustenance. However, modernization and accumulative processes of production have resulted in massive encroachment into their natural habitats. This has in turn resulted in displacement, poverty and heightened levels of exploitation through a system of bonded labour. The term ‘double disadvantage’ has been used to characterize the socio-economic and spatial marginalization of Scheduled Tribes in India [5].
The poor quality of infrastructure and teaching, and a curriculum that does not relate to the socio-cultural lives of the Scheduled Tribes nor teach about their history, banking system of education have all contributed to the communities’ disenchantment with schooling [6].
Student Participation
As participation is an important factor in the education system, the study highlights the access of education system through participation. The basic influencing factors related to participation are regularity of teachers, classroom teaching methods, approachability of the teachers and understanding of subjects by the students. The findings of the participation and access of the students in the education system includes the interaction between the students and all the stakeholders and vice-versa [7]. Tribal people do not have to assimilate into anything because they have the sovereign dignity and freedom to adapt to any circumstances that will allow them to fulfil their dreams, aspirations and life pursuits. The method of participation can be achieved with keeping in mind their culture, freedom and sovereignty [8].
Participation is an extreme crucial element of learning. It is a proven fact that students learn better and retain more when they are active participants. Learning is an active process and should involve deliberation. This reflects their involvement in the school and their academic seriousness. But as our education system involves the banking system that speaks about one-way process. In our system the students are the depositories and the teacher is the depositor. Instead of communicating, the teacher issues communiques and makes deposits which the students patiently receive, memorize, and repeat [9]. This is the ‘banking’ concept of education, in which the scope of action allowed to the students extends only as far as receiving, filing, and storing the deposits. They have the opportunity to become collectors or cataloguers of the things they store. Such type of approach leads to lack of creativity, transformation, and knowledge in this system. The questionnaire addressed this research question also includes how well the education system is meeting the needs of Tribal students, the importance of education personnel adapting to the needs of students, and the importance of students adapting to the educational system [10].
The findings of the participation and access of the students in the education system includes the interaction between the students and all the stakeholders and vice-versa. Tribal people do not have to assimilate into anything because they have the sovereign dignity and freedom to adapt to any circumstances that will allow them to fulfil their dreams, aspirations and life pursuits [11].
Objectives, to examine the educational status of the Tribal population to critically examine the problems/challenges faced by the Tribal Students in the education system. Try to analyses the access of education.
Methodology, According to the ICSSR guideline the sample has been selected like district, mandal, village, household, school, colleges and students. Five district has been selected on the basis of highest population and highest tribal literacy (HPHL), highest population and low literacy (HPLL), lowest population and highest literacy (LPHL), lowest population and lowest literacy (LPLL) and state capital has been selected [12].
Sample, Selection of districts on the above methodology Hyderabad (capital), Vishakhapatnam (HPLL, Coastal) and Anantapur (LPHL, Rayalseema) district has been selected for the field study. Selection of mandals from each district 3 mandals including headquarter of the district has been selected. Mandal has been chosen on the basis of population. All the mandals has been divided into two groups i.e. 1. More than 4,000-10,000 and 2. Above than 10,000 tribal population. Less than 4,000 population mandals has been deleted from the List.
• Problem has been aroused during the selection of mandals from Rayalseem region. After the consultation with ICSSR the district Anantapur has been selected because highest mandals are coming who have been crossed 4,000 populations. The number of the mandal has been equally divided who have crossed 4,000 populations. After that random sampling method has been used to identify the mandals. Due to shortage of Tribal Students and Household, after consultation with ICSSR we have shifted to other mandals.
• Selection of Schools and Colleges, From each mandal 3 Upper Primary Schools (2 Govt and 1 Pvt), 3 Secondary and High Schools (2 Govt and 1 Pvt) and 3 Colleges (2 govt. and 1 Pvt.) has been selected. In the case of lack of schools of colleges in mandals, schools and colleges has to be selected from the head quarter of the district. The selection of the students has been done random basis. Selection of the students, from each schools or colleges 9 scheduled tribe students and 3 non SC and ST students has been selected. The selection of the students has been done random basis (Figure 1 and Table 1).
