alexa Bulb Yield, Quality and Weight Losses% during Storage of Garlic (Allium Sativum L.) as Affected by using of Phosphorus, Organic (Poultry Manure) Fertilizers with or without Sulphur

ISSN: 2157-7110

Journal of Food Processing & Technology

Bulb Yield, Quality and Weight Losses% during Storage of Garlic (Allium Sativum L.) as Affected by using of Phosphorus, Organic (Poultry Manure) Fertilizers with or without Sulphur

Basma RA Rashwan1, Ali MAM2 and Ferweez H3*
1Plant Nutrition Department, Soil, Water and Environment Research Institute, Agriculture Research Center, Giza, Egypt
2Horticulture Department, Faculty of Agriculture, New Valley Branch, Assiut University, Egypt
3Food Science and Technology Department, Faculty of Agriculture, New Valley Branch, Assiut University, Egypt
*Corresponding Author: Ferweez H, Food Science and Technology Department, Faculty of Agriculture, New Valley Branch, Assiut University, Egypt, Email: [email protected]

Received Date: Jul 23, 2018 / Accepted Date: Aug 31, 2018 / Published Date: Sep 05, 2018

Abstract

An important bulb vegetable is garlic with several nutritional and medicinal benefits (Anti-infective properties such as anticancer). The organic manure (poultry manure) is an ecofriendly, economically viable and considered a suitable solution for overcoming environmental pollution and saving chemical fertilizers to improve soil fertility and also increase the qualitative and quantitative Garlic (Allium Sativum L.). So, this work was conducted at Mallawi Agriculture Research Station, Minia governorate, Egypt to study the influence of different levels of phosphorus and organic manure (poultry manure) fertilizers with and without sulphur on growth, yield and its components, nutritional value as well as nitrite and nitrate contents of garlic, (cv."Egaseed 1) to improve the qualitative and quantitative and storability of garlic (Allium Sativum L.).

The obtained results revealed that there were a significant effect for levels of inorganic or organic (poultry manure) with / without sulphur and phosphorus fertilizer on the remaining nutrients such as N%, P%, K% and OM% in the soil postharvest, yield and yield components, i.e. plant height (cm), fresh yield ton fed-1 and bulb yield ton fed-1 of garlic, bulb quality, i.e. DM%, TSS%, carbohydrates%, protein %, lipids %, ash%, nitrite and nitrate contents (mg/kg FW), plant nutrient status, i.e. N%, P%, K% and S% of garlic blub and uptake of N, P, K and S uptake kg fed-1 and storability (weight losses %) of garlic blub.

The study revealed that application of organic fertilizer by 5 ton fed-1 (poultry manure) with 100 kg fed-1 sulphur+60 Kg P2O5 recorded the higher values of the remaining nutrients such as N%, P% and OM% in the soil postharvest, highest values of nutritional value (DM%, TSS%, carbohydrates %, protein %, lipids % and ash %), the lowest values of nitrite and nitrate contents (mg/ kg FW), the highest values of fresh weight (6.45 and 6.75 ton fed-1) and bulb yield (5.62 and 5.78 ton fed-1). The lowest values of weight losses % of garlic blub during the storage for 2-8 months in both seasons respectively, would be suitable economical, Productivity, nutritional, storability and health for garlic production in Egypt under experimental conditions.

Keywords: Garlic blub; Poultry manure; Phosphorus; Sulphur; Quality of nitrite and nitrate

Introduction

Reducing environmental pollution and saving chemical fertilizers are the basic goals and optimal using for the integration of organic fertilizers. Garlic (Allium Sativum L.), was cultivated for thousands of years and a member of the onion family, and is widely applied for culinary and medicinal uses [1]. Popularity of this crop has recently increased, in part because of the many health and nutritional benefits attributed to garlic consumption. In Egyptian market, garlic is one of the most highest-value cash crops. Garlic has multifarious use in local consumption, food, processing and exportation. There is an urgent need to reduce pollution in food products, especially in sensitive agricultural practices. One of the solutions necessary to reduce soil pollution is using of organic fertilizers. The positive effect of organic fertilizers on plant growth and measurements might be due to the presence of many nutrients that affect plant growth and crop yield [2]. The basic impact of organic fertilizers on plant development is attributed to improve soil structure and elevating soil humus content as well as by supplying macro and micronutrients [3]. An important cash crop for smallholder farmers is garlic. Marketability for this crop is bulb quality. There are a several factors had high effect on bulb quality among which imbalanced and low availability of nutrients in the soil is prominent [4]. Garlic is an important bulb vegetable with several medicinal values and is used all over the world, and has Anti-infective properties such as power suppliers, insecticidal, anti-bacterial, antifungal, anti-cancer, lowering blood sugar, blood lipids, and reduce blood platelet aggregation [5].

