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Arabian Journal of Business and Management Review
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An Evaluation of Government Policies on Poverty Eradication: A Case Study of NAPEP in Ogbadibo LGA of Benue State

Agbara Williams*

Benue State University, Nigeria

*Corresponding Author:
Agbara Williams
Department of Economics, Benue State University
Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria
Tel: +234 810 440 4382
E-mail: [email protected]

Received Date: July 14, 2016; Accepted Date: November 02, 2016; Published Date: November 09, 2016

Citation: Williams A (2016) An Evaluation of Government Policies on Poverty Eradication: A Case Study of Napep in Ogbadibo LGA of Benue State. Arabian J Bus Manag Review 6: 277.

Copyright: © 2016 Williams A. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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Abstract

This study started with the foresight of the entire study comprising the introduction of the subject matter of the research work which is "An Evaluation of Government Policies on Poverty Eradication. A case study of NAPEP in Ogbadibo LGA. In the review of literature, it was discovered that there are various opinions to the explanation of poverty in Nigeria. While some see poverty as the lack of basic amenities, others see poverty as poor investment in human capital on the whole; there was a convergence among different authors that Nigerians are poor. The survey study shows that the awareness level of NAPEP and her programmes are quite okay, but the implementation level remains very minimal in Ogbadibo LGA. Hypotheses were tested at 0.05 significance level with a degree of freedom (R - 1) (C - 1). The study revealed that National Poverty Eradication Programme (NAPEP) has not impacted significantly on poverty reduction or eradication in Ogbadibo LGA. This conclusion was drawn from an empirical analysis using chi-square which led to rejecting the alternative hypothesis that National Poverty Eradication Programme (NAPEP) has impacted significantly on poverty eradication in Ogbadibo LGA.

Keywords

Government policies, Poverty Eradication, Human capital, Nigeria

Introduction

Background to the study

The concept of poverty and material deprivation is a critical one in contemporary social discussions. Social sciences’ literature is replete with attempts by economists and other social scientists to conceptualize the phenomenon. Poverty is a vicious circle which keeps the poor in a state of destitution and disillusionment. Poverty affects many aspects of human conditions; hence there has been no universal consensus on the definition. The concept of poverty which reflects it numerous visible attributes is multi-dimensional in nature. Attributes of poverty may be classified into structural, economic, social, cultural and political deprivations. The structural dimensions appear more permanent and manifest a vicious circle, reflecting limited productive resources, lack of skills for gainful employment, location disadvantages and inadequate income to obtain the basic necessities of life. Basically poverty has been conceptualized into lack of access to basic needs/goods and lack of or impaired access to productive resources.

Poverty as lack of access to basic needs/goods is essentially economic or consumption-oriented. Thus, the poor are conceived as those individuals or households in a particular society, incapable of purchasing a specified basket of basic goods and services. Basic goods as used here include; food, shelter, water, healthcare, access to productive resources including education, working skill and tools, political and civil rights to participate in decisions concerning socio-economic conditions [1]. It is generally agreed that in conceptualizing poverty, low income or low consumption is its symptom.

The level of poverty in Nigeria since the implementation of SAP in the 1980s has tremendously increased. The poverty profile in Nigeria showed that the incidence of poverty increased from 28.1% in 1980 to 43.6% in 1985 but declined to 42.7% in 1992 and rose again to 65% in 1996. The UNDP Human Development Indices (HDI) for 2001 ranked Nigeria the 142nd with HDI of 0.40 among the poorest countries. From 1980-1996, the population of the poor Nigerians increased four folds in absolute terms. The analysis of the depth and severity of poverty in Nigeria showed that rural areas were the most affected. Several reasons accounted for the situation viz., the large concentration of the populace in the rural areas, and many years of neglect of the rural areas in terms of infrastructural development and lack of information on the way government are being run.

The CBN/World Bank study on poverty Assessment and Alleviation in Nigeria attested to the fact that the living environmental conditions of those living in the rural areas have worsened. Urban poverty is also on the increase in the country. This has been attributed to the under provision of facilities and amenities which are already inadequate to match the growing demand of the urban populace as well as the ruralurban movement which has caused serious pressure on the existing infrastructural facilities.

Over the years, the Federal Government has undertaken some programmes with the objectives of reducing if not totally eradicating poverty in Nigeria. These programmes were at least expected to raise the standard of living of Nigerians. Some of these programmes include; The Family Support Programme (FEAP), the establishment of Community Banks and Small Scale Industries Credit Scheme, People’s Bank, the National Agricultural Land Development Agency (NALDA), the Rural Employment Programme (REP), National Directorate of Employment (NDE), etc., however, the impact of these programmes on alleviating poverty has been contentious as the desired results of these programmes are not achieved. With the return of democracy on May 29, 1999 the Federal Government embarked on poverty reduction programme specifically, the government put up the National Poverty Eradication Programme (NAPEP) in the year 2000 which took off in 2001.

This study attempts to evaluate the effects of government policies on poverty alleviation in Nigeria and what has hindered the progress of these policies. This is with particular reference to NAPEP in Ogbadibo LGA of Benue State.

Statement of problem

Today, poverty is widely addressed as a global problem. Poverty affects over four billion people. It is important to know that most of the poor people live in the developing worlds of Africa, Asia and Latin America (Gbosi, 2004). On the average, 45-50% of Sub-Saharan Africans live below the poverty line. And in Nigeria about 60.9% of the population was living below the poverty line of one dollar (0.63 pounds) a day in 2010 prices (NBS, 2012). In 1980, the poverty level was only 28.1% but by 1996 it had jumped to 66.6%. Having been mindful of the implications to the economy, the government needs to make concerted efforts in order to reduce poverty in the country. Different poverty eradication programmes and project to cushion the effects of poverty have been initiated over the years. This was receiving with high hopes.

Data show that over N30 billion from 2001 till date have been received by NAPEP for the fight against poverty in Nigeria. Unfortunately poverty level seems to be unresponsive to these windfall of resources addressed for the fight. In spite of this huge resources devoted to NAPEP, deterioration in fiscal discipline, corruption and inconsistent policies which had undermined past efforts still makes poverty eradication in Nigeria a paradox. The rate of unemployment has continued to rise and the poverty situation has exacerbated.

This study is aimed at evaluating the effects of government policies on poverty eradication. This is with regards to the activities of NAPEP in Ogbadibo Local Government Area of Benue State.

Research questions

This research seeks to answer the following questions:

i. How does NAPEP plan to reduce poverty of the people of Ogbadibo LGA of Benue State i.e., what specific methods are employed by NAPEP to reduce poverty in Ogbadibo?

ii. How has NAPEP’s activities impacted on poverty reduction in Ogbadibo LGA?

iii. What are the root causes of poverty in Ogbadibo LGA of Benue State?

iv. What specific changes in approach (if any) are needed to alleviate poverty in Ogbadibo, bearing in mind the peculiar needs of this locality?

Objective of the study

Broadly, the objective of this study is to examine the impact of the National Poverty Eradication Programme (NAPEP) on poverty reduction in Ogbadibo LGA.

Specific objectives are to:

i. Examine how NAPEP plan to reduce poverty of the people of Ogbadibo LGA of Benue State i.e., to examine specific methods employed by NAPEP to reduce poverty in Ogbadibo.

ii. Examine how NAPEP’s activities impacted on poverty reduction in Ogbadibo LGA.

iii. Investigate the root causes of poverty in Ogbadibo LGA of Benue State.

iv. Determine specific changes in approach (if any) needed to alleviate poverty in Ogbadibo, bearing in mind the peculiar needs of this locality.

Hypothesis of the study

The hypothesis that was tested in this research is as follows:

H0: National Poverty Eradication Programme (NAPEP) has not impacted significantly on poverty eradication in Ogbadibo LGA.

H1: National Poverty Eradication Programme (NAPEP) has impacted significantly on poverty eradication in Ogbadibo LGA.

Significance of the study

The central idea in any piece of work is to educate and provide information on the topic of research for the general public. The immediate concern of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of National Poverty Eradication Programme (NAPEP) and other government policies on poverty reduction using poverty indicators and identifying the causes of poverty and also suggest suitable and effective measures for poverty reduction in Nigeria. This research work is therefore significant/useful to the both Federal, State and Local Government Administrators and also future researchers. To the government and policy-makers, it identifies and reveals the successes and failures, challenges and prospects of NAPEP and affords them the opportunity of designing and implementing a holistic approach, procedures and strategies, and better ways of tackling this hydraheaded menace called poverty.

To the students and fellow researchers, it reveals the operations and the impact of NAPEP on the people. While it serves as an addition to the stock of knowledge, it also serves as a basis for further research.

Scope of the study

This study is on the impact of National Poverty Eradication Programme (NAPEP) and the effectiveness of Federal Government policies on poverty reduction/eradication. It also provides information on the activities of NAPEP, the success and failure, challenges and prospects of NAPEP. In order to be focus properly on this programme, the study covers a period of 11 years (2001-2012) in Ogbadibo LGA of Benue State.

Organization of the study

In order to provide in-depth information on the level of poverty in Nigeria and the appropriate policy prescriptions, the study is organized into five chapters: chapter one contains introduction, chapter two dwell on literature review, theoretical and empirical literature, chapter three cover the research methodology, chapter four dwell on data analysis, interpretation of results and chapter five is a summary of findings, conclusions and policy recommendations.