The regularity by the teachers in class reflects the inputs of the students in related to the sincerity of the teacher. Teachers are ideal of the students. This sincerity has direct impact on the students’ participation in the class. The views of the students reveal that the regularity of the teacher is 92.8% in the upper primary level which reduces to 90.33% in the higher secondary and 66.18% in the college level. As the increase of the education standard increases the irregularity of teachers in increasing classes. In the primary school the irregularity is 7.17% whereas in the higher secondary 10.62% and in the college level it increases to 33.81%. It reflects that in the primary education teachers are more serious about their duties in comparison to other level of education. The regularity of the teachers has a greater impact on the regularity and seriousness of the students in the class. Teachers are the role model of the students (Table 2).
The regularity in the class leads to the punctuality in the classes. The punctuality in the class by the teachers mean teaching by the teacher as per the times allotted for various periods. This question brings the inputs of the students in related to the sincerity of the teacher. Teachers are ideal of the students. This sincerity has direct impact on the students’ participation in the class. The punctuality of the teachers decreases with the increase of the standard of education. This reflects that in primary school, teachers are more punctual than college and higher secondary school. This also implies that teachers are more serious about the education in primary school than others. In regard to punctuality of teachers in class more than 90% are positive response from the primary school whereas in higher secondary it is only 75.84%. But it has reduced again 57.52% in the college level. The 43.47% of the teachers are not taking class regularly or in time as per provision. This reduces the seriousness among the students. This leads to the difficulty in the understanding of the class room teaching (Table 3).
The difficulty in understanding of class room teaching is higher in higher secondary (39.61%) in comparison between the upper primary (32.36%) and college students (17.87%). It reflects the punctuality and regularity has impact on the understanding the classroom teachings. But in the college level it is lower because the capacity of understanding among the students generally is more at school level teaching. The higher secondary students are more serious in regard to their education in comparison to upper primary school. The difficulty of understanding depends upon various variables like the way of teaching, language, subjects, etc. (Table 4).
The difficulty in the understanding the subjects reflects the notion of the students towards the subjects. Some subjects also become difficult due to the way of teaching of the subject and interest of the students. Majority of respondent i.e. 54.05% are of opinion that they are facing problem in the language i.e. English in comparison of other subjects in the college level whereas only 51.21% of higher secondary and 50.74% are of the same view. It reflects that difficulty in understanding class room teaching due to the English language. It will also reflect the method of teaching used by teachers in various subjects. The tribal students should be grounded in their indigenous language as well as in other vernacular languages. Such difficulties sometime lead the student to dropout and create fear psychology. As the level of education increases the difficulty increases in the understanding class room teaching. It not only reflects difficulty in understanding class room teaching but also it puts question on the method, sincerity and dedication of the teachers in the class room teachings. The notion of students towards the subject English is foreign language. One student can understand any subject in their mother tongue in comparison to other subjects. It highlights the language problem among the students (Table 5).
The difficulty in understanding the subjects arises due to various reasons such as hard to understand, problem of teaching, language used by the teaching, disturbance in the class, medium of instruction, etc. The options are basically focused on the medium of teaching or method of teaching. This study identifies culturally responsive curriculum as a primary influence on the educational success of tribal students. It reflects in responses like curriculum and pedagogy, linguistic cultural, native history, language. For the upper primary and higher secondary students problem lies with the medium of understanding i.e. English i.e. 44.77% and 36.58% respectively. But in the college level the problem lies with the method of explaining by the teachers’ i.e. 29.27%. Such response concludes that English has become a major hurdle in the understanding the class room teachings. But the response of the college level implies the teachers are not serious, irregular in the class room teachings (Table 6).
The participation reflects the accessibility of education system of the students. The participation in the classroom leads to the involvement in the system. It also reflects the attachment with the school and education system. The quality of involvement in the class by the students can be accessed through the quantity and quality of the questions and answers by the students. The effects of the opposition of banking system can be found out through this method of participation. The percentage of raising question in the class by the students increases with the increase in the standard of education. Such reference has been drawn with the view of the respondents i.e. 23.19% in the upper primary where as 32.85% in the higher secondary level and 47.34% in the college level. It reflects less confidence, fear psychology of the students in schools, in comparison to the college students. Their nature of asking questions reflects the active participation and attentiveness in the class. Such leads to more interest and attachment towards their school. As in the pedagogy of oppressed the Paulo Ferrier has describes the best class room teaching is the dialogue/discussion method. It should not be monologue. Teacher can understand the problem of the students through the questions raised by the students. This provides the teacher to able to clarify the doubts. This also brings closeness between the students and teachers.
