Association between Vitamin D Deficiency and Psoriasis: A Case-Control Study
Received Date: Jan 27, 2018 / Accepted Date: Feb 05, 2018 / Published Date: Feb 12, 2018
The immunomodulatory effect of vitamin D is well known, and some previous studies have found a potential association between vitamin D deficiency and psoriasis. If this is the case, correction of vitamin D levels could provide a simple, cost-effective treatment method for psoriasis patients. The aim of this case-control study was to confirm whether there was such an association. We also investigated several potential risk factors of psoriasis. We recruited 68 consecutive psoriasis outpatients at three hospitals in Saudi Arabia, as well as 68 control patients with dermatological conditions, and compared serum 25-hydroxycalciferol levels. However, we found no significant differences in vitamin D levels between the two groups. This finding supports similar negative findings of some previous studies, but further studies are needed to resolve this matter.
Keywords: Psoriasis; Vitamin D; Adalimumab; Infliximab; Etanercept
The immunomodulatory effect of vitamin D is well known ; for example, it has been shown to impact some circulating chemokines and cytokines and to inhibit T-cell differentiation and activation [2,3]. In addition, associations have been shown between vitamin D deficiency and autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, and diabetes mellitus [4-6].
Psoriasis is a chronic, noncontagious, multisystem disease that appears to be influenced by genetic and immune-mediated components. Its pathogenesis is not completely understood, but excessive T-cell activity has been shown to be associated with the condition , and proinflammatory mediators such as interleukin (IL)-17 and IL-23 have a considerable impact on the pathogenesis .
Many treatments for autoimmune diseases can be expensive and associated with adverse effects. In contrast, a simple intervention such as correction of vitamin D levels could have a great effect on patients affected by psoriasis. However, the controversy in the literature about whether or not serum vitamin D deficiency is associated with psoriasis [9,10] requires further study with an appropriately large sample size to establish and confirm the relationship.
The primary objective of this study, therefore, was to demonstrate the association between psoriasis and serum levels of vitamin D (25- hydroxycalciferol [25(OH)D]). The secondary objective was to investigate factors that could potentially affect the severity of psoriasis, including age, sex, body mass index (BMI), comorbid conditions, family history of psoriasis, type of psoriasis, treatment used, and duration of the treatment.
This multicenter, case–control study was conducted in three major hospitals in Makkah, Saudi Arabia: King Abdulaziz General Hospital, Hera General Hospital, and King Faisal General Hospital. The study was approved by the Committee of Bio-Medical Ethics in the Faculty of Medicine, Umm Al Qura University, Makkah. After receiving an explanation of the purpose, benefits, and risks of the study, as well as their right not to provide any information, all participants provided written consent. All data were kept confidential.
The required sample size was calculated using the statistical software Epi Info ver. 3.01, based on a confidence interval of 95%, an alpha value of 5%, and a worldwide prevalence of vitamin D deficiency of around 2%. This resulted in a required sample size of 68 cases with 68 controls. The participants were enrolled using a non-probabilistic, consecutive sampling technique.
The following inclusion criteria were applied for the cases: consecutive patients aged ≥ 16 years with active psoriasis who attended the outpatient clinics of the three study hospitals; no phototherapy of any kind received in the previous three months; and no oral or topical vitamin D or its derivatives taken in the previous three months. The criteria for the control group were as follows: patients without psoriasis; no previously diagnosed vitamin D deficiency, regardless of whether it was treated; and no vitiligo or telogen effluvium (shedding of hair) as a condition for visiting outpatient clinic. The following exclusion criteria were applied to both cases and controls: a diagnosis of vitamin D deficiency; not consenting to participate; participation in any morning activity or job that took place outdoors; or suffering from multiple sclerosis, systemic lupus erythema, sarcoidosis, diabetes mellitus, rheumatoid arthritis, renal failure, any type of liver disease, celiac disease, or inflammatory bowel disease.
The participants’ serum vitamin D (25(OH) D) levels were obtained by collecting 5 ml of blood at the time of the interview; this was kept at -20°C until the analysis. Serum vitamin D deficiency was defined as serum 25(OH)D <20 ng/ml (50 nmol/l), as per the recommendations of the Endocrine Society . Other data were obtained from questionnaires. These were designed specifically for this study and were pre-tested. The questionnaires were completed by each participant after receiving a personal explanation of the questions from a medical student (Years 4, 5, or 6, or an intern) from Umm Al Qura University to ensure full understanding.