Literature Review

Conceptual framework

Concept of poverty: The problem of poverty in Africa is one that has over the years engaged the attention of the international community, governmental and non-governmental organizations including Western and African scholars. The issues of poverty and poverty reduction have been a focus of numerous researchers’ discussion, its debates and implementations of the various programmes. In discussing any issue that relates to poverty, one must cast back his mind to the days of the early scholars who contributed immensely on the topic (poverty and poverty alleviation).

According to Anikpo [2], poverty is the process of individuals or groups being forcefully eliminated from control of the decisionmaking machinery that determines the production and distribution of resources in a society. He further explains that poverty manifest in various forms such as hunger (lack of food), lack of good drinking water, clothes, shelter, good health, poor education and distribution of resources coupled with monopoly of the machinery of decision-making through coercive state apparatus. Poverty by Oxford Advance Learner’s Dictionary [3], is the state or condition of being poor. Poverty may be viewed as a synonym of indigence. An indigent in a general sense is one who is needy and poor or one who has no sufficient property to furnish him a living or anyone able to support him of whom he is entitled to look for support.

Aliyu [4] defines poverty as the condition in which a person is unable to meet minimum basic requirements of food, health, housing, education and clothing. He estimated that the sum of N3, 920 would be required per month by an adult individual in Nigeria and that if a family’s income (the total funds available for expenditure by a household needed for feeding and providing other services) required in the household is below a certain standard value then the family is said to be in a state of poverty. The attempts made at defining poverty as captured above could be referred to as more outline of the features or characterization of poverty. In buttressing the difficulties encountered in getting at a common and generally accepted definition of poverty, Aboyede [5] posits that there seems to be a general agreement that poverty is a difficult concept to handle and that it is easily recognized than defined.

Poverty is a state of households command over resources at a level which is insufficient to obtain a basket of goods and facilities judged to be necessaries in the contemporary circumstances of the society under study. Poverty is complex and multi-dimensional, encompassing not only lack of income but also lack of assets, poor health status, vulnerability to economic and natural shocks and lack of voice in decision making [6]. Poverty means more than being impoverished and more than lacking financial means. It is an overall condition of inadequacy, lacking and scarcity, destination and deficiency of economic, political and social resources.

Poverty can be viewed from permanent or transience dimension. This dimension differentiate poverty based on time or deviation on one hand and distributives as to wide-spread, individual or concentrated on the other hand. Aliyu [4] asserted that several types of poverty may be distinguished depending on such factors as, time or duration (long, short terms or cyclical). Poverty may be wide-spread throughout a population, but the occurrence itself is limited to direction and distribution (wide-spread, concentrated individuals). It can also involve relatively permanent insufficiency of means of securing basic needs. The condition may be to describe the average level of life in a large group in concentrated or relatively large groups in an otherwise prosperous society.

Measurement of poverty: The World Bank’s most commonly used method of measuring poverty is based on income or consumption levels. A person is considered poor if his or her consumption or income level falls below the minimum level necessary to meet basic needs. This minimum level is usually called the “poverty line”. This poverty line, however, varies across times and societies [8]. Therefore, each country uses lines that are appropriate to its level of development, societal norms and values.

Ogiji and Akpan [9], measured poverty in both absolute and relative terms. The relative measures of poverty include:

a) Average income index: It employs the average income of a specific percentage of the population at the lowest end of the income spectrum.

b) Number or proportion of people whose income are less or equal to the predetermined percentage of the mean income.

The following absolute measures were also identified:

a) The headcount ratio: The most widely used measure of poverty is the number of poor, otherwise called the headcount which is the ratio of individuals whose income fall below the poverty line.

b) The Human Development Index (HDI): This is a measure of achievement that incorporate both income and non-income factors. The factors are longevity, knowledge and income.

c) The Physical Quality of Life Index (PQLI): This measures the extent to which societies satisfy certain specific life-serving social characteristics or achieved well-being.

Causes of poverty in Ogbadibo LGA: The incidence of poverty is common in many communities of Ogbadibo LGA, and the factors that are responsible for their occurrence may be similar, one thing that has hindered the fight against poverty is the tendency to apply top-down solutions by government and policy makers instead of first attempting to understand the socio-cultural and economic background of the people whom these programmes are targeted at and directly involving them in the formulation and implementation of these anti-poverty measures.

The causes of poverty are structural and conjectural. They are structural in the sense that they are more permanent and depend on a host of exogenous factors such as limited resources, lack of skills, location disadvantage and other factors inherent in the social and political set up. By conjectural causes, these are more transitory and possibly more readily reversible. Transitional poverty is mainly due to structural adjustment reforms and changes in domestic economic policies that may result in price changes, increased unemployment etc. Natural calamities such as drought, war and environmental degradation are also inclusive. The poverty in Nigeria to reckless spending, laziness, overpopulation, land dispute, bad government, declining fertility of land, lack of access to skills, facilities and productive opportunities.

According to World Bank Task Force Report on Sub-Saharan African countries, some of the following factors as the main causes of poverty in the Sub region:

⢠Inadequate access to employment opportunities.

⢠Low endowment of human capital.

⢠Inadequate access to markets where the poor can sell their goods and services.

⢠Lack of participation, failure to draw the poor into the decision making of the government.

⢠Inadequate assistance for those living at the margin of poverty and those victimized by transitory poverty.

In Ogbadibo LGA, one of the major causes of poverty is the desire for a large family size [10]. The consequence of this is that the quality of the household is compromised. When children are many, they cannot eat balance diet, could not attend good school, and in most cases they cannot afford adequate medicine. Inadequate access to physical asset such as land and capital are also causes of poverty in Ogbadibo, especially when the right to exploit or make use of productive resources are banned or restricted by court.

Alkasun et al., [11] explained that the inability of an individual getting out of relative poverty through legal activities makes it rational for some individuals to get into illegal activities. This criminal behaviour has negative consequences on the welfare of the society, resulting to more public expenditure on public security rather than on schools and hospitals which could precisely help in alleviating poverty.

Warfare and communal crisis also contribute to a more entrenched poverty in Ogbadibo. This is because the resources meant for fighting poverty are diverted to maintaining peace and security.

Minimal commitment especially on the part of government to rural development, as most development efforts to state and federal governments are concentrated in the urban centres. Inadequate access to social infrastructural facilities such as electricity, good road, pipe borne water and education are also causes of poverty in Ogbadibo LGA.

Most families in Ogbadibo live below the poverty line and survive only on a meager food supply. They have no means of providing enough clothing, shelter or medical care for the families. Good clothing and adequate shelter therefore becomes luxuries in such families’ budget.

According to Ragner Nurkse [12], a poor man is poor because he may not have enough to eat, being under fed, his health is weak, being physically weak, his working capacity is low, meaning that he is poor which in turn mean that he will not have enough to eat.

Effects of poverty: According to Obinne [13], the ultimate effect of poverty among the populace is low standard of living. It contributes to physical weakness through lack of food, malnutrition leading to low immune response to infections and inability to pay the cost of schooling, to buy radio or bicycle, to afford to travel to look for work or to live near the village centre or main road, to vulnerability through lack of asset to pay large expenses or meet contingencies and to powerlessness because lack of wealth goes with status.

Poverty destroys aspirations, hope and happiness. In Ogbadibo LGA this is the poverty one can feel. Poverty affects tolerance of others, support of civil liberties and openness toward foreigners. It affects positive relationships with subordinates self-esteem and sense of personal trust and self-satisfaction [14]. It has been noted that deprivation of elementary capabilities can be reflected on premature mortality, significant under nourishment (especially on children) persistent morbidity and illiteracy, among other problems. Life expectancy, literacy are corrected with the productivity and prosperity of a nation [15].

High level of poverty could lead to brain drain. The emigration of many of the most highly educated workers to rich countries, where these workers emigration can also lead to human trafficking, prostitution and the spread of HIV/AIDS, child labour and abuse of human and civil rights. In addition, poverty leads to corruption, disruption of family relations and social life, causes rising crime rate among other vices.

Low income level and wealth undermine the ability of government to levy taxes for public service provisions. This result to lack of essential infrastructures, poor education, health services and sanitation. Also, the capacity of the state is further undermined by the problem that people living in poverty may be more vulnerable to extremist political persuasions and may feel less loyal to a state that is unable to deliver basic services. For this reason, conditions of poverty may increase the risk of political violence, terrorism, war and genocide.

Concept of poverty alleviation/reduction: According to Reutlinger [16], poverty alleviation in Nigeria consists of a set of purposive acts and measures designed nationally and internationally to address poverty problems. In the time past, the international community has increased its interest and efforts at finding lasting solution to the problems of poverty but little has been achieved. Developing countries in the past simply ignored the problem but are now forced to address it in more serious and meaningful terms. This concern has been reflected in government policy statements with specific attention placed on the strategies to alleviate poverty in the country through a number of programmes.

Ogundikpe [17] conceptualizes poverty alleviation as a conscientious effort at handling the economic vice of poverty. To him, poverty alleviation programmes can only be successful where careful attention has been made to design issues such as the form of poverty to be addressed, identifying the possible appropriate measures to be adopted, determining how the intended beneficiaries are to be identified.

Poverty alleviation in this study is conceived as the reduction in poverty as a result of effective implementation of the government policies or programmes on poverty reduction. It is on this ground that the Nigeria government over the years had embarked on poverty alleviation programmes such as NAPEP, NDE, YEP, RIDS, etc.

Approaches to poverty alleviation in Ogbadibo: The Sustainable Livelihood Approach (SL): The SL approach serves primarily as a programming framework to device a set of integrated support activities to improve the sustainability of livelihoods among poor and vulnerable groups by strengthening the resilience of their coping and adaptive strategies. Although this is in principle an open-ended process, certain emphasis is given to the introduction of improved technologies as well as social and economic investments. Policy and governance issues as they impinge on people’s livelihoods are organized as specific SL programmes, usually implemented at a district level with ramifications at the community and household level. This approach has emerged in response to negative experiences with conventional approaches to poverty reduction in Ogbadibo, but also as a result of findings regarding the nature and understanding of poverty.

