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Association among Systolic Blood Pressure Variation, Inflammation and Arterial Rigidity in Essential Hypertension | OMICS International
ISSN: 2167-1095
Journal of Hypertension: Open Access
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Association among Systolic Blood Pressure Variation, Inflammation and Arterial Rigidity in Essential Hypertension

Yunfu Lv*, XiaoYu Han, Xiaoguang Gong, Wenbiao Gu, Chao He, Hongfei Wu, YeJuan Li and Jie Den

Department of General Surgery, Hainan Province People’s Hospital, Haikou 570311, China

*Corresponding Author:
Yunfu lv
Department of General Surgery
Hainan Province People’s Hospital
Haikou 570311,China
Tel: 086898-68723574
E-mail: [email protected]

Received Date: Septemebr 23, 2015; Accepted Date: October 31, 2015; Published Date: November 07, 2015

Citation: Yunfu Lv, Han XY, Gong X, Gu W, He C, et al. (2015) Analysis of Peripheral Blood Cells Due to Adults Posthepatitic Cirrhotic Portal Hypertension and Their Postoperative Prognosis. J Hypertens (Los Angel) 4:210. doi:10.4172/2167-1095.1000210

Copyright: © 2015 Yunfu Lv, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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Abstract

Objective: To assess the relationship among systolic blood pressure variation (BPV), inflammation and arterial rigidity in essential hypertension. Methods: This study enrolled 80 patients with essential hypertension, who were started on blood pressure control treatment with medications and lifestyle modification, and 18 normotensive healthy controls. At enrollment and 1-year follow-up, systolic BPV was evaluated by coefficient of variation (CV) in ambulatory blood pressure monitoring; arterial rigidity by brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (ba-PWV) using ColinVP-1000; and inflammation by high-sensitivity plasma C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) level using rate nephelometry; electrocardiography, blood glucose, lipid profile, creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, and liver and renal function also were assessed. Results: There were no significant differences in demographics, clinical or biochemical profiles between patients and normotensive controls, except for blood pressure at enrollment but not 1-year follow-up, reflecting effectiveness of blood pressure control measures, with significant decreases in CV, ba-PWV and hs-CRP between enrollment and 1-year follow-up in hypertensive patients; change in CV significantly correlated with those in ba-PWV and hs-CRP (both P<0.001, adjusted by SBP d). Conclusion: The effect of systolic BPV on arterial rigidity could be mediated by its influence on the onset and progression of inflammation.

Keywords

Adult; Peripheral change; Portal hypertension; Postoperative prognosis

Introduction

Patients with splenomegaly due to posthepatitic cirrhotic portal hypertension usually experience severe gastrointestinal hemorrhage, hypersplenism and hepatocarcinoma, and should receive surgical operations. Multiple factors influencing the postoperative prognosis exist [1], and peripheral cytopenias are one of these important factors. Peripheral cytopenias indicate that the blood cell count in blood sample from the peripheral vein is lower than normal, i.e., the leukocyte (WBC) count is <4.0×109/L, the erythrocyte (RBC) count is <4.0×1012/L or the platelet (PLT) count is <100×109/L when first got into the hospital. In this study, data were collected from 366 patients with splenomegaly due to posthepatitic cirrhotic portal hypertension from January 1993 to June 2013, and the constituent ratio of peripheral cytopenias and its influence on the postoperative prognosis were analyzed.

Clinical Data

General information

This study included 250 male patients and 116 female patients (a total of 366 patients), and the ratio of males to females was 2.2:1. The patients’ ages ranged from 18 to 79 years, with an average of 44 years. All the patients had B hepatic cirrhosis and an enlarged spleen. The average spleen size was 224 mm×159 mm×95 mm, as measured by B ultrasound or CT scan. Upper gastrointestinal imaging and gastroscopy revealed that there were medium-to-severe varices in the distal esophagus and gastric fundus. Seventy-four patients (20.2%) were hospitalized for gastrointestinal hemorrhage, and 248 (67.8%) patients had previously experienced hemorrhaging. All the patients received a splenectomy after blood transfusion to supplement deficient leukocytes (WBC), erythrocytes (RBC) or platelets (PLT). In addition, 356 patients received extensive devascularization around the cardia (plus a splenorenal vein shunt in 56 patients), 5 received a mesocaval shunt and 5 received a portacaval shunt.