The approval was obtained from Committee of Bio-Medical Ethics, Faculty of Medicine, Umm Al Qura University, Makkah.
All the collected data kept confidential. An informed consent obtained from all participants and the purpose of the study, benefits and risks all explained to all participants and their right not to provide any information obtained from the study.
The SPSS ver. 22 was used to enter, clean and analyze the data. Mean, standard deviation and standard error were calculated for continuous variables like age, serum 25 D level, duration of psoriasis, BMI, duration of treatment and direct Sun exposure, while proportion/ percentages were calculated for qualitative data like gender, nationality, and residency. Student t test of independence was applied for comparing the continuous variables for cases and controls and Chi square test of significance was used to compare the categorical variables
Of the 136 participants in this study (68 psoriasis patients and 68 controls), 133 (98%) were from Makkah city and 114 (84%) were of Saudi nationality (Table 1). There were 75 (55%) male and 61 (45%) female participants.
|Total (N=136)||Cases (N=68)||Controls (N=68)||Chi square||P|
|Makkah||133 (97.8%)||65 (95.6%)||68 (100%)||3.068||0.244|
|Outside Makkah||3 (2.2%)||3 (4.4%)||0 (00.0%)|
|Male||75 (55.1%)||38 (55.9%)||37 (54.4%)||0.03||1|
|Female||61 (44.9%)||30 (44.1%)||31 (45.6%)|
|Saudi||114 (83.8%)||56 (82.4%)||58 (85.3%)||0.217||0.816|
|Non-Saudi||22 (16.2%)||12 (17.6%)||10 (14.7%)|
Table 1: Demographic and social characteristics of the participants.
Table 2 compares characteristics between the cases and controls. The mean ages ( ± standard deviation) of the cases and controls were 37 ± 14 and 36 ± 13 years, respectively (range 16-73 years). There was no significant difference in BMI between the groups (28.68 ± 6.43 vs. 27.12 ± 5.6 kg/m2, respectively; p=0.133).
|Factor||N||Mean||Standard Deviation||Standard Error Mean||t value||P value|
|Serum vitamin D level at time of Interview||Cases||68||16.3||10.5||1.3||0.314||0.754|
|Duration of psoriasis (y)||Cases||68||7.8||7.3||0.9||a||a|
|Body mass index||Cases||68||28.7||6.4||0.8||1.512||0.133|
|Duration of psoriais treatment (months)||Cases||68||28.3||50.1||6.3||a||a|
|Time spent in direct sunlight (min per week)||Cases||67||214||438||54||0.814||0.417|
Table 2: Comparison of possible psoriasis risk factors between the cases and controls, and the duration of the psoriasis and its treatment (a. The t value could not be calculated because these factors were not relevant to the controls group).
The mean serum 25(OH) D level for psoriatic patients was 16.29 ng/ml ± 10.49) with lowest measured serum 25(OH) D level was 3 ng/ml and highest of 53.26. Control serum 25(OH) D level was 15.76 ng/ml ± 9.00 with lowest measured serum level was 4.47 ng/ml and highest was 58.05 ng/ml) with no statistical significance observed between cases and control (P Value=0.754) (Table 2).
The average years for patients having psoriasis was 7.75 years. In the Psoriasis group the mean BMI was 28.68 Kg/m2 ± 6.43) while in in control group was 27.12 Kg/m2 ± 5.6) with no statistical significance between the two groups (p Value=0.133) (Table 2). Forty seven (67.5%) of Psoriasis patients had tried any kind of treatment for average of 28.7 months ± 50.15 (Table 3).
|Type of psoriasis||Cases (N=68)||Condition||Controls (N=68)|
|Plaque||58 (85.3%)||Eczema||14 (20.6%)|
|Guttate||2 (2.9%)||Acne Vulgaris||23 (33.8%)|
|Inverse||3 (4.4%)||Lichen Planus||3 (4.4%)|
|Pustular||1 (1.5%)||Alopecia Areata||1 (1.5%)|
|Erythrodermic||1 (1.5%)||Warts||7 (10.3%)|
|Linear||2 (2.9%)||Seborrheic Dermatitis||2 (2.9%)|
|Palmoplanar||1 (1.5%)||Other||18 (26.5%)|
Table 3: Types of psoriasis of the cases and dermatological conditions of the controls.