Three factors shed light on why the SL approach has been applied to poverty reduction in Ogbadibo. The first is the realization that while economic growth may be essential for poverty reduction, there is no automatic relationship between the two since it all depends on the capabilities of the poor to take advantage of expanding economic opportunities. Thus, it is important to find out what precisely it is that prevent or constrains the poor from improving their lot a given situation, so that support activities could be designed accordingly. Secondly, there is the realization that poverty as conceived by the poor themselves is not just a question of low income, but also includes other dimensions such as bad health, illiteracy, lack of social services, etc. Moreover, it is now realized that there are important links between different dimensions of poverty such that improvements in one have positive effects on another. Raising people’s educational level may have positive effects on their health standards, which in turn may improve their production capacity. Reducing poor people’s vulnerability in terms of exposure to risk may increase their propensity to engage in previously untested but more productive economic activities, and so on. Finally, it is now recognized that the poor themselves often know their situation and needs best and must therefore be involved in the design of policies and projects intended to better their lot. Given a say in design, they are usually more committed to implementation. Thus, participation by the poor improves project performance.

a) Target approach: This approach favours the directing of poverty alleviation programmes to specific groups within the country. This approach includes such programmes as social safety nets, micro credits and school meal programmes. This approach further requires proper identification of the target groups so as to minimize leakages.

Concept of NAPEP/NAPEP’s review: National Poverty Eradication Programme (NAPEP) is an agency for poverty reduction in Nigeria. The programme was established in 2001 to address the challenges of poverty.

NAPEP’s mandate is to mobilize resources from all the tiers of the government and throughout the economy. For economic empowerment, resources generated are to support economic activities at the grassroots thereby promoting the wellbeing of the people and ensuring sustainability. It is also to enable the poor contribute their quota to the economic development process. In 1999, the federal government observed that poverty was on the increase in Nigeria despite the large number of ongoing efforts and programmes to fight poverty. Although past regimes in Nigeria have attempted to tackle poverty through the creation of institutions and agencies such as Nigeria Agricultural Cooperative Banks (NACB), People’s Bank, Family Economic Advancement Programmes (FEAP), Universal Basic Education (UBE), Family Support Programme (FSP), etc. However, the impact of these programmes on alleviating poverty has been contentious as the desired results of these programmes are not achieved. With the return of democracy in 1999 the federal government embarked on poverty reduction programme specifically, the government put up the National Poverty Eradication Programme (NAPEP) in the year 2000 which took off in 2001.

Functions of NAPEP

1) To coordinate all poverty eradication efforts in the federation.

2) To monitor all poverty eradication activities of the federal government.

3) To maintain a comprehensive and detailed data bank on all activities aimed at carrying out an assessment of all efforts meant to eradicate poverty in Nigeria and suggest the necessary reviews and policies required to enhance effectiveness.

4) To directly intervene in key sectors of critical needs periodically by implementing sealed key priority projects.

NAPEP maintains four (4) departments as follows:

a. Administration and Supplies

b. Monitoring and Evaluation

c. Research and Programme Development

d. Finance and Accounts

Theoretical framework

While humanity shares one planet, it is a planet on which there are two worlds; the world of the rich and the world of the poor. The key development challenge of our time is to reduce income disparities across and within nations. This has led to the emergence of a lot of theories put forward by scholars to explain the incidence of poverty in the less developed countries, Nigeria inclusive. Some of these include:

The individualistic theory of poverty: This first theory of poverty is a large and multi-faceted set of explanations that focus on the individual as responsible for their poverty situation. Typically, politically conservative theoreticians blame individuals in poverty for creating their own problems, and argued that with harder work and better choices the poor could have avoided (and now can remedy) their problems. Other variations of the individualistic theory of poverty ascribe poverty to lack of genetic qualities such as intelligence that are not so easily reversed. The belief that poverty stems from individual deficiencies is old. Religious doctrine that equates wealth with the favour of God was central to the protestant reformation (Weber, 2001) and blind, cripple or deformed people were believed to be punished by God for either, or their parents’ sins.

Cultural belief system theory of poverty: Also of relevance in this analysis is the cultural theory of poverty, which blames the culture of people as being responsible for their poverty. According to Oscar Lewis, [18] one of the authors of the theory “people held an attitude of fatality” (that is, they believe that it was hopeless to try and involves their situation) and “present time orientation” (that is, they live for today instead of tomorrow).

As a result, they were less likely to see education as a way out of their poverty. Also they were less likely to see the point of saving as capital formation for their business.

This theory can be criticized on the basis that, it is not mainly the culture that causes poverty in less development economy including Ogbadibo LGA, but lack of economic strength to develop and utilized their potentials that keep them in poverty. Since this theory fails to address the problem of poverty in Ogbadibo LGA satisfactorily, it becomes imperative to move to another theory.

Geographical disparities theory of poverty: Rural poverty, ghetto poverty, urban disinvestment, southern poverty, third-world poverty, and other framing of the problem represent a spatial characterization of poverty that exists separate from other theories. While these geographically based theories of poverty build on the other theories, this theory calls attention to the fact that people, institutions, and cultures in certain areas lack the objective resources needed to generate wellbeing and income and that they lack the power to claim redistribution. As Shaw points out, “space is not a backdrop for capitalism, but rather is restructured by it and contributes to the system’s survival. The geography of poverty is a spatial expression of the capitalist system”.

The Vicious circle of poverty: This theory is one of the most widely known theories of poverty based on the notion that lack of capital is key factor militating against growth and development. The theory describes economic stagnation as the result of low levels of per capita output. The vicious circle of poverty was formulated in the early 1950s by Ragner Nurkse and as at that time, the model seemed to describe accurately the condition of many poor countries.

According to Ragner Nurkse [12], the vicious circle of poverty is a circular constellation of forces tending to act and react upon one another in such a way as to keep a poor country in a state of poverty. For instance, a poor man may not have enough to eat, being under fed his health may be weak, being physically weak, his working capacity is low, which means that he is poor, which in turn means that he will not have enough to eat.

The basic vicious circle stems from the fact that in Less Developed Countries (LDC) total productivity is low due to deficiency of capital, market imperfection, economic backwardness and underdevelopment. However, the vicious circle of poverty operate both on the demand side and the supply side, this is shown in Figures 1 and 2:

business-management-research-demand

Figure 1: Demand side.

business-management-research-supply

Figure 2: Supply side.

Figure 1 depicts the demand side of the vicious circle which implies that low level of income leads to a low level of demand which in turn leads to a low rate of investment and hence back to deficiency of capital, low productivity and income.

Figure 2 on the other hand shows the supply side of the vicious circle which implies that low productivity leads to low levels of real income which in turn leads to low rate of savings, low investment, capital deficiency and back to low productivity. Thus the vicious circle is complete from the supply side.

The third vicious circle of poverty envelops underdeveloped human and natural resources of the people. If the people are backward and illiterate, lack technological skills, knowledge and entrepreneurial activity, the natural resources will tend to remain unutilized, underutilized or even misutilized. On the other hand, people are economically backward in a country due to underdeveloped natural resources. Underdeveloped natural resources are therefore, both a consequence and cause backward people. This is explained in Figure 3:

business-management-research-underdevelopment

Figure 3: Poverty and Underdevelopment of economy.

Thus, “poverty and underdevelopment of the economy are synonymous”.

A country is poor because it is underdeveloped, a country is underdeveloped because it is poor and remains underdeveloped as it has not the resources for promoting development.

The vicious circle of poverty is the theory that best describes the poverty situation in Ogbadibo LGA. Most families in Ogbadibo live below the poverty line and survive only on a meager food supply. They have no means of providing enough clothing, shelter or medical care for the families. Good clothing and adequate shelter therefore becomes luxuries in such families’ budget.

Literature review

The focus of this section is to examine different literatures on the relationship between poverty eradication programmes (NAPEP) on economic development of Nigeria.

According to Olumola [19], one of the impediments to poverty alleviation in the developing world is lack of internal motivation to fight poverty at the right time and place.

Also, Aluko [3] asserted that the poor management of the Nigeria economy is a major obstacle to poverty alleviation in several ways. First, poor macroeconomic management results in low output and hence low income. Second, it negatively affects the provision and sustainability of socio-economic amenities and infrastructural facilities that could improve the conditions of the poor. Third, is the problem of inadequate funding which has crippled most parastatals, agencies and institutions providing services that can alleviate poverty. Fourth, management problems have been aggregated by corruption which has become endemic. This has affected the successful execution of projects, making a few people rich at the expense of the poor majority. Besides, the government does not provide social security benefits to the poor. The poor are therefore, dependent on family members, friends and relations for survival.

Past government policies aimed at alleviating poverty were too general and did not target the specific needs of the poor, nor were they aimed at Achieving a particular objective or goal at any point in time. For instance, there were too many institutions competing to achieve the same objectives without clear-cut programmes. The result was poor performance and pursuit of personal gains by those in authority at the expense of the targeted beneficiaries. The scope of activities of the institutions with duplicating functions was too wide and conflicting, while the resources in many cases were too thinly spread into many activities.

The World Bank [15], in its study on “Taking Action for Poverty Alleviating in Sub-Saharan Africa” emphasized the redistribution of wealth such that current pressure for political change may not be perpetuated and thereby save the society from social and political unrests that only retard development and result in retrogression.