Statistical Analysis

All data were processed withf SPSS 18.0. Statistical significance was assessed using the χ2-test for univariate analysis or multiple linear regression for multivariate analysis, and p<0.05 was considered significant.

Results

Among the 366 patients, 36 patients (9.8%) had normal blood cell counts, while 330 patients (90.2%) had peripheral cytopenias, in which mono-lineage cytopenias accounted for 30% (99/330), bi-lineage cytopenias accounted for 35.8% (118/330), and tri-lineage cytopenias accounted for 34.2% (113/330). The postoperative prognosis was classified as cured, improved or dead. There were few cases without any changes. In this analysis, cured meant meeting the following criteria: the disappearance of ascites, abdominal distension and hemorrhage, blood cell count increase and recovery, improvement in liver function, no severe postoperative complications, and meeting the criteria for being discharged from the hospital. On the other hand, dead meant that the patients died during hospitalization, or that the patients in critical condition died one week after early discharge from the hospital, as requested by the relatives. All others were considered improved. Comparison of the therapeutic effect between each mono-lineage cytopenia group is shown in Table 1. Comparison of the therapeutic effect between mono-lineage cytopenia and bi-lineage and comparisons of the therapeutic effect between the mono-lineage cytopenia and bi-lineage cytopenias, the mono-lineage cytopenia and multi-lineage cytopenias are shown in Tables 2 and 3, respectively.

Group Grade Case number Therapeutic effect χ2, P value
      Cured (%) Improved (%) Dead (%)  
WBC <2 1 1 (100) 0 0 χ2=1.478,P=0.478
(×109/L, 3-Feb 10 6(60) 4 (40) 0  
N=14) 4-Mar 3 1 (33.3) 2 (66.7) 0  
RBC <2 4 3 (75) 0 1 (25) χ2=10.908
(×1012/L, 3-Feb 20 16 (80) 2 (10) 2 (10) P=0.028<0.05
N=58) 4-Mar 34 16 (47.1) 16(47.1) 2 (5.8)  
PLT <30 3 1 (33.3) 2 (66.7) 0 χ2=2.220,P=0.695
(×109/L, 30-50 1 1 (100) 0 0  
N=27) 50-100 23 15 (65.2) 7 (30.4) 1 (4.4)  
HB (hemoglobin) <30 78 32 (41) 39 (50) 7(9) χ2=4.236,P=0.375
(×g/L, 30-70 52 28 (53.8) 20 (38.5) 4 (7.7)  
N=366) >70 236 122 (51.7) 89 (37.7) 25 (10.6)  

Table 1: Comparison of the therapeutic effect between each mono-lineage peripheral cytopenia group.

Item Total case number Therapeutic effect χ2, P value
Mono-lineage cytopenia 99 Cured (%) Improved (%) Dead (%)  
60 (60.6%) 33 (33.3%) 6 (6.1%) χ2=7.446,
Bi-lineage cytopenia 118 51 (43.2%) 51 (43.2%) 16 (13.6%) P=0.024

Table 2: Comparison of the therapeutic effect between the mono-lineage cytopenia and bi-lineage cytopenia.

Item Total case number Therapeutic effect χ2, P value
Mono-lineage cytopenia   Cured (%) Improved (%) Dead (%)  
99 60 (60.6) 33 (33.3) 6 (6.1) χ2=7.819,
Multi-lineage cytopenia 231 102 (44.2) 102 (44.2) 27 (11.6) P=0.02

Table 3: Comparison of the therapeutic effect between the mono-lineage cytopenia and tri-lineage cytopenia.