Weekly Direct Sun Exposure for Psoriasis Group was 214.47 ± 438.5 minutes per week while in Control group it was 160.17 ± 325.76 minutes per week, with no statistical significance between the two groups (p Value=0.417) (Table 4).
|Total (N=136)||Case (N=68)||Control (N=68)||Chi square||P|
|Family history of psoriasis|
|Positive||19 (14%)||11 (16.2%)||8 (11.8%)|
|Negative||117 (86%)||57 (83.8%)||60 (88.2%)|
|Yes||22 (16.2%)||11 (16.2%)||11 (16.2%)|
|No||114 (83.8%)||57 (83.8%)||57 (83.8%)|
|Hypertension||11 (8.1%)||4 (36.4%)||7 (63.6%)||0.816|
|Asthma||1 (0.7%)||0 (00.0%)||1 (100.0%)|
|Others||1 (0.7%)||1 (100%)||0 (0.00%)|
|Total||9 (%)||6 (66.7%)||3 (33.3%)|
|22 (16.2%)||11 (50%)||11 (50%)|
|Previous psoriasis treatment?|
|Yes||48 (35.3%)||48 (70.6%)||0 (0%)|
|No||88 (64.7%)||20 (29.4%)||68 (100%)|
|Yes||5 (3.7%)||1 (1.5%)||4 (5.9%)||1.869||0.366|
|No||131 (96.3%)||67 (98.5%)||64 (94.1%)|
|Yes||0 (0%)||0 (0%)||0 (0%)|
|No||136 (100%)||68 (100%)||68 (100%)|
Table 4: Disease and treatment characteristics of the cases and controls.
As shown in Table 3, fifty eight cases of psoriasis patients had plaque Psoriasis (85.3%). Of the 68 control group 23 (33.8%) had Acne Vulgaris as most common complaint and Eczema, being the second most common complaint (20.6%).
Table 4 shows that only 19 of all participants of the study (14%) had positive family history of Psoriasis. While only 11 psoriasis patients (16.2%) had positive family history of psoriasis with no significant difference between cases and control (p value=0.622).
Similarly, there was no significant difference between cases and control regarding comorbid condition, type of comorbid condition and use of multivitamin supplement (Table 4). Adalimumab was the most tried treatment 13 (9.6%) followed by Calicipitriol/Betamethasone with 4 (2.9%) (Table 5).
|Type of medication||Frequency||Cases||Control|
|None||63 (46.3%)||18 (28.6%)||45 (71.4%)|
|Adalimumab||13 (9.6%)||13 (100%)||0 (0.00%)|
|Infliximab||2 (1.5%)||2 (100%)||0 (0.00%)|
|Etanercept||2 (1.5%)||2 (100%)||0 (0.00%)|
|Calcipotriene/betamethazone||4 (2.9%)||4 (100%)||0 (0.00%)|
|Hypertension medication||5 (3.7%)||0 (0.00%)||5 (100%)|
|Hypertension and Diabetes||2 (1.4%)||1 (50.0%)||1 (50.0%)|
|Diabetes medication||3 (2.2%)||0 (0.00%)||3 (100%)|
|Diabetes & other||1 (0.7%)||1 (100.0 %)||0 (0.00%)|
|Others||23 (16.9%)||9 (39.1%)||14 (60.9%)|
|Non specified||18 (13.2%)||18 (100%)||0 (0.00%)|
|Total||136 (100%)||68 (50%)||68 (50%)|
Table 5: Distribution of Other Medications taken.