Sulfur is an essential macro-element for plant nutrition and can play a key role in increasing the yield of garlic [6]. Adequate nutrient uptake by garlic culture is important for improving growth, yield and marketable proportions as well as crop quality [7]. Sulphur is an essential macro-element for plant nutrition, but its concentration in plants is the lowest of all macronutrients [8]. The increase in total yield under sulphur application may be due to sulfuric acid, a very important factor in lowering the pH of the soil and increasing the solubility of calcium phosphate [9,10]. There are a significant increase in bulb yield and dry matter of garlic with increasing doses of S and P [11]. Where, application of 80 kg P2O5 ha-1 and 40 kg S ha-1 had significant positive on yield and its components. Uptake of phosphorus and sulfur increased with increasing application rates of P and S individually and in various combinations were reported by Dhage et al. [12].

Increasing crop yield per unit area is need to large amount of chemical fertilizers are added. Environmental pollution is resulted in excessive use of chemical fertilizers, which caused destroy the balance of the ecosystem that is one of the major problems in the agriculture production [13]. Poultry manure is an ecofriendly, economically viable and ecologically sound that also played a significant role in soil biology, chemistry and physics. The aim of this work was to study the effect of different levels of phosphorus and organic manure (poultry manure) fertilizers with and without sulphur on growth, yield and its components, nutritional value as well as nitrite and nitrate contents of garlic, (cv."Egaseed 1) to improve the qualitative and quantitative and storability of garlic (Allium Sativum L.).

Materials and Methods

Two experiments were conducted at Mallawi Agriculture Research Station, El.Minia governorate, Egypt, during the two successive seasons 2015/2016 and 2016/2017. The experiments were allocated in a spiltplots system in a Randomized Complete Blocks Design (RCBD) with three replicates. The main plots were allocated for levels of nitrogen with sulphur whereas; the 4 treatments of the inorganic and organic fertilizers were: 1-Inorganic fertilizer;100% of recommended dose (RD){200 kg of ammonium nitrate (33.5%N)+Zero sulphur(kg fed-1),Control treatment, (NS1), 2-Inorganic fertilizer; 100% of recommended dose (RD) {200 kg of ammonium nitrate (33.5% N)+100 sulphur kg fed-1,(NS2), 3- Organic fertilizer; 100% of RD {Poultry manure 5 ton}+Zero sulphur kg fed-1,(NS3), 4-Organic fertilizers; 100% of RD {Poultry manure 5 ton} +100 sulphur kg fed-1,(NS4), and four levels from phosphorus fertilizer, i.e. 0, 30, 45 and 60 kg P2O5 fed-1 were randomly distributed in the sub-plots. Each experimental unit (sub-plot) was 3x3.5m (1\400 fed). Prior to planting, garlic bulbs were split into the individual cloves. Organic fertilizer is poultry manure 5 ton fed-1 was collected from private fattening poultry farm in Mallawy district, El-Minia governorate. All treatments was treated with 100 Kg of potassium sulphate (48% K2O)} per feddan (Egyptian Ministry of Agriculture).

The largest size of the bulbs was chosen, free of any defects and the cloves were sorted to select the largest cloves. Plots were pre-irrigated one day before planting. Cloves were sown on October 15 on the west side of the furrow, with the distance between the plants being 10.0 cm for both study seasons. . As ammonium nitrate (N 33.5%N), calcium super phosphate (P2O5 15.5%), and potassium sulphate (K2O 48%), fertilizers used as sources of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium, respectively. The amount of mineral fertilizers was splitted into two portions; one half being applied one month after planting time before the first irrigation and the remaining portion was applied before the second irrigation, 60 days from planting. While, the amounts of organic fertilizers and sulphur were added at soil preparation directly before ridging. Samples of soils were analyzed using methods cited by Black [14]. Sampling dates were two weeks before planting and after harvest. Some main soil chemical, and fertility characteristics are presented in Table 1.

