An Effective Bioactive Microbial Compound against Gastroenteritis is Gallic Acid
Received Date: Oct 11, 2017 / Accepted Date: Dec 20, 2017 / Published Date: Jan 02, 2018
Gallic acid a phenolic compound also known as 3, 4, 5- trihydroxybenzoic acid (Figure 1) is produced by various microorganisms. It is found both free and as part of hydrolysable tannins and acts as a precursor to particularly gallo and ellagitannins. Hydrolysable tannins break down on hydrolysis to give gallic acid with the help of tannase enzyme. Since gallic acid contains a phenolic group, it is used as a standard for many pharmaceutical industries to determine the phenol content using the Folin- Ciocalteau assay. Corynebacterium sp., Klebsiella pneumonia and Aspergillus sp. are reported to produce gallic acids . Norovirus is the cause in about 18% of all cases. Campylobacter jejuni is the primary cause of bacterial gastroenteritis, with half of these cases associated with exposure to poultry . The name gallic acid is derived from oak galls, which were historically used to prepare tannic acid. Different concentrations of gallic acid are found in many foodstuffs especially in berry fruits as well as teas, cloves, and vinegars. Banana also contains some amount of gallic acid.
It is reported that gallic acid can be used to treat gastroenteritis. Gastroenteritis, is the inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract, diarrhoea, vomiting, and abdominal pain, fever, lack of energy, and dehydration are some of the common signs and symptoms to suspect gastroenteritis. The diseases can be caused either by viruses, bacteria, parasites, and fungus. Rotavirus, norovirus, adenovirus, and astrovirus are known to cause gastroenteritis. Viruses cause about 70% of episodes of infectious diarrhoea in the paediatric age group. Rotavirus is a less common cause in adults due to acquired immunity. In neonates and infants, the common bacterial agents for this disease are Escherichia coli, Salmonella sp., Shigella and Campylobacter species [3,4]. Clostridium difficile is an important causal agent of diarrhoea that occurs more often in the elderly. Gastroenteritis can also be caused by few parasites such as Giardia lamblia, Entamoeba histolytica, Cryptosporidium spp., comprise about 10% of cases in infants.
Gallic acid alters the charge and permeability of plasma membrane of bacteria. So the hydrophobicity of plasma membrane is changed and results in formation of local pores in plasma membrane. The biosynthesis of gallic acid starts from 3-dehydroshikimate to produce 3, 5-didehydroshikimate which is catalysed by enzyme shikimate dehydrogenase . Release of intracellular essential constituents take place leading to the death of microbes or bacteria. This is the probable mechanism of gallic acid established against microbes. It is also reported that use of AuNP-GA (gold nanoparticles tagged gallic acid) enhances the process plasma membrane disturbances to produce pores. Gallic acid can be isolated many plants other than oak like land plant parasitic plant Cynomorium coccineum, the aquatic plant Myriophyllum spicatum, and the blue-green alga Microcystis aeruginosa . So various types of nano particles can be conjugated with gallic acid and tested for its efficacy towards the pathogenic bacteria which causes gastroenteritis. Its bactericidal property ensures many biomedial applications of gallic acid. Gallic acid has also been implicated as antimicrobial, antimutagenic, anticarcinogenic, antiangiogenic and anti-inflammatory agents.
- Bajpai B, Patil S (2008) A new approach to microbial production of gallic acid. Braz J Microbiol 39: 708-711.
- Humphries RM, Linscott AJ (2015) Laboratory Diagnosis of Bacterial Gastroenteritis. Clin Microbiol Rev 28: 3-31.
- Mota MI, Gadea MP, González S, González G, Pardo L, et al. (2010) Bacterial pathogens associated with bloody diarrhea in Uruguayan children. Rev Argent Microbiol 42: 114-117.
- Nakai S (2000). "Myriophyllum spicatum-released allelopathic polyphenols inhibiting growth of blue-green algae Microcystis aeruginosa". Water Research 34: 3026-3032.
- Ryann M Muir, Ana M Ibáñez, Sandra L Uratsu (2011) Mechanism of gallic acid biosynthesis in bacteria (Escherichia coli) and walnut (Juglans regia). Plant Mol Biol 75: 555-565.
- Zucca Paolo Rosa, Antonella Tuberoso, Carlo Piras, Alessandra Rinaldi, Andrea Sanjust, et al. (2013) Evaluation of Antioxidant Potential of "Maltese Mushroom" (Cynomorium coccineum) by Means of Multiple Chemical and Biological Assays". Nutrients 5: 149-161.
Citation: Pradhan AK (2018) An Effective Bioactive Microbial Compound against Gastroenteritis is Gallic Acid. J Biomol Res Ther 7: e157. DOI: 10.4172/2167-7956.1000e157
Copyright: © 2018 Pradhan AK. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Select your language of interest to view the total content in your interested language
Share This Article
- Total views: 865
- [From(publication date): 0-2018 - Dec 15, 2018]
- Breakdown by view type
- HTML page views: 811
- PDF downloads: 54