The study reflects that student’ replies more than ask questions in the class. The data reveal such opinion because students used to hesitate to ask or answer questions in the class but when teacher asks questions it becomes compulsory for them to reply such question. They feel if they are not able to answer such questions it becomes a shame for them in the class. According to 47.34% of upper primary, 56.52% of the higher secondary and 71.01% of the college students used to reply the questions in the class. It reflects that as the level of education increases the response level also increases (Table 7).
With the question why they are not able to answer the questions asked by the teachers majority of the students from each level replied that due to scarceness and fear psychology they are not able the answer the question raised by the teachers in the class. The 35.77% from the upper primary, 38.88% of the higher secondary and 40% of the college level students are not able to or hesitate to reply due to fear or scare psychology. The 28.44% from the upper primary, 31.11% of the higher secondary and 23.11% of the college level students are of the view that they are not able to answer because of getting afraid of the teacher. Only 12.84% from upper primary students, 11.11% from the secondary and 15% from the college level students accepted that they are not able to reply due to the ignorance of the answer. This table reveals various aspects which becomes hurdles in the participation in the class (Table 8).
This research question was asked to the respondent to know about the relationship between the teacher and the student. The relationship has greater impact in the primary and secondary school. During this stage students are not adults. They want a homely feeling in the schools. The close relationship will remove the fear psychics and the shy nature of the students. This will also able the teacher to understand students in a better way. This will improve the schooling system and method of the teaching. The good relationship between the teacher and student can check the dropout rates. The teacher can clarify the doubts and the students can clarify it from the teachers without any hesitation. This will not only improve the participation level but also improve the education system. The 76.38% of the college students approaches to teachers for their advice and guidance whereas only 32.85% and 22.71% of the higher secondary and upper primary students approach the teachers for their guidance. This reflect that as the education level increases student approaches more the teachers and becomes free to approach the teachers for their advice (Table 9).
This question was raised to know the open and hesitant nature of the students. Some students are able to ask question for clarification where as some students are not able to ask for clarification. This way reflects the anxiety to gain knowledge and the other side it also the nature of the students. As the level of education increases, the quality of raising questions also increases. The 39.29% of the upper primary students, 45.91% of the higher secondary and 58.06% of the college student are on the opinion that they used to raise the questions in the classes for clarification of doubts. This data reflect that the anxiety to gain knowledge increases with the increase of the standard of the education. The hesitation and fear psychology also reduces with the increase of the educational standards (Table 10).
Sometime it has been found by various studies that some of the teachers take initiative to address the problems regarding the subject matter with the students. It has been observed that students’ are generally hesitating to approach teachers even if they have doubts in the subject. This is found more so often in the case of tribal students. Sometimes tribal students are not able to understand properly the inputs of teachers regarding the subject matter. The study reveals the opinion of the students’ in regards to help of teachers. It has been found that as the standards of education increases the help of the teacher decreases. The 81.81% from upper primary students, 78.57% from secondary students and 69.44% of college students’ opinion are positive in regard to the teachers help. It reflects that teacher’s takes positive initiative in regard to help more the upper primary students in comparison to higher secondary and college students. It also shows seriousness of the teachers toward education sector. As the students are not getting much help from the college level, the absenteeism increases college level (Table 11).
The basic reason behind not clarifying the doubts by the students from teachers in the classroom is the fear psychology. It has been found that such psychology is more in higher secondary in comparison to the college and upper primary students. The students are at times scared in asking questions to the teacher. They have a sense of survival in the nontribal world. Students also feel that the teachers may not listen to their questions. They feel that teachers are not forthcoming in answering the little doubts of the students. It has observed that some students are shy in asking questions. Some students also feel that they do not know how to ask questions. The majority i.e. 66.66% from the higher secondary students are not able to clarify doubts because of the fear psychology in comparison to upper primary i.e. 52.94% and college level. 61.53%. In the college level, fear psychology decreases with the teachers due to various factors like peer group, age, environmental whereas in the upper primary level the concern and initiative of the teachers towards students leads to reducing the fear psychology. The 41.17% from the upper primary students, 30.34% from higher secondary and from college level 30.76% are on the view that they are not able to clarify their doubts because they feel teacher will not listen the questions raised by the students for their clarification. To clarify their doubts and better understanding the students are now availing the private tuition (Table 12).
