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ISSN: 2327-5073
Clinical Microbiology: Open Access
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Bacterial Vaginosis

Bharti Mittu*, Baljinder Kaur and Praveen P Balgir

Department of Biotechnology, Punjabi University, Patiala-147002, India

*Corresponding Author:
Bharti Mittu
Department of Biotechnology
Punjabi University, Patiala-147002, India
Tel: 0172-221-4682
Email: [email protected]

Received date: June 12, 2015; Accepted date: June 15, 2015; Published date: June 22; 2015

Citation: Mittu B, Kaur B, Balgir PP (2015) Bacterial Vaginosis. Clin Microbiol 4:e124. doi: 10.4172/2327-5073.1000e124

Copyright: © 2015 Mittu B, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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International Scenario of Bacterial Vaginosis

Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a common vaginal disorder in woman in child bearing age associated with adverse outcomes including preterm birth and acquisition of sexually transmitted diseases and pelvic inflammatory disease. This condition is highly unfavorable and causesvaginosis severe complications related to reproductive system of women. According to literature reports, it has affected 10%-20% of Caucasian women and 30%-50% of African-American women [1-4]. It has also found its prevalence in US where 29.2% women were reported with vaginal symptoms including 51.4% non-Hispanic blacks, 31.9% among Mexican Americans, and 23.2% among non-Hispanic whites [5]. Its prevalence is 14.6% in Thai [6]. BV was also reported among woman with vaginal symptoms in Rwanda as showed by Gram stain examination. Further insight into the pathology in other BV affected Rwandan women populations is needed to give a clear picture [7]. Epidemiological studies indicate that there is a risk of BV in women of African ethnicity [8-10].

Indian Scenario of BV

In 2007, a population based prevalence survey of BV was conducted among women in Delhi, India by Bhalla and coworkers. A high percentage though asymptomatic (31.2%) were found to have BV infections. Highest prevalence was seen in urban slum followed by rural and urban middle class community which was more likely to acquire other STIs [11]. Madhivanan and others (2008) conducted a survey in Mysore, India and determined 43.5% prevalence and correlation of BV among young women of reproductive age [12]. Patients were diagnosed with endogenous reproductive tract infection in which 17.4 % with sexually transmitted infection and 19.1 % were found to have BV.

Pathologic Outcomes of BV

The disease is associated with severe gynecologic complications, such as cervicitis, salpingitis, endometritis, post-operative infections, pelvic inflammatory disease, oophoritis with or without tubo-ovarian abscess and obstetric complications, such as premature rupture of the membranes, preterm deliveries, chorioamniotitis and postpartum endometritis. The endotoxins produced by G. vaginalis make some women more susceptible to the production of cytokines and prostaglandins that may trigger labor [13,14]. A series of gynaecological and obstretric complications found to be associated with BV, are outlined in Table 1.

Pathology in women References
Gynecological consequences in BV diseased women    
  postpartum endometritis [15]
  post-abortion endometritis [16]
  the production of HIV by HIV infected monocytoid cells certain T cells (77-fold) [17]
  pelvic infection following gynecologic surgery [18]
  A disturbed vaginal ecology more permissive environment for acquiring HIV [19]
  A high concentration of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) was found in the vaginas of women with BV [20,21]
Pathology in neonates  
Long-term neurological consequences in neonates, such as    
  hyperactivity [22]
  academic difficulties in school  
  severe handicaps such as cerebral palsy [23]
  preventricular leukomalacia [24]
  damage in the dopaminenergic system in neonates  
  brain injury to fetuses is caused due to ability of G. vaginalis  and toxins produced by them to cross placenta [25]
Pathology in men  
  urethral discharge and inflammation of the glans penis [26]
  urethritis  
  balanoposthitis [27]
  ascending urinary tract infection [28]

Table 1: Gynecological and obstetric complications associated with BV.

References

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