Poverty reduction programme in the country has (only) benefited those who design and implemented them while the poor are left behind. The fact is that he added, the various programmes such as Universal Primary Education (UPE), Operation Feed the Nation (OFN), National Directorate of Food, Road and Rural Infrastructure (DFRI), etc., primarily bettered, supported and advanced the monetary and property of acquisitive urge and interest of wives of head of states, governors and chairmen who embezzle vast resources appropriated for poverty reduction in Nigeria during the past two decades. The arguments is that various poverty alleviation programmes including NAPEP functioned as conducting pipes for siphoning public resources or as a smoke screen under which looting of these resources were and were carried out by the ruling class.

World Bank [8], found out that in 3 of 14 countries, poverty growth was associated with more labour intensive growth. Also in 11 developing countries access to non-farm rural employment and informal employment ceased the poor’s participation in the growth process and simultaneously reduce poverty through employment generation.

Empirical research reveals that the problem of poverty is more concentrated in Africa, South Asia, Latin America and Eastern Europe. This situation has compelled international organizations and various governments to evolve economic strategies that would serve as a driving force to tackle the problem of poverty in those countries.

In justifying this, the Japanese government has demonstrated a practical approach towards poverty reduction. For over five years, the Japanese government has offered a unique awareness programme called the Rural Life Improvement Extension Services (RLIES) for people in rural areas. The success of this programme makes it relevant to this study.

RLIES is base on the idea that people never enrich their lives without improving their daily home lives. On this idea, Japanese economist insisted that the increase of business activities was the ultimate policy to overcome poverty. It was regarded as one powerful methods of addressing poverty by getting rid of obstacle, which keep people from exercising their economic functions.

While many economists in Japan at that time believes that promoting the activities of small business would reduce poverty, the first official and manager of RLIES scheme (Matsuyo Ohmori) thought that, rural life was poor because Japanese thought little of life. The idea that the poor were not needed meant that they did not pay much attention to life. The idea became the backbone of the RLIES and was design to tackle rural poverty by educating the poor on how to improve their lives.

The core factor of RLIES was group oriented activities. The rationale behind this was to gather the poor together in groups so that the extension workers would teach them skills to be productive. In that, women particularly were taught on how to improve their cooking quality about time management, diversification of food production from time, food preservation techniques and learnt some basic things about the society. The poor were encouraged to develop other interest and other forms of livelihood besides subsistence farming and in that regard, many of them set up small business.

The successes recorded started with increasing confidence that the poor gain in themselves and their ability to try and involve their problem with whatever resources they had at a time. They seemed less impoverished or rather less frustrated and helpless by their poverty situation.

Examining the relationship between the success of RLIES and poverty reduction in Japan reveals a strong positive relationship. The contributions have been considered significant to point that it has now been merged with other divisions to single consolidate its effects. It is important to say that, the significance of reducing poverty among the poor can go such long way in reducing rural poverty in general because it is rural poverty that aggravates the urban poverty.

Empirical literature

The focus of this section is to examine different empirical literatures written on the relationship between poverty eradication programmes (NAPEP) on economic development of Nigeria.

A data covering the period 1960-2000 on the study of macroeconomics policies and pro-poor growth in Nigeria. He came up with a conclusion that most of the poverty alleviation policies in Nigeria are directed towards rural areas. Though laudable, many of the programmes have not achieved significant desired result. He opined that the main reason for this is that the poverty alleviation programmes is not well focused, their targeting was poor and duplication was excessive.

The affluence of poverty, a critical evaluation of Nigerian’s poverty reduction programmes in which he based his work on secondary data observed that in spite of the country which orchestrated demonstration of its commitment to poverty reduction evidence on ground points to the fact that the “poverty virus” is getting more entrenched and spreading wider among the citizenry. He however, found out that the failure of the programmes can be traced to the combined effects of inadequate mobilization of the target group, lack of commitment on the part of the government agencies, outright mismanagement and embezzlement of funds meant for poverty reduction programme, inconsistency as well as politicization of the programmes.

A geopolitical zonal analysis of six states to show sectoral growth of agriculture without corresponding rural poverty reduction over the same period. Growth in value added in agricultural output at current market prices were 10.03%, 49.06% and 36.06% and 36.58% in 1985, 1992, and 1996 respectively. Meanwhile, agricultural contribution to total value added in all sectors relatively average about 40% between 1980 and 1996. NISER therefore, concluded that in the agricultural sector, there is the paradox of growth without poverty reduction which is a sharp contrast to field findings.

Shima [20], in a paper titled “Developing a Policy Framework for Alleviating Poverty and increasing Employment in Benue State” sees the peasant farmer as the sure solution out of poverty for Benue State. He suggested inputs like fertilizer and basic infrastructure will reduce urban migration and thus make the peasant farmer more stable in the villages to fulfill his role as a focal point for poverty alleviation in Benue State.

In a study on self-employment and poverty alleviation in Nigeria focused on the problem of ascertaining the extent to which Okada business has reduced poverty in Nigeria using the chi-square (X2) analysis based on primary data sourced from four major districts of the locality found out that fuel scarcity, fuel cost, harassment by security agents, poor road network are the major problems hindering Okada riders from smooth operation and consequently the objective of poverty reduction. The recommendations of the research emphasized on the need for enabling environment for the smooth operation of selfemployment business based on the result of the analysis which rejected the null hypothesis that self-employment has a significant impact on poverty alleviation in Nigeria.

A study on the use of vocational skill acquisition as a strategy for alleviating poverty in Otukpo Local Government Area of Benue State. The major problem statement of the research was the need for an effective strategy of alleviating poverty in Benue State. Based on the primary data obtained from the various districts of Otukpo Local Government Area, the chi-square (X2) analysis was adopted. The findings of the research revealed that vocational skill acquisition among youths impacted favourably in poverty alleviation. The recommendations of the study centered on the need to pay more attention on vocational education and adopted skill acquisition as an effective tool for poverty reduction.

A research on rural empowerment and poverty reduction in Benue State using Buruku Local Government Area as a case study, emphasized on the performance of Local Empowerment and Environmental Management Project (LEEMP) to determine whether it helped in alleviating poverty. His major problem statement of the research was the negative effects of poverty on the living standard of the people and the need for an effective strategy for alleviating poverty in Buruku Local Government Area of Benue State using a simple chi-square (X2) analysis. The findings of the research revealed that LEEMP through skills acquisition worked positively to reduce poverty in Buruku. The recommendations of the study centered on the need to pay more attention to poverty reduction scheme.

“Self-employment and Poverty Reduction among Makurdi Municipal Tailors” with particular emphasis on the need for an alternative strategy in tackling the problem statement. Employment of chi-square (X2) in its methodology based on primary and secondary data sources from field survey and the National Directorate of Employment (NDE), Benue State. The findings revealed that the tailoring enterprise is a gainful way of employing oneself and has a great potential of alleviating poverty in Makurdi metropolis. Further, in specific finding, it revealed that the major causes of poverty in Makurdi is that, most of her residents fold their arms and look up to the government for job provision which makes them remain perpetually poor while blaming the government, NGOs as well as the media to rise their influence to encourage the youth to take self-employment vocation so as to reduce the rampaging rate of poverty in Benue State.

Other researches carried out in Imo State on the impact of vocational education and the incidence of poverty, using the correlation coefficient to analyze the relationship between the two major variables (vocational education and the incidence of poverty) and its findings revealed a strong negative correlation between vocation and the incidence of poverty in the locality. Similarly, studies in Bayelsa and Abia indicates a strong positive correlation between the level of vocational education and reduction in poverty, in all these cases the researchers recommended vocational skills acquisition as a variable tool for poverty alleviation.

NAPEP’s programmes in Ogbadibo LGA

These programmes were NAPEP’s programmes in Ogbadibo LGA. These programmes are not published but recorded in a documentary.

1) Youth Empowerment Scheme (YES):

Youth Empowerment Scheme (YES) basically aims at economic empowerment of youth including male and female, it consists of Capacity Acquisition Programmes (CAP), Mandatory Attachment Programme (MAP) and Credit Delivery Programme (CDP).

⢠Capacity Acquisition Programme (CAP): This programme is designed to enable participants, notwithstanding their different level of formal education, acquire skills in vocational capabilities and performance enhancing attributes on their chosen areas of engagement. This programme includes training apprenticeship, investment inducement seminar. The concept of CAP is to recruit, retrain, and redeploy the creative capacity of youths so that they can play more productive and self-fulfilling roles in the emerging economic dispensation. Government takes responsibility for the upkeep of participants while in training.

⢠Mandatory Attachment Programme (MAP): The MAP is an intervention initiative under the Youth Empowerment Scheme (YES) designed to attach graduates who have completed their mandatory National Youth Service and yet to secure full-time employment. Even after having undergone NAPEP’s capacity building/training courses in organizations to provide them with the job training and expose them to skills in their field of specialization, the federal government through NAPEP pays the graduates the sum of ten thousand naira (N10, 000) only monthly. This payment only lasted between 2002 and 2003 in Ogbadibo LGA.

2) Farmers Empowerment Programme-2005:

This programme is specifically targeted at groups involving women and youths. It is designed to improve the lives and wellbeing of farmers by creating opportunities for them to have access to loans, farmlands, and other farming implements. NAPEP also partners with ADP (Agricultural Development Project) to provide technical knowledge to the farmers. The programme is also aimed at accelerating the attainment of the MDGs.