The decrease in PLT was the major factor influencing the postoperative prognosis compared with decreases in WBC, RBC and HB (Table 4); in this case, there was significant difference (P<0.005), while decreases in WBC, RBC and HB showed no significant difference (P>0.05).

Item T value P value
PLT 2.827 0.005
RBC -0.439 0.661
WBC 1.516 0.13
HB 0.628 0.531
Constant 1.395 0

Table 4: Multiple linear regression analysis of blood cells in 366 cases.

The 330 cases of cytopenia scores were mainly based on thrombocytopenia combined with erythropenia, as well as clinical experience (leukopenia). Scoring was as follows: PLT>50<100×109/L was scored as 1 point, 30-50×109/L was scored as 2 points, <30×109/L was scored as 3 points; RBC 3-4×1012/L was scored as 0 points, and RBC<3×1012/L was scored as 1 point; WBC 2-4×109/L was scored as 0 points, and WBC<2×109/L was scored as 1 point. Except for 36 cases with normal blood cell counts and 69 cases with 0 points, the influences of scores on postoperative prognoses in 261 cases are shown in Table 5 (totally 105 cases). There were significant differences between the 3 groups (P<0.05). Therefore, peripheral cytopenias were graded as mild (<2), medium (2-3) or severe (>3) (Table 6).

Item Total case number Therapeutic effect χ2, P value
1 point 136 Cured (%) Improved (%) Death (%)  
80 (58.8%) 43(31.6%) 13 (9.6%) χ2=10.163
2-3 points 95 41 (43.2%) 44 (46.3%) 10 (10.5%) P=0.034
4-5 points 30 10 (33.3%) 15 (50%) 5 (16.7%)  

Table 5: Comparison of the influence of different scores on the therapeutic effect.

Item Mild Medium Severe
PLT >50 30-50 <30
(Score) 1 2 3
RBC >3 3-Feb <2
(Score)) 0 1 1
WBC >3 3-Feb <2
(Score)) 0 0 1
Total score <2 3-Feb >3

Table 6: Grading of peripheral cytopenias (hypersplenism).

Discussion

In this study, approximately 10% of patients with splenomegaly due to posthepatitic cirrhotic portal hypertension had normal peripheral blood cell counts, while 90% had peripheral cytopenia [2], of which 70% had multi-lineage cytopenias and 30% had mono-lineage cytopenias. Table 1 shows that only the RBC group demonstrated a significant difference (P<0.05) in the intra-group comparison among the mono-lineage cytopenia groups. According to Tables 2 and 3, there were significant differences (P<0.05) in the therapeutic effects between mono-lineage cytopenias and multi-lineage cytopenias, indicating that the more severe the cytopenia, the worse the therapeutic results appeared to be.

For the multi-lineage cytopenias, a multiple linear regression analysis was applied, and results revealed that thrombocytopenia was the major factor (P<0.005) influencing the therapeutic effect, while leukopenia, erythropenia and decreased hemoglobin showed no statistical significance, and should not be considered. Erythropenia showed significant differences in the intra-group comparison of monolineage cytopenias, but no difference compared to other mono-lineage cytopenia groups. This was possibly due to the small sample size in the mono-lineage cytopenia groups. Leukopenia showed no significant difference in the univariate analysis or the multivariate analysis, and had no influence on the therapeutic results. For example, 2 patients recovered and were discharged from the hospital though their leukocyte count was lower than 1×109/L; this may have been because they had no serious postoperative infection. Theoretically, anemia is related to the prognosis, but in this research it showed no statistical significance in the univariate analysis or the multivariate analysis; the reason for this may have been because the blood transfusions before and during operation had a favorable effect on the blood condition. Although thrombocytopenia had no statistical significance in the univariate analysis, in the multiple linear regression analysis it was indicated to be the most important influential factor with the increase in case load.