In the current scenario private tuition has become part of the education system non-officially. As the seriousness, punctuality, regularity is decreasing to education system the private tuition has taken its place. The students are availing private tuition for better understanding, clarifying their doubts and better academic achievements. In the aspect of this in upper primary level 23.18% students are taking private tuition. In secondary level it is 55.07% and in college level it is 62.32%. It shows the increasing percent of student taking private tuition from upper primary level to college level. College level it is high i.e. 129 students (62.32%) than upper primary and secondary level. The necessity of private tuitions increases with the increase of the standards of education. It not only reflects the teaching system of the teachers but the seriousness of the students also. Private tuitions in the understanding of some students enable them to score higher marks than others and ensure completion of syllabus by private tutors. It was observed that some students taking private tuitions are not properly paying attention in the class, knowing that it would be taught again by the private tutors. Some students felt that private tutoring focused on improving student performance and attention was paid on each student which is not so the case in public schools. Nowadays students are availing private tuition for different subjects. This will reflect the burden on parents due to the problem in the method of teaching or non-seriousness on the student in the class (Table 13).
This table shows information regarding need of private tuition that are not availing private tuition. In upper primary level 30.19%, higher secondary level 69.89% and in college level 43.59% students have the opinion that they need private tuition. The students from higher secondary students need more private tuitions in comparison to upper primary and college level students. In the higher secondary level they feel the necessity of private tuition as the task of the standards education increases and the seriousness of the teachers decreases. In comparison to college level it also high because in the college level students are themselves able to understand which is not possible in higher secondary level. Such need of private tuition leads to a distance from the schooling. In the study, this question was asked to compare private tuition and public schooling. Some students who have not taken private tuition felt that the classes taken at school are sufficient and do not require further tuitions on a private basis. Some students also felt that by not taking private tuitions, they are not able to score higher marks. Some students opt for private tutors as attention is paid to them exclusively (Table 14).
In upper primary level 13.84%, secondary level 39.78% and in college level 28.20% students have their opinion that due to financial constraints they can’t afford private tuition. 6.92% students is the case in primary level. 21.51% students in secondary level and 15.38% students in college level loaded with their household work so they are unable to attend private tuition. In upper primary level 69.81%, secondary level 30.11% and in college level 56.41% students do not need private tuition. The other reason for not taking tuitions is that families sending their children to schools cannot afford to pay for private tuitions. Tribal’s face many problems such parental support and economic hardship. Few students said that after attending schools, studying with private tutors do not give time for engaging in extra-curricular activities like Sports, painting etc. (Table 15).
The study reflects that very few students spend above four hours for their studies. Only 1.45 % of the upper primary students, 8.21% from the higher secondary students and 3.38% from the college level spends above four hours for their studies. This data revels that higher secondary students spends more time towards their studies in comparison to other level of students, Majority of the students spend only maximum two hours for the studies. The 89.85% of the upper primary students, 75.36% of the higher secondary students and 84.06% are of the opinion that they have spent only maximum two hours for their studies. This data reflects the various hurdles like household work and other works for studies. Basically due to economic situation, Scheduled Tribe Students are devoting more time in other and household work than in studies. Family duties and responsibilities come first for tribal students. This reflects the seriousness and study atmosphere for the students (Table 16).
It shows that at the upper primary education 12.08%, secondary education 28.02% college education 61.35% student use to work outside their home to earn money. It has been found that from upper primary up to college level the number of students work outside their home is increasing. This reflects as the age of the students’ increase the household responsibility also increases. This is the major factor for reducing the interest of the students towards their studies and latter leads distance from their school environments. Economic condition is a major hurdle in continuation of the study. The compulsion to go outside for work reflects the nature of hurdle in continuation and seriousness in the studies (Table 17).
It shows the information those upper primary students 88%, secondary students 65.52% and college students only 1.57% engage with household work for earning while study. At upper primary 12%, at secondary level 25.86% and at college level 53.54% of students use to work as labour for earning while study. In case working in private sector no student from upper primary is working due to their minor age, but at the secondary education level 8.62% and college level 44.88% students use to work for earning while their study (Table 18).
The above data reveals that majority of the students used to work more than 20 days in the month. Such response reveals that economic condition of the family forces them to be distanced from the education. The 48% of the upper primary and 48.28% of the higher secondary students are of the view that they used to go for work more than twenty days in a month. The poverty forces them to increase absent level in their education institution (Table 19).