3) Multi-Partner Multi-finance (MPMF) scheme:

Under this scheme NAPEP partners with states, local governments, commercial Banks, Micro Finance Institutions, and others to make available large pool of funds for lending to the poor. In this way, NAPEP is stimulating grass roots activities and mass participation in the economic development process through savings and access to funds for the poor people across the local government area.

4) Promise Keeper Programme (PKP):

The Promise Keeper Programme (PKP) is a NAPEP micro creditbased intervention with Faith Based Organizations (FBOs). It is aimed at assisting the poor to access a larger pool of funds for economic empowerment in line with the National Economic Empowerment and Development Strategy (NEEDS) of the federal government. PKP enables poor members of religious bodies like churches to access micro credit from the pool of funds so created, to undertake viable economic activities. Under this programme, NAPEP provides Matching Funds (MF) for a certain sum set aside by FBO’s for economic advancement of indigent members in their respective field.

5) Village Economic Development Solution (VEDS):

VEDS is a local community-driven development programme where villages are guided in their community economic development efforts that involve modernization of the villages and promoting income generating activities through village solutions. Villages are encouraged to see community development and poverty eradication as a joint responsibility to which every member of the village is a stakeholder and can be an active participant in the bottom-up approach to community development where villages organize themselves into community development groups, with the government providing technical expertise and an enabling environment. The goals of the scheme is economic transformation development levels with the aim to eliminate extreme poverty and reduce its intergenerational transfer, including curbing rural-urban migration, develop local skills, identifying and harnessing existing resources in the village for sustainable rural development.

6) Conditional Cash Transfer (CCT):

CCT otherwise known as COPE “In Care of the People” was developed by NAPEP and targeted at individuals or households who have children of school age to enable them take care of their needs in school and also utilize basic public health facilities, poor female headed households, poor aged headed households, physically challenged persons and households headed by special groups (victims of Vessico- Viginal Fistula (VVF), and People Living With HIV and AIDS (PLWHAS)).

COPE’s formula for disbursing funds is;

COPE=BIG +PRAI

Where BIG=Basic Income Guarantee and

PRAI=Poverty Reduction Acceleration Investments

The BIG is monthly guaranteed income given to the heads of participating households. The amount received by each household will depend on the number of qualified children in the households (Table 1).

No. of children Amount of big (N)
1 Child
2 - 3 Children
4 Children and above
1,500
3,000
5,000

Table 1: BIG monthly guaranteed income.

The PRAI is a guaranteed investment grant given to the head of the households towards the end of the programme to start a business of his or her own or invest in a profitable business ventures that will yield sufficient income to sustain the households after the completion of twelve months (12) of receiving the basic income guaranteed (BIG). The PRAI represents a compulsory saving component of the programme with a monthly savings of N7, 000. Participating heads of households will receive a total of N84, 000 as investment funds.

The programme started May, 2008 and ended in May, 2009. Conditional cash transfer programme in Ogbadibo local government area gulped N7, 200,000 for the (BIG) Basic Income Guarantee, while N4, 200,000 was spent on PRAI (Poverty Reduction Acceleration Investment).

Research Methodology

Study area

Ogbadibo local government area was created out of the old Okpokwu local government area in 1991 by the Babangida administration. It derives its name from a stream called Ogbadibo in the area.

Located 550 km west of Makurdi, Ogbadibo shares boundary with Olamaboro local government area (Kogi State) in the west, to the east by Udenu local government area in Enugu State and Okpokwu on the south eastern axis.

Ogbadibo local government council area, with Otukpa as headquarters, has a land mass of about 598 sq km with a population of over 128,707 people. The local government area is made up of three major districts. These include Otukpa, Orokam and Owukpa. It has a total of thirteen council wards. Otukpa has six (6) wards namely; Aioodo I, Aioodo II, Aioodo III, Aioono I, Aioono II, and Olachagbaha. Orokam has three (3) council wards which include; Orokam I, Orokam II, and Orokam III. While Owukpa has four (4) council wards namely; Ehaje I, Ehaje II, Itabono I and Itabono II.

Over 80% of the population of the local government engages in farming. Cassava is cultivated in commercial quantity in the districts of Ogbadibo local government area. Other agricultural produce include yam, beniseed, bambara nuts, melon and millet. Ogbadibo local government area has the largest palm plantation in the state and produce palm wine in commercial quantity. The local government provides the best and wide range of investment opportunity in small scale agro-allied industries in areas like palm kernel, palm oil production and palm wine preservation in Benue State and in all states north of the Niger.

The study area for research has been chosen because Ogbadibo is strategically located and it is a fast developing commercial center. The Igalas, the Igbos and Idomas of Okpokwu, Otukpo and other local governments flood the local government to buy its agricultural produce.

Research design

The method of research adopted was the descriptive technique. It describes systematically detailed facts and characteristics of a given area of interest. This method is justified for this research because it is primarily concerned with finding out “what is” and it is very important in reducing the data to manageable form than other techniques.

Sampling technique

A non-probability sampling technique was employed in this research to get a sample of the targeted population. The procedure here involves splitting the entire population space into geographical areas, each of which may still contain heterogeneous elements. The population in this case is entirely Ogbadibo local government area, which is divided into thirteen council wards namely; Aioodo I, Aioodo II, Aioodo III, Aioono I, Aioono II, Olachagbaha, Orokam I, Orokam II, Orokam III. Ehaje I, Ehaje II, Itabono I Itabono II representing clusters.

The selected sample wards are Aioodo I, Olachagbaha, Ehaje I, Itabono I, Orokam I, and Orokam II. This sample wards are selected on the basis of easy access. A total of twenty respondents from each of the selected council wards were drawn to give a sample of 120. The procedure for drawing the respondents is the quota sampling.

Variables measured

The variables that were measured in this research work are age, sex, marital status, educational level, employment status, monthly income, profile of dwelling, nutrition, access to health care, perception of poverty condition of the respondent, expenditure of the respondent and the respondent’s perception of the National Poverty Eradication Programme (NAPEP).

Sources of data

Data that was used for this work is selected from two sources; primary and secondary sources. The primary data for the research serves as a primary source for the exact information required.

The secondary data serves as the second source of data to be used in this research work. The type of secondary data (information) used in this research work includes; relevant text books, journals, magazines, newspapers, information bulletins the internet etc., the information in chapters one, two, and three are purely from this source while information in chapters four and five was based on questionnaires that was administered and collected.

Method of data collection

The questionnaire was the major tool for achieving specific objectives of this work. The primary data for the research work were collected through the administration of questionnaires. A questionnaire provides an avenue for obtaining data that lie beyond the physical reach of the researcher. It is expressed in clear, precise, polite and concise language so as to gain the necessary levels of response from respondents. To enhance efficiency in the expected result of this research work, the questionnaires was administered by direct contact. Personal interviews were conducted to get other relevant information.

The questionnaire have three sections; A, B, and C; section A requires the bio-data and section B and C requires the socio-economic characteristics and the study problem. The questions that were asked are both closed-ended and open-ended. Some few questions require Yes or No answers. The open-ended questions are designed to give the respondents the opportunity to express their views on any given question so that a concise conclusion can be drawn.

Method of data analysis

In the data analysis, the effect of National Poverty Eradication Programme (NAPEP) on poverty eradication/reduction was ascertained using descriptive analysis. Descriptive tools such as tables and percentages were used. The total mark of 100% is assigned to each question. A response to each question was counted as a score and frequency of the response. For determining the percentage of each answers;

X=total score of each question

N=total sample size and

P%=the percentage arrived at and hence the formula

equation

Also, the chi-square (x2) test was employed to test the validity of the hypothesis and then meaningful conclusion was drawn. This was carried out using the chi-square formula;

equation

Where

O=Observed frequency

E=Expected frequency

Σ=Summation

The test was done at 5% significance level with a degree of freedom given as V=(R–C) (C–1).

Where:

R=the number of rows and

C=the number of columns

Conclusions was drawn base on the decision rule that accepts the null hypothesis (Ho) and reject the alternative hypothesis (H1) if the x2 calculated is less than x2 tabulated. On the other hand we shall accept the alternative hypothesis (H1) and reject the null hypothesis (Ho) if x2 calculated is greater than x2 tabulated.

Data Presentation, Analysis and Interpretation

Introduction

This chapter deals with data presentation, analysis and discussion of the findings. The chapter attempts to evaluate the extent of poverty in Ogbadibo local government area, and its manifested effects on the economic development of Ogbadibo local government area in spite of series of government poverty alleviation programmes.

Hypothesis was tested to check the impact of National Poverty Eradication Programme (NAPEP). Percentages and tables were used to show the results of opinions of residents in the selected six (6) council wards under study in Ogbadibo local government area.

Presentation of respondents

The total response rate is derived by;

equation

Or the average of the response rate of each council ward

equation

A total of one hundred and twenty (120) questionnaires were distributed to six of the thirteen council wards. Each was given twenty (20) questionnaires. Table 2 above indicates that out of 120 questionnaires administered, 96 were completed and returned. This shows a response rate of 80%. It is believed that this level of response is sufficient to obtain the required information.

Council ward No. of Respondents per council ward No. of completed questionnaire returned Response Rate Percentage (%)
Aioodo I
Olachagbaha
Ehaje I
Itabono I
Orokam I
Orokam II
20
20
20
20
20
20
16
14
16
17
15
18
80
70
80
85
75
90
13.00
10.00
13.00
15.00
12.00
17.00
Total 120 96 80 80.00

Table 2: Distribution of respondents’ by selection of council wards.

