alexa An Overview of Obesity

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An Overview of Obesity

Lu DY1*, Che JY1, Lu Y2, Wu HY1, Yarla NS3, Lu TR1, Xu B4, Huang YK5 and Lu DF5
1Shanghai University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China
2Shanghai Ocean University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China
3Divisions of Biochemistry & Chemistry, City University of New York School of Medicine, 160 Convent Avenue, New York, NY10031, USA
4Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China
5The Second Hospital of Nejiang District, Sichuan Province, People’s Republic of China
*Corresponding Author: Lu DY, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444, People’s Republic of China, Tel: +86 21 66163545, Fax: +821 66132177, Email: [email protected]

Received Date: Apr 19, 2018 / Accepted Date: Apr 30, 2018 / Published Date: May 07, 2018

Abstract

Obesity is an undesired human physiological state caused by a lot of inherent risks and environmental influences. People with obesity commonly face a lot of negative personal image in the society and a number of medical and economic consequences. However weight loss after different types of interventions are often temporary and even bounce back than ever before. To face with this kind of therapeutic limitation, new ideas, perspectives and systematic action must be carried out.

Keywords: Obesity; Endocrinology; Human genome; Inflammatory factors; HAART; Antibiotics; Weight loss; Mathematics; Computational network; Obesity treatment; Life-style adjustment

Introduction

Epidemic information

Obesity is an undesired phenotypic feature that troubles a lot of persons and a disease-like symptom to whom suffers from it [1,2]. People with obesity commonly face a lot of negative personal image in the society and a number of pathological symptoms with human health deteriorating outcomes. It seems like a chronic symptom that lasts long in common obesity people.

Difficult situations in obesity people

However, it is difficult to be remedied and fully managed by existing management measures and resources. Many types of therapeutic/ management measures have been developed for this symptom of the most obesity people-some of these measures are even very expensive (like surgery) or harmful therapy for the sufferers (like cathartic agents or herbs) [2]. To face with this kind of therapeutic consequences, new ideas, perspectives and systematic study must be carried out [2-4].

Current Social and Political Impacts for Obese People

Negative social image

In addition, obesity youngsters often meet with some kinds of other environmental influence that make them negative social image. From these obese sufferers, losing weight is their first choice and addictive with, yet at this moment unsatisfactory (Table 1).

Categories Details References
Negative image Romance difficult 2
Job seeking
Position promotion
and so on
Pathologic Blood glucose level increases 9-12
Blood lipid abnormality
Lipo-dystrophy
Metabolic syndrome
Liver functional impairments
Hormonal problem (leptin and others)
Inflammatory action
and so on
Complications Cardiovascular risks 2, 5-12
Type 2 diabetes
Human immune-system impairments
Mental disorders (suicide and intimidating)
and so on

Table 1: The harmful impacts on human being with obesity.

Past experience

Disease managements of obesity encompass wide-spectra of medical/pharmacologic issues-including diet control, life-style adjustments, surgery, drug utility and novel clinical therapeutic managements [2-19].

Problem Generation

Knowledge deficiency

In most people’s minds, obesity equalizes to overfeed. As a result, current therapeutic ideas focus on accelerating nutrient excretion or food limitations. Yet, certain amounts of obesity people are not induced from overfeed. Liver functional damage may also be the causes (side effects of other drugs, such as hormonal therapy, HAART therapy for HIV/AIDS and others) [20]. To these obesity people, food limitations or regular exercises do not work well.

Genetic predisposition

Similarly, genetic predispositions also play key roles for human obesity [21-25]. These ranges of obesity people are also less sensible for food limitations and cathartic therapeutics.

In the early study of these obesity people, human genomic exploration is the only way for finding final solution and curable therapeutics. In accompany with past therapeutic option, obesity people are more suitable for combination of life-style adjustments with other medication due to the multiple causality of human obesity.

Obesity Etiology, Patho-Physiologic Relation and Analysis

Human obesity is caused by a lot of different factors – including;

Life-Style Adjustments

General information

Besides food restrain, many other types of life-style adjustments are usually as effective as drug therapy. They are multiple selections, such as food control, regular exercises, bad habit avoidance and spiritual focusing. Despite equal effective as drug intervention, many details need to be optimizing (Table 2).

Causality Life-style changes References
Overfeed Increase fruit consumptions 1-8
Eat more vegetables
Reduce fried food/meats, especially fast food
Eat more see-food (fish and marine life)
More milk consumption
And so on
Exercise Swimming 2
Ball-game
Yoga
Martial arts
Athletics
And so on
Bad habits Reduce cigarette 2-8
Reduce alcohols, especially beer
Sleep adjustments
Reduce sedentary work every days
And so on
Spirit regulatory Tea drink 10-11
Coffee drink
Conversations
Reading
Listen to the music
Meditation

Table 2: Different patterns of life-style adjustment for human obesity.

Human body exercises

The most famous one are different types of body exercises. They vary in intensity, duration and regularity [3,4]. These characters also play key roles for obesity managements and need to study systematically.

Beverage consumption

In the past discovery, many traditional beverages, such as tea, coffee [13,14] and so on are effective to reduce body-mass of obesity people. This type of effective ways should be introduced to more people along with balanced exercises.

Major Categories of Counteractive Measures

The counteractive measures for obesity people can be variable [13-20]. These kinds of obesity managements include surgery, drugs and other therapeutic options. However, most of these management options are not perfect. Mechanisms and genetic study are indispensable (Table 3).

Therapeutic categories Specific options
Surgery Gastric bariatric surgery and so on
Drug therapies Chemical drugs
Bio-agents
Herbal therapy
Gene therapy
Dietary issues
Drug combination
Individualized therapy
and so on
Others Life-style adjustment
Community supports
Psychiatric interventions
and so on

Table 3: Major patterns of clinical therapeutics.

Mathematical or Computational Network

Mathematical modelling is an important step to find new relations. Equation 1 represents our vision towards this topic [26,27].

Pathogenesis simulation and analysis of human obesity:

B=ƒ(x)+ƒ(y;ß)+ƒ(z;)+E (1)

B=Body mass index

x=Food related variables

y=Drug related variables

z=Genetic related variables

E=A common constant

These mathematical equations are proposed by us and might be applicable for further specification, enumerated and statistically analysed. Possible joint-actions might accelerate it [28-30].

New Insights

New and update obesity therapeutics should be targeted to disease originality and causality. Without these targeted therapeutics, clinical obesity therapy will be unchanged and less responsive.

Genomic study of obesity might bring us many new insights into this chronic phenotype/symptom [22-25]. Along with the advance of other diseases, the patho-therapeutic knowledge of obesity might be improved by this genomic approach in the future.

Therapeutic combinations are also very useful for obesity patients. These kinds of therapeutic paradigms are very useful for many other diseases [30-38]. Further work in this regard is inevitable. Maybe any other therapeutic breakthroughs create from drug combinations, like HIV and cancer treatments.

Conclusion

Obesity control is very difficult from easily bouncing back. A lot of life-style and therapeutic interventions have been designed and applied in the clinic and general people. Look forward to new generation of medical cares for obesity.

References

Citation: Lu DY, Che JY, Lu Y, Wu HY, Yarla NS, et al. (2018) An Overview of Obesity. Metabolomics (Los Angels) 8: 200. DOI: 10.4172/2153-0769.1000200

Copyright: © 2018 Lu DY, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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