As the financial support to family responsibility is high among the college students, the data reveals that 61.47% of the college students used to go outside for work on daily basis. Such engagement in outside work affects their studies and distracts from the educational institutions. The wage which they received from the outside work is devoted to their family and only minor used to spend for their education. The data also reflects that some of the upper primary and higher secondary students used to go for outside work. The 40% of the upper primary students are of the view that they used to go outside for daily work or seasonal basis. Only 34.48% of the higher secondary students are on the view that they go to outside work on daily basis. Such data reflects the economic condition of the family status. This is a major factor in regard to hurdle in accessing the education (Table 20).
As this question was raised to know the view point of the students about to devote of more time towards their studies, the majority of the upper primary students (37.68%) are not able to answer this questions. This is so because the lack of awareness due to the age of the students. But majority of the higher secondary (44.44%) and college students (74.04%) are on the view that they should devote more time towards their studies which they are not able to do. Only 7.24% of the college students and 32.36% are of the view that it is not necessary to devote more time. This reflects that as the age increases the awareness about education decreases among the students (Table 21).
The family or household work and financial problems are the major reason behind of not devoting much time towards their studies according to the scheduled Tribe students. In this regards in the college level majority of ST students (82.46%) reply that financial or economic problem is the major reason behind of not devoting time towards studies. In the case of the higher secondary students 63.04% responses said that the financial or economic problem is the major reason behind not devoting time towards studies. But in the upper primary students case the household or family work is the major reason i.e. 56.89% are on this view. In regard to financial problem 43.11% is of the view in this regard. It reflects that according to the increase of age the household responsibility in regard to financial help is the major hurdle towards their studies.
It is the reality that there are two perspectives on the problem and impact of Government on Tribal Education. Outsiders have found problems with the infrastructure and lacuna in the government policy with lack of co-ordination. But in reality the lack of incentive towards attraction of education of tribals is the major problem with lack of necessary action towards tribal language curriculum.
Conclusion
Education is the key to tribal development. Tribal children have very low levels of participation. Though the development of the tribes is taking place in India, but the pace of development has been rather slow. If govt. will not take some drastic steps for the development of tribal education, the status of education among tribes will be a story of distress, despair and death. Hence time has come to think it seriously about tribal education and inclusive growth. So, there is an urgent need for various govt. interventions, planners and policy makers to address this problem and allocate more funds in the central and state budgets for tribal education. Easy access and more opportunities should be provided to the tribal children in order to bring them to the mainstream of economic development.
The time has come to move beyond the ‘banking system of education’ and provide more avenues for scheduled tribe students to engage with education. Governmental educational institutions are to be sensitized in its administration on finding ways to retain and promote tribal students. Tribal students given a favorable learning environment at home can attain greater heights of knowledge. Doing more family or household work by tribal students has proven to be an impediment in revising their school lessons. The distance of school from their homes may also turn to discourage the enrolment among the tribal students. The challenges are aplenty that can be overcome given the quality participation of all stakeholders concerned in the education system. Sometimes, small incremental steps can go a long way in addressing the problems faced by tribal students in attaining greater educational status.
The steps of acknowledging and preserving the tribal culture and integrity are valuable assets for a tribal child. It is necessary to revisit the pedagogy and fine-tune it in accordance with aspirations of tribal students. It is the need of the hour for the schools to sensitize, assimilate and incorporate tribal culture and values. In doing so, Schools becomes an interesting and enjoyable learning experience for tribal students. The students would not then hesitate to ask questions or have fear psychosis as they could relate to their teachers well. In the process, schools and college would do nation proud in uplifting the status of tribal by acting as incubators of change.
Acknowledgements
National Survey on “Education status of scheduled tribes in Andhra Pradesh: attainments and challenges” Sponsored by Indian Council of Social Science Research (ICSSR),(2012-2014) Government of India, Newdelhi-67.
References

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  1. Nasir
    Posted on May 23 2016 at 7:28 am
    Nasir, here from Hyderabad central university and it gives me immense pleasure in reading this research article. The research paper is outstanding by the Dr. Rupavath Ramdas and is brilliantly throwing light on the Primary issue of tribals in Andhara. The paper is beneficial in highlighting the educational issue of Andhara people residing in the tribal areas and mostly state policy makers will get clean idea from it. Hope the research work will prove for the betterment of the tribal people in Andhra. last but not Least, Many many congrats to Dr. Rupavat Ramdas (Associate professor) for taking such a brilliant research. Regards, Nasir.
 

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