Table 3 presents the age distribution of respondents as obtained from the field survey. The table shows a high representation of age bracket of 20–29 which accounted for about 45% of the total number of respondents. It is followed by 30–39 years and 40–49 years. Together these three age brackets contain over 78% of all respondents. This demonstrates that most of the poor in Ogbadibo LGA are largely persons within their high productive age of 20–49 years.

Age Bracket Frequency Percentage (%)
Under 20
20–29
30–39
40–49
50–59
60 and above
11
43
17
15
5
5
11.46
44.79
17.71
15.63
5.21
5.21
Total 96 100. 00

Table 3: Distribution of respondents by age.

Table 4 presents the sex distribution of the respondents. This table reveals that 62 (64.58%) of the respondents were males while 34 (35.42%) were females from the selected council wards that was collected. As expected most of the respondents are male.

Gender Frequency Percentage (%)
Male
Female
62
34
64.58
35.42
Total 96 100.00

Table 4: Distribution of respondents by sex.

Table 5 shows the marital status of respondents from the field survey. The table reveals that 43 (44.80%) are married, 50 (52.08%) are single, 2 (2.08%) are separated and 1 (1.04%) is widowed. This shows that majority of the respondents are yet to be married.

Marital status Frequency Percentage (%)
Married
Single
Divorced
Widowed
Separated
43
50
0
1
2
44.80
52.08
0
1.04
2.08
Total 96 100.00

Table 5: Distribution of respondents by marital status.

From the Table 6, it is revealed that most of the respondents had attained a certain stage of education. The level of education varies from primary to secondary and tertiary institutions. The percentage of those that are not educated is about 12.50%. This shows that most Ogbadibo LGA respondents have attained one form of education. It also shows that over 50% of the respondents have at least secondary school education.

Educational status Frequency Percentage (%)
Did not go to school
Primary
Junior secondary
Degree
Others
12
31
40
6
2
12.50
6.25
41.67
6.25
2.08
Total 96 100.00

Table 6: Distribution of respondents by educational status.

Table 7 shows that majority of the respondents are unemployed. 55 (57.29%) of the respondents are unemployed with 41 (42.71%) of them being employed. The level of unemployment is higher than the employment level and this is unhealthy for any economy. It is an indication of a high level of poverty condition since their basic needs cannot be easily met.

Employment status Frequency Percentage (%)
Employed
Unemployed
41
55
42.71
57.29
Total 96 100.00

Table 7: Distribution of respondents based on employment status.

Table 8 is a further breakdown of Table 7, showing the type of employment engaged in by those who are employed. From the study about 43.90% are government employees while the remaining 56.1% are either employed by private companies or self-employed. This shows that majority of the respondents’ works either for themselves or for other private individuals and not for the government. However, government is still the most important single employer of labour in the local government.

Type of employment Frequency Percentage (%)
Private sector
Public sector
Self-employed
9
18
14
21.95
43.90
34.15
Total 41 100.00

Table 8: Distribution of respondents’ base on type of employment.

Table 9 reveals that the poverty condition of the residents of Ogbadibo LGA varies from one level to another. While 38 (39.58%) complained that they were unable to meet the basic needs of life such as food, clothing, shelter, etc. About 10.42% of the respondents see their poverty as lack of gainful employment and their inability to train their children in school and own business due to poor economic condition in Ogbadibo LGA. Half of the total respondents complained that the aforementioned poverty conditions applied to them.

Poverty condition Frequency Percentage (%)
Inability to meet the basic needs of life
Lack of money and employment
Inability to train children in school and own business
All of the above
38
6 4
48
39.58
6.25 4.17
50.00
Total 96 100.00

Table 9: Distribution of respondents’ type of poverty condition.

From Table 10 above, the monthly income ranges from below 5, 000 naira to above 20, 000 naira. Over 60% of the respondents earn income less than 10,000 naira per month which is less than the minimum wage rate of the federal government. The income of a household is a function of the number of persons working in a household and the level of educational attainment. Also, income is a determinant of household expenditure since it serves as the budget constraint of the amount that can be spent within a period. There is also a relationship between income and poverty level of a household. In all, the table reveals that the level of income per month of the respondents is relatively low as about two-thirds of the respondents earn an income below the federal government minimum wage.

Monthly income (N) Frequency Percentage (%)
Under 5,000
5,000–10,000
10,001–15,000
15,001–20,000
Above 20,000
39
21
9
10
17
40.62
21.88
9.37
10.42
17.71
Total 96 100.00

Table 10: Distribution of respondents’ income.

From the above Table 11, 70 (72.91%) of the respondents spend a large portion of their total monthly income on food while 10 (10.42%) of the respondents spend most of theirs on children’s school fees. 6 (6.25%) of the respondents spend a large portion of their income on payment of house rent while 10 (10.42%) of the respondents spend part of their monthly income on other things like transportation, payment of old debts etc. This implies that large number of the respondents spend a major part of their monthly incomes on the basic necessities of life i.e. food, education, housing etc. hence, there is little or no saving not to talk of investment.

Items Frequency Percentage (%)
Food
House
Children’s  fees
Others
70
6
10
10
72.91
6.25
10.42
10.42
Total 96 100.00

Table 11: Distribution of respondents’ monthly expenditure.

Table 12 shows the distribution of respondents according to the type of dwelling. The types of dwelling place occupied by the respondents include flats, two rooms, one room apartments and huts. Majority of the respondents live in huts (41.67%) and with just about 10.41% of them living in flat. This reveals the fact that dwelling condition of the residents of Ogbadibo LGA is somewhat substandard. The survey shows that about 90% of the respondents live in their own family houses or apartments while just 10% live in rented houses.

Type of dwelling Frequency Percentage (%)
Hut
One room
Two rooms
Flat
40
24
22
10
41.67
25.00
22. 92
10.41
Total 96 100.00

Table 12: Distribution of respondents’ by type of dwelling.

Table 13 above shows that 83.33% of the respondents have no access to electricity while only 16.67% have access to electricity. Majority of those connected to electricity reside in wards which are in the major towns of Ogbadibo LGA.

Electricity supply Frequency Percentage (%)
Yes
No
16
80
16.67
83.33
Total 96 100.00

Table 13: Distribution of respondents’ access to electricity.

Table 14 reveals that very few people among the respondents that have access to electricity have constant power supply. 25% have constant power supply while 12.5% have power supply on alternative days and also twice in a week. 37.5% of the respondents have power occasionally and 12.5% of the respondents even though connected to public power supply, do not have power at all. This has adverse implications on the business life of the people. Consequently, the cost of doing business in the LGA is high which translates to higher prices of goods and services.

Electric power supply Frequency Percentage (%)
Everyday
On alternative days
Twice a week
Occasionally
No power at all
4
2
2
6
2
25.00
12.5
12.5
37.5
12.5
Total 16 100.00

Table 14: Distribution of respondents’ by frequency of access to electric light.

Table 15 above indicates that the consumption pattern of the respondents is skewed towards cheap and affordable food items. Hence they spend more on carbohydrates and fatty foods than on protein and vitamins. The study also reveals that the daily nutrients consumed by the respondents are majorly starchy food (carbohydrates) which constitutes about 47.92%. Protein takes up 29.17% while vitamins and minerals take about 22.91%. This has a serious effect on the health condition and the productive capacity of the population of Ogbadibo LGA.

Nutrition Frequency Percentage (%)
Meat
Fish
Egg
Fruit
Vegetable
Beans
Gari
Rice
Milk
8
10
5
9
7
5
28
18
6
8.33
10.42
5.21
9.29
7.29
5.21
29.17
18.75
6.25
Total 96 100.00

Table 15: Distribution of respondents’ daily nutrient consumption.

Table 16 reveals the health system the respondents can afford when ill. Majority of the respondents (38.54%) visit the pharmacy/chemist shop and (30.21%) visit government owned hospitals. These are the less expensive healthcare systems. Their patronage by the people of Ogbadibo LGA is largely due to low bills which is consistent with the fact that income level is very low. 15.62% visit private hospitals where bills are high for effective and prompt services. Further, (15.62%) visit herbal shops. This may be as a result of public awareness of adverse effect on the drugs sold which is further due to lack of an accurate established dosage of such drugs. However, it is more likely that people patronize herbal medicine because they are cheap.

Healthcare system Frequency Percentage (%)
Government hospital
Private hospital
Pharmacy/chemist shop
Herbal medicine
29
15
37
15
30.21
15.63
38.54
15.62
Total 96 100.00

Table 16: Distribution of respondents’ access to healthcare.

Table 17 shows that majority of the respondents are aware of National Poverty Eradication Programme (NAPEP). About 88.54% are aware of NAPEP while only 11.46% are not aware of NAPEP.

Awareness Frequency Percentage (%)
Yes
No
85
11
88.54
11.46
Total 96 100.00

` Distribution of respondents’ awareness of National Poverty Eradication Programme (NAPEP).

Table 18 reveals that majority of the respondents does not know that NAPEP exist in their local government. 20.83% of the respondents know that NAPEP exist in Ogbadibo LGA while 79.17% do not know that NAPEP exist in the local government.

NAPEP exist Frequency Percentage (%)
Yes
No
20
76
20.83
79.17
Total 96 100.00

Table 18: Distribution of respondents’ who know if NAPEP exist in their local government.

The result as display in Table 19 above shows that Farmers Empowerment Programme (FEP) is the most implemented scheme among series of NAPEP’s programmes in Ogbadibo LGA. It recorded the highest percent of 14.58% followed by Youth Empowerment Scheme (YES) which have 13.54% and Social Welfare Service Scheme (SOWESS) standing at 12.5%. The Keke NAPEP Implementation is 10.42% and Rural Infrastructural Development Scheme (RIDS) has 11.46%.

