Antimicrobial Effect of Plant Oils against Some Bacterias Izolated from Patients Samples
Received Date: Dec 28, 2017 / Accepted Date: Jan 12, 2018 / Published Date: Jan 16, 2018
Aim: The aim of present study was to compare the antibacterial potential of Thymus sipyleus boiss. subsp. sipyleus boiss. var. sipyleus L. (Thymol and camphor both tested), Satureja thymbra L. and Origanum onites L. by Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method.
Methods: We isolated Enterococcus spp., E. coli, Morgonella morganii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, MSSA, Klebsiella pneumonia and Proteus mirabilis from different patient samples. The antibacterial activity of each oils was evaluated by the Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method.
Results: Proteus mirabilis were the most susceptible bacteria against essential oils, followed by Klebsiella pneumonia and Morganella morganii. Pseudomonas aeruginosa did not show susceptibility to any oil.
Conclusion: The essential oils of the T. sipyleus, O. onites and S. thymbra were especially very effective against the resistant strains such as Enterococcus spp. and Klebsiella pneumonia. In this group the maximum antimicrobial activity was observed with the essential oils of Origanum onites and Satureja thymbra. We think that these oils can be proposed in treatment process as an alternative application structures in the future.
Keywords: Antimicrobial; Disc diffusion; Essential oils
This study was undertaken to determine the in vitro antimicrobial activities of three commercial essential oils and their main components in order to pre-select candidates for potential infections. The antibacterial effects against pathogenic bacteria which are isolated from patient’s samples (Enterococcus spp., E. coli, Morgonella morganii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, MSSA, Klebsiella pneumonia and Proteus mirabilis) were tested using paper disk diffusion method. These materials could be served as an important natural alternative to prevent bacterial infections in the future (Table 1).
|Thymus sypleus||Enterococcus Spp.||E. coli||Morganella morganii||Pseudomonas aeruginosa||MSSA||Klebsiella pneumonia||Proteus mirabilis|
|Kirby-Bauer||17 mm||14 mm||20 mm||0 mm||13 mm||22 mm||23 mm|
|Saturaja thymbra||Enterococcus Spp||E. coli||Morganella morganii||Pseudomonas aeruginosa||MSSA||Klebsiella pneumonia||Proteus mirabilis|
|Kirby-Bauer||21 mm||18 mm||30 mm||0 mm||14 mm||18 mm||30 mm|
|Origanum onites||Enterococcus Spp||E. coli||Morganella morganii||Pseudomonas aeruginosa||MSSA||Klebsiella pneumonia||Proteus mirabilis|
|Kirby-Bauer||18 mm||18 mm||16 mm||0 mm||9 mm||13 mm||18 mm|
|Camphor||Enterococcus Spp||E. coli||Morganella morganii||Pseudomonas aeruginosa||MSSA||Klebsiella pneumonia||Proteus mirabilis|
|Kirby-Bauer||0 mm||0 mm||0 mm||0 mm||0 mm||12 mm||0 mm|
*Mean values in Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method expressed as mm
Table 1: The results of the antibacterial assays in terms of Kirby Bauer (Inhibition ranged from 0 mm to 30 mm).
One of the most popular spices used around the world is Origanum onites L. It is used also as a medicinal therapy, arousing interest not only in the use of its leaves in folk medicine, but also in relation to its essential oil for therapeutic purposes and treatment .
Species of the genus Satureja (family Lamiaceae) are widely distributed in the Mediterranean area, Asia, regularly found in warm, dry, rocky habitats also in east part of Turkey . Satureja consists of about 200 species, usually aromatic herbs and used for treatment. S. thymbra oil has been found to have a good antimicrobial activity against various bacteria [3-5].
The genus Thymus, member of the Lamiaceae family, contains about 400 species of perennial aromatic, evergreen or semi-evergreen various plants with many subspecies, varieties, sub-varieties and forms are mostly distributed in the Mediterranean area and also in Turkey .
Materials and Methods
Plant material and isolation of essential oil.
Origanum onites L. (Lamiaceae), L. (Labiatae), Satureja thymbra L. (Labiatae), Thymus sipyleus boiss. subsp. sipyleus boiss. var. sipyleus L. (Lamiaceae) were collected at the flowering stage from different regions of Turkey between June and August. Voucher specimens have been deposited in the herbarium of Ataturk University, Faculty of Agriculture, the Department of Plant Protection, Erzurum, Turkey. Aerial parts of the plants were dried in shade and ground in a grinder. The dried plant samples (500 g) were subjected to hydro distillation for 4 h using a Clevenger-type apparatus. The oil yields of O. onites, S. thymbraand T. sipyleus were 4.5%, 2.3%, 1.17% and 0.98% (w/w, dry weight basis), respectively. The yield was based on dry materials of plant samples. The oils were dried over a hydrous Na2SO4 and stored under N2 in a sealed vial until required, and then stored at 4°C until used for toxicity bioassays. The pure compounds were purchased commercially from Fluka and Sigma. [Camphor (Fluka, purity 97%), Thymol (Sigma, purity 95%)]. The compounds tested for toxicity against Enterococcus spp., E. coli, Morgonella morganii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, MSSA, Klebsiella pneumonia and Proteus mirabilis.
Collection of bacteria
Enterococcus spp., E. coli, Morgonella morganii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, MSSA, Klebsiella pneumonia and Proteus mirabilis isolated from different patient samples in the laboratory of clinical microbiology with VITEC microbial identification system.
Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method
The experiment was performed with a bacterial inoculum of 0.5 McFarland; Mueller-Hinton (MH) was inoculated with each bacterial strain. Each oil was applied to a sterile filter paper disc (6-mm diameter) 2 µl placed on the surface of inoculated plates; duplicate plates for each oil were used. After overnight incubation at 37°C, the inhibition zones were measured. Control plates were prepared by placing sterile water for negative controls (Figure 1 and Table 1).
Proteus mirabilis were the most susceptible, followed by Klebsiella pneumonia and Morganella morganii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa did not show susceptibility to any oil. Klebsiella pneumonia susceptible, other oils did not show susceptibility to the camphor oil.
In the literature, the results of experiments showed that the oil from Thymus exhibited extremely strong activity against all of the clinical strains. In traditional popular medicine, Thymus spp. essential oil has been traditionally used to treat respiratory tract disorders and wound infections; using of Thymus derivatives has been used to treat wound infections, cough, and sputum treatment. Over the past few years, the interest in natural medicine has been increasing in industrialized societies and in medical area also. It is evident that there is a relationship between the high activity of thymol oil and the presence of phenol components such as thymol and carvacrol to the bacterias [7-11].
Enterococcus spp., E. coli, Morgonella morganii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, MSSA, Klebsiella pneumonia and Proteus mirabilis are the most important causes of some infections, and the emergence of resistance to antibiotics is a serious public health problem.
In our hands, comparison of their results of this study with previously published data is difficult because the composition of plant oil products is known to vary according to local air conditions, soil composition and to extraction techniques. Moreover, the results obtained may differ because of the method used to assess antimicrobial activity and quantity of oil.
The essential oils of the T. sipyleus, O. onites and S. thymbra were especially very effective against the resistant strains such as Enterococcus spp. and Klebsiella pneumonia. The maximum antimicrobial activity was observed with the essential oils of Origanum onites and Satureja thymbra.
- Sarac N, Ugur A (2008) Antimicrobial activities of the essential oils of Origanum onites L, Origanum vulgare L. subspecies hirtum (Link) Ietswaart, Satureja thymbra L, and Thymus cilicicus Boiss and Bal growing wild in Turkey. J Med Food 11: 568-573.
- Giweli A, Džamić AM, Soković M, Ristić MS, Marin PD (2012) Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of essential oils of Satureja thymbra growing wild in Libya. Molecules 17: 4836-4850.
- Gören AC, Topçu G, Bilsel G, Bilsel M, Wilkinson JM, et al. (2004) Analysis of essential oil of Satureja thymbra by hydrodistillation, thermal desorber, and headspace GC/MS techniques and its antimicrobial activity. Nat Product Res18: 189-195.
- Sarac N, Ugur A (2008) Antimicrobial activities of the essential oils of Origanum onites L, Origanum vulgare L. subspecies hirtum (Link) Ietswaart, Satureja thymbra L and Thymus cilicicus Boiss and Bal growing wild in Turkey. J Med Food 11: 568-573.
- Azaz AD, Kürkcüoglu M, Satil F, Baser CKH, Tümen G (2005) In vitro antimicrobial activity and chemical composition of some Satureja essential oils. J Flav Frag 20: 587-591.
- De Martino L, Bruno M, Formisano C, De Feo V, Napolitano F, et al. (2009) Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oils from two species of Thymus growing wild in southern Italy. Molecules 14: 4614-4624.
- Sienkiewicz M, Lysakowska M, Ciecwierz J, Denys P, Kowalczyk E (2011) Antibacterial activity of thyme and lavender essential oils. Med Chem 7: 674-689.
- Rota MC, Herrera A, Martínez RM, Sotomayor JA, Jordán MJ (2008) Antimicrobial activity and chemical composition of Thymus vulgaris, Thymus zygis and Thymus hyemalis essential oils. Food Control 19: 681-687.
- Abu-Shanab B, Adwan GM, Abu-Safiya D, Jarrar N, Adwan K (2005) Antibacterial activities of some plant extracts utilized in popular medicine in Palestine. Turkish J Biol 28: 99-102.
- Dorman HJD, Deans SG (2000) Antimicrobial agents from plants: Antibacterial activity of plant volatile oils. J Appl Microbiol 88: 308-316.
- Skandamis P, Koutsoumanis K, Nychas GJE, Fasseas K (2001) Inhibition of oregano essential oil and EDTA on Escherichia coli O157: H7 [Food hygiene]. Italian J Food Sci.
- Carson CF, Mee BJ, Riley TV (2002) Mechanism of action of Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) oil on Staphylococcus aureus determined by time-kill, lysis, leakage, and salt tolerance assays and electron microscopy. Antimicrob Agents Chemoth 46: 1914-1920.
Citation: Balkan CE, Kordali S, Bozhüyük AU (2018) Antimicrobial Effect of Plant Oils against Some Bacterias Izolated from Patients Samples. J Mol Genet Med 12: 318. DOI: 10.4172/1747-0862.1000318
Copyright: © 2018 Balkan CE, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Select your language of interest to view the total content in your interested language
Share This Article
March 11-12, 2019 Nice, France
March 21-22, 2019 Rome, Italy
April 8-9, 2019 Abu Dhabi, UAE
April 11-12, 2019 Abu Dhabi, UAE
April 15-17, 2019 Berlin, Germany
- Total views: 3434
- [From(publication date): 0-2018 - Jan 17, 2019]
- Breakdown by view type
- HTML page views: 3388
- PDF downloads: 46