The issue of whether vitamin D deficiency contributes to the pathogenesis of psoriasis remains unsettled, with scant data available in the literature. An early cross-sectional study of vitamin D serum levels in patients with psoriasis by Gisondi et al.  compared 145 patients with psoriasis to 112 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and 141 healthy controls and found significantly lower serum levels of 25(OH) D in both the RA and psoriatic patients than in the controls, especially during winter months, but no significant difference between the RA and psoriasis groups. The psoriasis patients presented with a 2.5 times greater risk of 25(OH)D deficiency than the controls . In contrast, a recent cross-sectional analysis of NHANES data by Wilson et al. , with 5,841 participants of whom 148 had psoriasis, found no statistically significant difference in the prevalence of 25(OH)D deficiency between those with and without psoriasis, although the psoriasis patients were more likely to be obese and of non-Hispanic white ethnicity. A case–control study by Orgaz-Molina et al.  included 43 patients with psoriasis and 43 control subjects from a single outpatient clinic in Granada, Spain, and found significantly lower 25(OH)D levels in the cases than in the controls. This study also concluded that psoriasis patients with BMI ≥ 27 kg/m2 were more likely to have vitamin D insufficiency . Several studies using narrow band ultraviolet B (NB-UVB) have demonstrated an effect of systemic vitamin D on psoriasis [13-23]. Notably, Ryan et al.  showed that, in patients with psoriasis, mean serum levels of 25(OH) D increased from 23 to 42 ng/ml after 12 sessions of NB-UVB, increasing further to 51 ng/ml by the end of treatment; these changes were accompanied by decreases in PASI and Dermatologic Life Quality Index scores. The results of the present study showed a mean vitamin D level for the psoriasis patients of 16 ± 10 ng/ml (range 3-53 ng/ml), which was not significantly different from the level of the control group of 16 ± 9 ng/ml (range 4-58 ng/ml); this provided further support for the findings of Wilson et al. , Zuchi et al. , and Maleki et al. . However, Ricceri et al.  found a prevalence of 68% of vitamin D deficiency and 97% of insufficiency in patients with psoriasis, compared with 10% deficiency and 53% insufficiency in their control group.
It is possible that a difference in vitamin D levels could account for the higher prevalence of psoriasis at higher latitudes compared with that in the tropics . Genetic differences may also play a role, as some studies have shown that the polymorphism of vitamin D receptors in psoriasis patients differs from that of the normal population [28-30], potentially contributing to a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in psoriasis patients in some populations.
Further research is required to explain the discrepancy in the results of these studies.
We are sincerely grateful to all who helped us and to the team members who participated in this research as data collectors: Enas Alkhoutani, Abdulrahman Islam, Sahar Alsharif, Ghamid Alghamdi, Ammar Salawati, Ahmad Binjabi, Wafaa Altaezi, Nouf Al Muawad, Linah Qasim, Najlaa Alnfaiai, Yara Bayunus, Elaf Salih, Mohammed Alharthi, Ali Alelyani, Rawan Hudairy, Mahir Alsinnari, Bassam Bugis, Faisal Alkabkabi, Ahmed Alsulaimani, Duaa Balkhi, Muayyad Abualjadayel and Khloud Alsadi.
- Mora JR, Iwata M, von Andrian UH (2008) Vitamin effects on the immune system: vitamins A and D take centre stage. Nat Rev Immunol 8: 685-698.
- Dusso A, Brown A, Slatopolsky E (2005) Vitamin D. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 289: F8-F28.
- Lemire JM, Adams JS, Sakai R, Jordan SC (1984) 1α, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 suppresses proliferation and immunoglobulin production by normal human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. J Clin Invest 74: 657-661.
- Merlino LA, Curtis J, Mikuls TR, Cerhan JR, Criswell LA, et al. (2004) Vitamin D intake is inversely associated with rheumatoid arthritis: results from the Iowa Women’s Health Study. Arthritis Rheum 50: 72-77.
- Devaraj S, Yun JM, Duncan-Staley CR, Jialal I (2011) Low vitamin D levels correlate with the proinflammatory state in type 1 diabetic subjects with and without microvascular complications. Am J Clin Pathol 135: 429-433.
- Nieves J, Cosman F, Herbert J, Shen V, Lindsay R (1994) High prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and reduced bone mass in multiple sclerosis. Neurology 44: 1687-1692.
- Nestle FO, Kaplan DH, Barker J (2009) Psoriasis. N Engl J Med 361: 496-509.
- Keaney TC, Kirsner RS (2010) New insights into the mechanism of narrow-band UVB therapy for psoriasis. J Invest Dermatol 130: 2534.
- Orgaz-Molina J, Buendía-Eisman A, Arrabal-Polo MA, Ruiz JC (2012) Deficiency of serum concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D in psoriatic patients: a case-control study. J Am Acad Dermatol 67: 931-938.
- Gisondi P, Rossini M, Di Cesare A, Idolazzi L, Farina S, et al. (2012) Vitamin D status in patients with chronic plaque psoriasis. Br J Dermatol 166: 505-510.
- Holick MF, Binkley NC, Bischoff-Ferrari HA, Gordon CM, Hanley DA, et al. (2011) Evaluation, treatment and prevention of vitamin D deficiency: An Endocrine Society clinical practice guideline. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 96: 1911-1930.
- Wilson PB (2013) Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D status in individuals with psoriasis in the general population. Endocrine 44: 537-539.