NAPEP’s programmes Frequency Percentage (%)
Youth Empowerment Scheme (YES)
Capacity Acquisition Scheme (CAP)
Community Enlightenment and Sensitization Scheme (COMESS)
Social Welfare Service  Scheme (SOWESS)
Rural Infrastructural Development Scheme (RIDS)
Mandatory Attachment Programme (MAP)
Multi-partner Micro-finance (MP-MF) Scheme
Village Economic Development Solution (VEDS)
Capacity Widening Activity (CWA)
Conditional Cash Transfer (CCT)
Farmers Empowerment Programme (FEP)
General microcredit
Keke NAPEP Implementation
Rehabilitation of Vesico Vagina Fistula Patients
13
3 11
12 11
0
3
4
5
1
14
5
10
4
13.54
3.12 11.46
12.5 11.46
0
3.12
4.17
5.21
1.04
14.58
5.21
10.42
4.17
Total 96 100.00

Table 19: Distribution of respondents’ on the implementation status of NAPEP’s programmes.

Table 20 shows that out of 20 respondents who knows that NAPEP exist in Ogbadibo, 16(80.00%) have benefited from NAPEP’s programmes and 4(20.00%) of the respondents have never benefited from them.

Beneficiary Frequency Percentage (%)
Yes
No
16
4
80.00
20.00
Total 20 100.00

Table 20: Distribution of respondents’ who have benefited from NAPEP’s programmes.

Table 21 shows that 2(12.5%) of the respondents that benefited from NAPEP’s programmes, benefited from Youth Empowerment Scheme (YES). 2(12.50%) benefited from Capacity Acquisition Programme (CAP) and also Social Welfare Service Scheme (SOWESS), Multipartner Micro finance (MP-MF) Scheme, Farmers Empowerment Programme (FEP), respectively. While other programmes like RIDS, VEDS CCT, General Microcredit, and Keke NAPEP implementation have 1(6.25%) each.

NAPEP’s programmes benefited Frequency Percentage (%)
Youth Empowerment Scheme (YES)
Capacity Acquisition Scheme (CAP)
Community Enlightenment and Sensitization Scheme (COMESS)
Social Welfare Service  Scheme (SOWESS)
Rural Infrastructural Development Scheme (RIDS)
Mandatory Attachment Programme (MAP)
Multi-partner Micro-finance (MP-MF) Scheme
Village Economic Development Solution (VEDS)
Capacity Widening Activity (CWA)
Conditional Cash Transfer (CCT)
Farmers Empowerment Programme (FEP)
General microcredit
Keke NAPEP Implementation
Rehabilitation of Vesico Vagina Fistula Patients
Others
2
2 1
2
1
0
2
1
0
1
2
1
1
0
0
12.5
12.5 6.25
12.5
6.25
0
12.5
6.25
0
6.25
12.5
6.25
6.25
0
0
Total 16 100.00

Table 21: Distribution of respondents’ on the type of NAPEP’s programmes benefited.

Table 22 reveals that agricultural support is the most form of assistance rendered to the respondents that benefited from NAPEP’s programme with 37.7%. This is closely followed by skill/capacity building with 31.25% micro-credit financing and education were the least with 18.75% and 12.5%, respectively.

Nature of assistance Frequency Percentage (%)
Micro-credit financing
Skill/capacity building
Education
Agricultural support
3
5
2
6
18.75
31.25
12.5
37.5
Total 16 100.00

Table 22: Distribution of respondents’ nature of assistance rendered by NAPEP.

Table 23 shows that most of the respondents who are beneficiaries of NAPEP’s programmes did not encounter difficulties in accessing these programmes. 93.75% did not encounter difficulties while only 6.25% did.

Difficulty Frequency Percentage (%)
Yes
No
1
15
6.25
93.75
Total 16 100.00

Table 23: Distribution of respondents’ who face difficulties in accessing NAPEP’s programmes.

Table 24 shows that out of 96 respondents who believed that poverty can be reduced, 29 (30.21%) of them believed that it is solely a government responsibility. However, majority of the respondents, 50 (52.08%) are of the view that poverty alleviation programme in the state should be a combined efforts of both the government and individuals for whom such poverty alleviation programmes are being designed.

Agent Frequency Percentage (%)
Government
NGOs
Individuals
Government organization
Government and individuals
29
9
3
5
50
30.21
9.37
3.13
5.21
52.08
Total 96 100.00

Table 24: Distribution of respondents’ perception on agency that should be responsible for poverty reduction.

On the general assessment of the activities of NAPEP on poverty eradication, 34.38% of the respondents agree that NAPEP has performed fairly good leaving 27.17% insisting that it has been poor (table 25).

Assessment Frequency Percentage (%)
Excellent
Good
Fairly good
Poor
9
26
33
28
9.37
27.08
34.38
29.17
  Total 96 100.00

Table 25: Distribution of respondents’ general assessment on the activities of NAPEP on poverty eradication.

Test of hypothesis

Hypothesis was tested and analysed to assess both the impact of National Poverty Eradication Programme (NAPEP) and the dimensions of poverty in Ogbadibo LGA in spite of this programme or policy.

The hypothesis is stated as follows:

Ho: National Poverty Eradication Programme (NAPEP) has not impacted significantly on poverty eradication in Ogbadibo LGA.

H1: National Poverty Eradication Programme (NAPEP) has impacted significantly on poverty eradication in Ogbadibo LGA.

To test this hypothesis, questions 10 and 18 in the questionnaire were chosen to be applied one after the other. They were chosen because question 10 shows the level of income in the study area while question 18 shows those who are beneficiaries of National Poverty Eradication Programme (NAPEP).

The level of significance chosen for the test is 5% or 0.05. Recall that out of 120 questionnaires administered, only 96 were returned accurately completed. The distribution of the respondents is tested using the chi-square.

Chi-square formula:

equation

Where:

x2=Chi-square

O=Observed frequency

E=Expected frequency

Σ=Summation

Decision rule

If chi-square calculated is less than chi-square tabulated, we accept the null hypothesis (HO) and reject the alternative hypothesis (H1). And if chi-square calculated value is greater than chi-square tabulated value, we accept the alternative hypothesis. The tabulated chi-square refers to the value arrived at when the 5% degree of significance is used against the degree of freedom on the chi-square distributed table while the computed refers to the value obtained using the information from the questionnaire.

Test of hypothesis with question 10: From Table 10: Respondents level of income gives the Observed frequency Distribution of respondents income (Table 26)

Income per month (N) Aioodo I Olachagbaha Ehaje I Itabono I Orokam I Orokam II Total
Under 5,000
5,000–10,000
10,001–15,000
15,001–20,000
Above 20,000
5
6
2
1
2
6
4
2
1
1
7
3
2
3
1
10
2
0
1
4
9
2
1
0
3
2
4
2
4
6
39
21
9
10
17
Total 16 14 16 17 15 18 96

Table 26: Observed frequency Distribution of respondents income.

The expected frequency is calculated from the observed frequency using the formula equation

Where:

N=Row total

M=Column total

K=Overall total

Expected frequency distribution of respondents income was given in Table 27.

Income per month (N) Aioodo I Olachagbaha Ehaje I Itabono I Orokam I Orokam II Total
Under 5,000
5,000–10,000
10,001–15,000
15,001–20,000
Above 20,000
6.5
3.5
1.5
1.7
2.8
5.7
3.1
1.3
1.4
2.5
6.5
3.5
1.5
1.7
2.8
6.9
3.7
1.6
1.8
3.0
6.1
3.3
1.4
1.5
2.7
7.3
3.9
1.7
1.9
3.2
39
21
9
10
17
Total 16 14 16 17 15 18 96

Table 27: Expected frequency distribution of respondents income.

Therefore, chi-square (x2) calculated is=23.59

Degree of freedom

V=(R–1) (C–1)

=(5–1) (6–1)

=(4) (5)

V=20

Using 5% level of significance at 20 degree of freedom, the chisquare tabulated value is: x2tab (0.05, 20)=31.41

Decision: Since 23.59 which is x2 calculated is less than x2 tabulated (31.41), the null hypothesis (HO) is accepted and the alternative hypothesis (H1) is rejected.

Interpretation: This implies that the level of income of the people of Ogbadibo LGA is low and insufficient and the National Poverty Eradication Programme (NAPEP) has not led to any significant improvement in income. This subsequently affects the consumption pattern of the people and also limits their ability to provide other basic need for themselves (table 28).

O E O - E (O–E)2 (O–E)2/E
5 6.5 -1.5 2.25 0.35
6 5.7 0.3 0.09 0.02
7 6.5 0.5 0.25 0/04
10 6.9 3.1 9.61 1.39
9 6.1 2.9 8.41 1.38
2 7.3 -5.3 28.09 3.85
6 3.5 2.5 6.25 1.79
4 3.1 0.9 0.81 0.79
3 3.5 -0.5 0.25 0.07
2 3.7 -1.7 2.89 0.78
2 3.3 -1.3 1.69 0.51
4 3.9 0.1 0.01 0.00
2 1.5 0.5 0.25 0.17
2 1.3 0.7 0.49 0.38
2 1.5 0.5 0.25 0.17
0 1.6 -1.6 2.56 1.60
1 1.4 -0.4 0.16 0.11
2 1.7 0.3 0.09 0.05
1 1.7 -0.7 0.49 0.29
1 1.4 -0.4 0.16 0.11
3 1.7 1.3 1.69 0.99
1 1.8 -0.8 0.64 0.36
0 1.5 -1.5 2.25 1.50
4 1.9 2.1 4.41 2.32
2 2.8 -0.8 0.64 0.23
1 2.5 -1.5 2.25 0.90
1 2.8 -1.8 3.24 1.16
4 3.0 1 1 0.33
3 2.7 0.3 0.09 0.03
6 3.2 2.8 7.84 2.45
Σ = 23.59

Table 28: Expected frequency.