Thrombocytopenia is a significant and common complication in posthepatitic cirrhotic portal hypertension [3,4]; it is related to not only retention of blood cell in the spleen, blood cell aggregation and enhanced phagocytosis of macrophages [5], but also HBV infection, and compensation and regulation of marrow [6]. Djordevic et al. [7,8]. Proposed that extreme thrombocytopenia was life-threatening. A PLT count of <30×109/L can cause variceal hemorrhaging in the distal esophagus and gastric fundus, and intraoperative and postoperative massive wound hemorrhaging, which can be life-threatening. Therefore, PLT transfusions should be performed before an operation to increase the PLT count to 50×109/L to ensure the safety of the patient. Cui et al. [9] reported that PLT transfusions combined with plasma fibrinogen transfusions led to better results. In some cases, after transfusion of 12- 24 units of PLT, the PLT count did not increase obviously, or decreased to the previous lowest count after 1-2 days. These types of patients are suitable for splenectomy [10]. Mastuura et al. [11] suggested that the excessive postoperative PLT count was also a life-threatening factor, so the condition of the patient should be closely monitored [12,13] when there is excessive platelet count, appropriate treatment should be administrated immediately.

In 1907, Chauffard proposed the term ‘hypersplenism’ for the first time [14]. After further research, in 1949, Doan [15] proposed the criteria for hypersplenism: 1. enlarged spleen 2. mono-lineage or multi-lineage cytopenias 3. normal or proliferative bone marrow 4. disappearance of the pathological changes in the blood components after splenectomy. While these four criteria are indispensable for the diagnosis of hypersplenism, peripheral cytopenia and an increase and recovery in blood cell count after a splenectomy are the major criteria for assessing hypersplenism due to cirrhotic portal hypertension. This is because splenomegaly in itself is a necessary criterion for the cirrhotic portal hypertension.

Grading hypersplenism is very difficult as there are mono-lineage cytopenias, bilineage cytopenia or pancytopenia, and even in the pancytopenia; thus, it is difficult to meet the criteria for grading. On the other hand, there are many causes for cytopenias in cirrhotic portal hypertension; therefore, it is very difficult to identify which type of cytopenia is caused by hypersplenism preoperatively. Thus, only cytopenias can be graded. In the present study, the cases were scored and graded based on the accumulated scores. The scoring criteria used in this study were: 1. Analytical results of multiple linear regression: F value obtained from multiple linear regression equation was 7.993 (P<0.005), indicating that multiple linear regression was applicable. The equation Y=1.395 + 0.151PLT indicated that thrombocytopenia was the major influential factor for postoperative prognosis. Therefore, according to the severity of the thrombocytopenia, 1 to 3 points was scored. 2. Intra-group comparison of erythropenia showed a significant difference (P<0.05), so an RBC count ≤ 3×1012/L was scored as 1 point. 3. According to clinical experience, leukopenia can cause severe infection and lead to undesirable effects. A WBC of count ≤ 2×109/L was scored as 1 point, though leukopenia showed no statistical significance in either the univariate analysis or multivariate analysis. A total score of <2 points indicated mild cytopenia, 2-3 points indicated medium cytopenia and >3 points indicated severe cytopenia. If cytopenias are caused by hypersplenism, this grading standard could also be used for grading hypersplenism or as a reference [16].

Cytopenia grading could facilitate clinical practice in various aspects, including assessing the disease condition, representation and academic communication, communication with patients and their relatives to resolve or avoid medical disputes, choosing a suitable treatment plan (for example, splenectomy is suitable for severe cytopenia or hypersplenism) and taking preventive methods before an operation [16,17] to increase the curative rate.

Acknowledgement

Special projects Funded by the Special Fund for Scientific and Technological Cooperation of Hainan, China (Project No.: KJHZ2015-28)

References

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