alexa Amazonand#8217;s Medicinal Plants: A New Solution for Malaria Treatment? | OMICS International
ISSN: 2470-6965
Malaria Control & Elimination
Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700+ peer reviewed, Open Access Journals that operates with the help of 50,000+ Editorial Board Members and esteemed reviewers and 1000+ Scientific associations in Medical, Clinical, Pharmaceutical, Engineering, Technology and Management Fields.
Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our 3000+ Global Conferenceseries Events with over 600+ Conferences, 1200+ Symposiums and 1200+ Workshops on
Medical, Pharma, Engineering, Science, Technology and Business

Amazon’s Medicinal Plants: A New Solution for Malaria Treatment?

Maria Fâni Dolabela1, Alaíde Braga Oliveira1 and Sandro Percário2,3*

1Post-Graduate Program of Pharmaceutical Innovation, Federal University of Para, Brazil

2Oxidative Stress Research Lab, Institute of Biological Sciences, Federal University of Para, Brazil

3Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria, US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, USA

*Corresponding Author:
Sandro Percário
Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria
US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, USA
Tel: +55 918156-228
E-mail: [email protected]

Received Date: May 26, 2014; Accepted Date: June 25, 2014; Published Date: July 1, 2014

Citation: Maria FD , Alaíde BO, Sandro P (2014) Amazon’s Medicinal Plants: A New Solution for Malaria Treatment?. Malar Chemoth Cont Elimination 3:e122. doi:10.4172/ 2090-2778.1000e122

Copyright: © 2014 Sandro P, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Visit for more related articles at Malaria Control & Elimination

Abstract

The transmission of Plasmodium falciparum , known as being responsible for the lethal and severe form of Malaria, has been importantly reduced in the last few years [1]. However, the effective fight against the disease is still facing some difficulties due to the high capacity of adaptation to the treatment of parasite, increasing its resistance to available medicaments [2]. Indeed, the appearance of P. falciparum chloroquine-resistant happened initially in the Magdalena’s Valley, Colombia, but soon it was discovered in other Latin America’s endemics areas, including Brazil, and Asia. More recently, resistance emerged as well in the African Continent, where it constitutes a stunning problem for disease control. Another relevant fact is the reporting of cases of severe malaria caused by the P. vivax , parasite traditionally responsible for the benign form of the disease [3-6].

Editorial

The transmission of Plasmodium falciparum, known as being responsible for the lethal and severe form of Malaria, has been importantly reduced in the last few years [1]. However, the effective fight against the disease is still facing some difficulties due to the high capacity of adaptation to the treatment of parasite, increasing its resistance to available medicaments [2]. Indeed, the appearance of P. falciparum chloroquine-resistant happened initially in the Magdalena’s Valley, Colombia, but soon it was discovered in other Latin America’s endemics areas, including Brazil, and Asia. More recently, resistance emerged as well in the African Continent, where it constitutes a stunning problem for disease control. Another relevant fact is the reporting of cases of severe malaria caused by the P. vivax, parasite traditionally responsible for the benign form of the disease [3-6].

Interestingly, though malaria is an existing disease since the beginnings of civilization, with reports dating more than 5 thousand years ago, it’s systematic treatment only began in the XVII century, when the Jesuits who came to South America observed that plants of the genre Cinchona spp (Rubiaceae’s family) popularly known as quinas, were used for the treatment of febrile diseases. However, only in 1820 the alkaloid quinine was identified as the active substance from Cinchona’s barks, becoming the basis of antimalarial therapy since then [7].

Nevertheless, due to quinine`s high toxicity, associated with the appearance of cases of quinine`s resistance, it raised the search for new drugs to treat the disease. New quinoline antimalarials seeking the chloroquine substitution were then synthesized, such as mefloquine, a quinolinemethanol, and halofantrine, a fenantrenomethanol that has schizonticide action similar to chloroquine. Still, mefloquine, a more effective medicine and widely adopted in Asia for the treatment of malaria, is active even in a single dose, but it is toxic and very expensive, in addition to reports of the onset of drug resistance.