- Clemens TL, Garrett KP, Zhou XY, Pike JW, Haussler MR, et al. (1988) Immunocytochemical localization of the 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin-D3 receptor in target cells. Endocrinology 122: 1224-1230.
- Adorini L, Penna J (2008) Control of autoimmune diseases by the vitamin D endocrine system. Nat Clin Pract Rheumatol 4: 404-412.
- Plajo CF, Lopez-Benitez JM, Miller LC (2010) Vitamin D and autoimmune rheumatologic disorders. Autoimmun Rev 9: 507-510.
- Tang L, Yu Y, Chen J, Li Q, Yan M, et al. (2003) The inhibitory effect of VitD3 on proliferation of keratinocyte cell line HACAT is mediated by down-regulation of CXCR2 expression. Clin Exp Dermatol 28: 416-419.
- Mostafa WZ, Hegazy RA (2014) Vitamin D and the skin: focus on a complex relationship: a review. J Adv Res 6: 793-804.
- Lesiak A, Narbutt J, Pawlaczyk M, Sysa-Jedrzejowska A, Krzyścin J (2011) Vitamin D serum level changes in psoriatic patients treated with narrowband ultraviolet B phototherapy are related to the season of the irradiation. Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed 27: 304-310.
- Cicarma E, Mork C, Porojnicu AC, Juzeniene A, Tam TT, et al. (2010) Influence of narrowband UVB phototherapy on vitamin D and folate status. Exp Dermatol 19: e67-72.
- Magina S, Cruz MJ, Azevedo F, Moura D, Moura E, et al. (2012) Narrowband ultraviolet B treatment for psoriasis increases serum vitamin A levels. Br J Dermatol 167: 958-960.
- Ryan C, Moran B, McKenna MJ, Murray BF, Brady J, et al. (2010) The effect of narrowband UV-B treatment for psoriasis on vitamin D status during wintertime in Ireland. Arch Dermatol 146: 836-842.
- Ala-houhala MJ, Karppinen TT, Vahavihu K, Kautiainen H, Dombrowski Y, et al. (2014) Narrowband ultraviolet B treatment boosts serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D in patients with psoriasis on oral vitamin D supplementation. Acta Derm Venereol 94: 146-151.
- Osmancevic A, Landin-Wilhelmsen K, Larko O, Krogstad AL (2010) Vitamin D status in psoriasis patients during different treatments with phototherapy. J Photochem Photobiol B 101: 117-123.
- Zuchi MF, Azevedo Pde O, Tanaka AA, Schmitt JV, Martins LE (2015) Serum levels of 25-hydroxy vitamin D in psoriatic patients. An Bras Dermatol 90: 430-432.
- Maleki M, Nahidi Y, Azizahari S, Meibodi NT, Hadianfar A (2016) Serum 25- OH Vitamin D Level in Psoriatic Patients and Comparison With Control Subjects. J Cutan Med Surg 20: 207-210.
- Ricceri F, Pescitelli L, Tripo L, Prignano F (2013) Deficiency of serum concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D correlates with severity of disease in chronic plaque psoriasis. J Am Acad Dermatol 68: 511-512.
- Raychaudhuri SP, Farber EM (2001) The prevalence of psoriasis in the world. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 15: 7-16.
- Park BS, Park JS, Lee DY, Youn JI, Kim IG (1999) Vitamin D receptor polymorphism is associated with psoriasis. J Invest Dermatol 18: 180-183.
- Valdivielso JM, Fernandez E (2006) Vitamin D receptor polymorphisms and diseases. Clin Chim Acta 371: 1-12.
- Ručević I, Barišić-Druško V, Glavaš-Obrovac L, Štefanić M (2009) Vitamin D endocrine system and psoriasis vulgaris—review of the literature. Acta Dermatovenerol Croat 17: 187-192.
Citation: Allayali A, Niaz G, Hawsawi KA, Fatani M, Siddiqui I, et al. (2018) Association between Vitamin D Deficiency and Psoriasis: A Case-Control Study. J Clin Exp Dermatol Res 9: 442. DOI: 10.4172/2155-9554.1000442
Copyright: © 2018 Allayali A, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Select your language of interest to view the total content in your interested language
Share This Article
- Total views: 2012
- [From(publication date): 0-2018 - Jan 21, 2019]
- Breakdown by view type
- HTML page views: 1947
- PDF downloads: 65