Testing for hypothesis with question 18: Table 29 shows Observe frequency of beneficiaries of NAPEP’s programmes

Beneficiary Aioodo I Olachagbaha Ehaje I Itabono I Orokam I Orokam II Total
Yes
No
2
1
2
0
1
1
3
0
5
1
3
1
16
4
Total 3 2 2 3 6 4 20

Table 29: Observe frequency of beneficiaries of NAPEP’s programmes.

Table 30 shows Expected frequency of the beneficiaries of NAPEP’s programmes

Beneficiary Aioodo I Olachagbaha Ehaje I Itabono I Orokam I Orokam II Total
Yes
No
2.4
0.6
1.6
0.4
1.6
0.4
2.4
0.6
4.8
1.2
3.2
0.8
16
4
Total 3 2 2 3 6 4 20

Table 30: Expected frequency of the beneficiaries of NAPEP’s programmes.

The formula of the expected frequency gotten from the observe frequency of the beneficiary of NAPEP is:

equation

Where:

N=Row total

M=Column total

K=Overall total

Therefore, chi-square (x2) calculated is=2.82

Degree of freedom (DF)

V=(R–1) (C–1)

=(2–1) (6–1)

=(1) (5)

V=5

So using 5% level of significance at 5 degree of freedom, the chisquare tabulated value is: x2tab (0.05, 5) =11.07

Decision: Since 2.82 which is x2 calculated is less than chi- square tabulated (11.07), the null hypothesis (HO) is accepted and the alternative hypothesis (H1) is rejected (table 31).

O E O–E (O–E)2 (O–E)2/E
2 2.4 -0.4 0.16 0.07
2 1.6  0.4 0.16 0.1
1 1.6 -0.6 0.36 0.23
3 2.4  0.6 0.36 0.15
5 4.8  0.2 0.04 0.01
3 3.2 -0.2 0.04 0.01
1 0.6  0.4 0.16 0.27
0 0.4 -0.4 0.16 0.4
1 0.4  0.6 0.36 0.9
0 0.6 -0.6 0.36 0.6
1 1.2 -2.0 0.04 0.03
1 0.8  0.2 0.04 0.05
∑ = 2.82

Table 31: Expected frequency

Interpretation: The implication of this is that most people in Ogbadibo LGA have not benefited from National Poverty Eradication Programme (NAPEP) which has made it ineffective in Ogbadibo LGA and therefore NAPEP has no impact on poverty eradication in the area.

Research findings

The major finding from the study is that National Poverty Eradication Programme (NAPEP) has not impacted significantly on poverty eradication in Ogbadibo LGA. Hence, the people are still poor in spite of NAPEP and other poverty alleviation programmes that have been carried out.

Specific findings are:

1) Most people in Ogbadibo LGA earn low income and therefore, their consumption pattern is low. They have poor consumption pattern. Balance diet is absent from the meals of majority of the people, they mostly consume starchy food which are cheaper. This has adverse effects on the health and productivity of the people in the area. They also lack access to basic amenities such as electricity, affordable and efficient health facilities, good shelter etc., constituting an underdevelopment of the area.

2) The educational status of the people is low. This is largely due to the absence of tertiary institutions in the local government and even the primary and secondary schools that are present in the area, most of the people cannot afford to attend because of inadequate or lack of income.

3) It was also observed that majority of the people in Ogbadibo LGA are hardly involved in NAPEP’ s programmes, because most of these programmes stops in Makurdi the state capital and hardly extend to rural areas. This explains why people in Ogbadibo LGA hardly benefit from such programmes.

Summary, Recommendation and Conclusion

Summary

This study started with the foresight of the entire study comprising the introduction of the subject matter of the research work which is “An Evaluation of Government Policies on Poverty Eradication. A case study of NAPEP in Ogbadibo LGA.

In the review of literature, it was discovered that there are various opinions to the explanation of poverty in Nigeria. While some see poverty as the lack of basic amenities, others see poverty as poor investment in human capital on the whole, there was a convergence among different authors that Nigerians are poor.

The survey study shows that the awareness level of NAPEP and her programmes are quite okay, but the implementation level remains very minimal in Ogbadibo LGA.

The beneficiaries of NAPEP’s programmes or activities in Ogbadibo LGA are very few, this is traced to the fact that not much persons know that NAPEP exist in the local government area. Majority of the people of Ogbadibo LGA earn low income and therefore their consumption pattern is low.

Hypotheses were tested at 0.05 significance level with a degree of freedom (R–1) (C–1). The study revealed that National Poverty Eradication Programme (NAPEP) has not impacted significantly on poverty reduction or eradication in Ogbadibo LGA. This conclusion was drawn from an empirical analysis using chi-square which led to rejecting the alternative hypothesis that National Eradication Programme (NAPEP) has impacted significantly on poverty eradication in Ogbadibo LGA.

Recommendations

These recommendations have been proposed as measures if taken could ensure the effectiveness of National Poverty Eradication Programme (NAPEP) and other poverty eradication programmes to be designed in the future. It is sub-classified into the roles these under listed actors would play to ensure a perfect implementation of NAPEP and other poverty reduction programmes;

The Government

- Adequate funding: If possible, all funds earmarked for any programme should be made complete before embarking on such programmes, this is aimed at reducing the rate of abandoned programmes on the bases of inadequate funding.

- Good governance which will create reliability and cooperation from all parties involved.

- Political stability and continuity of programmes.

- Improve infrastructure.

- The government should adopt punitive measures and show of willingness and readiness to punish those specialized in the act of sabotaging governments’ efforts at addressing the problems of poverty in the country. These will serve as deterrents to intending sabotages.

- Inward looking development programmes:

• Grassroots participation: Most of these development plans are plans that were designed, and tested in foreign countries. That these development plans were successful in such countries are not adequate reasons and evidence that it would succeed in Nigeria. The economic situations prevalent in such countries are typically different from ours, the terrain differs, and everything concerning such countries. Even when there are historical similarities between Nigeria and such countries– these are simply not adequate reasons. Admittedly, such plans can serve as a guide but must be properly studied.

• The Government should look-in when designing programmes, not just poverty eradication programmes. Extensive consultations with all stakeholders, the federal government and her agencies, the local government and her agencies, and the communities most especially. The act of designing programmes meant for rural dwellers in Abuja or outside (without inputs from the communities) and bringing in facilitators from outside the communities, in my own opinion does not auger well for rural-based development programmes. Exclusion of the communities in policy drafting and making, and the execution process gives the communities the notion that these programmes were just foisted on them, not minding that the programmes are meant for their benefits. But including all stakeholders, the communities inclusive, in all the process (though, must be properly supervised by facilitators from the programme designers), would give them the notion that these programme are truly theirs and the needed cooperation would be secured.

Project Planners and Facilitators:

- Proper evaluation of past programmes and why it either succeeded or failed could aid in ensuring the success of subsequent programmes.

- Proper management of such funds as contained in the programme plan.

- Disbursing resources through the right channels as planned.

- Sincerity in project execution.

- Uniformity in project execution.

- Proper supervision of projects to enhance its perfect execution. Because this is not effective, few opportune individuals use the programme to enrich themselves at the expense of the core poor whom these programmes are designed for.

- Orientation and enlightenment: Project personnel should be well educated and equipped with necessary materials needed to achieve the desired result in project execution. By these the project would be properly defined and understood by these personnel.

- The masses that these programmes are designed for should be properly oriented with the functionality and benefits of the programme.

- Project executors and facilitators should possess qualities of truthfulness, honesty, trustworthiness in project execution.

- Good human relations among project facilitators.

- Adopting efficient and effective means of communication and awareness. Most communities do not have access to electronic and print media and even when available cannot be utilized optimally for their benefits, because they are uneducated. Therefore, other means of communication, like enlightening them in their local languages and the use of local announcer could do some magic.

The Communities:

- The community should take the ownership of these programmes and provide a conducive environment for its execution in the interest of all.

Limitation of the study

This study like most human endeavours is not devoid of some limitations. The fact that this is the researcher’s first attempt at a scientific study of this nature is in itself a limitation.

The evaluation of government policies on poverty eradication ordinarily should be based on findings from field survey in all the 774 local governments in Nigeria. This is not the case because, the researcher being a student had problem of time constraints and insufficient funding and so for these reasons, the survey is carried out in Ogbadibo local government area of Benue State alone. As such, conclusions and recommendations made are based on the findings obtained in Ogbadibo LGA.

Conclusion

After evaluating the working hypothesis from the raw data gathered through questionnaires, the researcher conclude as follows:

a. While the awareness level of NAPEP and her programmes are quite okay, the implementation level remains very minimal.

b. Just very few persons are beneficiaries from the activities of NAPEP.

c. NAPEP, just like previous poverty eradication programmes in Nigeria, has encountered a lot of avoidable problems in the course of policy designing and implementation. This is to show that these problems are not inherent. These problems could be avoided if the recommendations proffered by the researcher are adhered judiciously to.

Many of the government programmes have not achieved the desired results with the main reason being that the poverty programmes were not well focused, the poor were not well targeted and also the noninvolvement of the people for whom these programmes were designed. From the findings, it was seen clearly that National Poverty Eradication Programme (NAPEP) have had no significant impact on poverty eradication in Ogbadibo LGA of Benue State.

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