In the 80’s, a new group of antimalarials come to light, led by artemisinin, extracted from the plant Artemisia annua, employed for millennia into Chinese’s medicine to treat febrile cases [8]. Semi synthetic artemisinin derivatives, like artemether, artesunate and arteter, are also in clinical use, already. Despite causing rapid clearance of blood parasites, this group of drugs is not able to eliminate parasites and infection might reappear, a phenomenon called recrudescence, being inadvisable their administration as monotherapy. In fact, OMS recommends the “Artemisinin-based Combination Therapy (ACT)” for malaria treatment, worldwide employed for the fight against P. falciparum chloroquine-resistant, comprising the combination of artemisinin derivatives with antimalarials, such as mefloquine, lumefantrine, and others [7].

On the other hand, as feared, the reduction of P. falciparum response to monotherapy with artemisin was reported in 2012, and resistance is well established on Camboja’s and Thailand’s border [9].

Therefore, there is a consensus that the investigation of new antimalarial drugs is urgent. According to this, plants commonly utilized for malaria treatment can give valuable contribution [10].

Into Brazilian’s Amazon a large number of vegetables are routinely utilized for the treatment of febrile and malarial diseases. All this “inlander medicine” was inherited from the Indians, first habitants of this region, with the addition of African and European contributions, too. However, mostly of these plants have no studies that assess their antimalarial activity, toxicity and other relevant aspects [11]. Going through the same way, some ethnobotanical studies in the Brazilian’s Amazon describe the ordinarily use of plants for malaria treatment and/or febrile diseases, highlighting Apocynaceae, Asteraceae, Leguminosae, Rhamnaceae, Iridaceae, and other families. In order to validate this traditional use, our research group is systematically evaluating antimalarial activity (against P. falciparum and P. berghei) of Amazonian plant species with popular claim for malaria and febrile diseases. A significant number of species have displayed in vitro and in vivo antiplasmodial activity. In general, the most promising species were those rich in alkaloids and quinines [11].

Among the species evaluated up to the moment, the most promising is Eleutherine plicata (Iridaceae), in which high antiplasmodial activity was identified without significant increase of cytotoxicity. Studies in P. berghei infected mice treated with ethanolic extract from the barks of the plant showed a significant reduction of parasitemia, as well as of parameters of oxidative stress associated with the disease. 

However, much is still needed in order to obtain therapeutic drugs from the extracts of this plant. Nevertheless, the therapeutic potential of Amazon’s plants is still a universe that, if properly explored, will lead to the development of more effective drugs for the treatment of malaria and many other diseases of today.

References

Select your language of interest to view the total content in your interested language
Post your comment

Share This Article

Article Usage

  • Total views: 11933
  • [From(publication date):
    June-2014 - Sep 21, 2018]
  • Breakdown by view type
  • HTML page views : 8156
  • PDF downloads : 3777
 

Post your comment

captcha   Reload  Can't read the image? click here to refresh

Peer Reviewed Journals
 
Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700 + peer reviewed, Open Access Journals
International Conferences 2018-19
 
Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our 3000+ Global Annual Meetings

Contact Us

bornova escort

Datta A

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9037

Business & Management Journals

Ronald

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Chemistry Journals

Gabriel Shaw

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9040

Clinical Journals

Datta A

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9037

Engineering Journals

James Franklin

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Food & Nutrition Journals

Katie Wilson

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

General Science

Andrea Jason

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9043

Genetics & Molecular Biology Journals

Anna Melissa

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9006

Immunology & Microbiology Journals

David Gorantl

[email protected]csonline.com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9014

Materials Science Journals

Rachle Green

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Nursing & Health Care Journals

Stephanie Skinner

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Medical Journals

Nimmi Anna

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9038

Neuroscience & Psychology Journals

Nathan T

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9041

Pharmaceutical Sciences Journals

Ann Jose

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9007

Social & Political Science Journals

Steve Harry

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

 
© 2008- 2018 OMICS International - Open Access Publisher. Best viewed in Mozilla Firefox | Google Chrome | Above IE 7.0 version