Properties 2015/2016 2016/2017
Physical analysis:-
Sand (%) 8.47 10.11
Silt (%) 54.71 49.32
Clay (%) 36.82 40.57
Soil texture Silty clay loam
Mechanical analysis:-
Organic matter (%)
  1.60   1.72
pH soil – water suspension ratio (1:2.5) 8.14 8.00
EC (ds m-1) soil – water extract ratio (1:5) 1.52 1.59
Soluble cations (meq/L)
Ca++ 7.25 7.45
Mg++ 2.10 2.15
Na+ 3.20 3.22
K+ 0.18 0.20
Soluble anions (meq/L)
CO3- --- ---
HCO3- 3.18 3.20
Cl- 4.15 4.10
SO4-- 5.40 5.72
Available nutrient
Available N % 0.19 0.18
Available P (ppm) 16 19
Available K (ppm) 250 270

Table 1: Some physical and chemical properties of the soil at depth of 0-30 cm during 2015/2016 and 2016/2017 seasons.

The chemical properties of the poultry manure were determined at the laboratory of the Soil, Water, Environment, Res. Ins., Giza, Egypt and listed in Table 2.

Property Value
Total-N 4.63%
P 0.21%
K 0. 68%
Fe 0.11%
O.M Organic matter 40%
Mn 388.3 mg kg-1
Zn 319.5 mg kg-1
Cu 112 mg kg-1

Table 2: Chemical analysis of poultry manure.

Garlic plants were harvested (70% of the plant leafs turned yellow). Harvest was done at 15th and 20th of April for first and second seasons, respectively.

A random sample of 8-10 plants from each subplot was taken at 135 days after sowing and the following data were recorded: Plant height (cm). At the appropriate stage of maturity the bulbs in each plot were harvested, then Trans located to a shady spot in the same day for curing and the studied traits were:

- Fresh total yield (ton fed-1)

- Total yield (ton fed-1) were calculated

- Total soluble solids percentage (T.S.S.ºBrix) was determined according to Waskar et al. [15].

N,P,K and S analysis of matured garlic bulbs

Concentrations of N, P, K were analyzed from matured bulbs. Five clean sample bulbs from each plot were collected randomly. The cloves were ground, and over dried at 65°C for 48 h. The finely ground and dried tissues were wet digested using sulphuric-perchloric acid mixture (1:1) as described by AOAC [16]. Total nitrogen percentage was determined by Kjeldahl method according to Jackson [17]. Total phosphorus percentage was estimated calorimetrically using the chlorostannus-reduce molybdo phosphoric blue color method and measured at the wave length of 640 nm using spectrophotometer as described by Jackson [17]. Total potassium percentage was determined using the flame photometer as described by Jackson [17]. Sulphur was estimated by turbidometric method [18]. Plant samples were digesting with triacid mixture (Nitric acid, Perchloric acid and hydrochloric acid) using gelatin barium chloride solution for development of turbidity. The resultant turbidity was measured by colorimeter and S content expressed in percentage on dry weight basis.

Chemical composition of garlic

Chemical composition (carbohydrates, protein, lipids and ash) of garlic samples was carried out according to the official methods of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists [16]. Contents of Nitrite (NO2-1) and Nitrate (NO3-1) were extracted from garlic cloves by 1% K2SO4 solution and determined.

Percentage of dry mater content: cloves from five bulbs were chopped into small 1-2 cm cubes, mixed thoroughly, and the exact weight of each sample was determined and recorded as a fresh weight, and dried in an oven for 48 h at 65°C until constant weight. Percent dry matter content for each sample was calculated using the following formula:

Equation

Garlic storability

After curing, random samples (each of 3 kg) were taken from every treatment, stored at normal room conditions and weight losses percentage of bulb was estimated after 2, 4, 6 and 8 months of storage according to the formula of Wills et al. [19] as follow:

Weight losses percentage %:

Equation

Statistical analysis

Data collected were subjected to Analysis of (ANOVA) Variance. The proper statistical of all data was carried out. Differences among treatments were evaluated by the least significant difference test (LSD) according to procedure out lined by Gomez and Gomez [20]. Significant of differences was defined at 5 percent level. The crop was harvested at its maturity. Data on the yield and yield components were recorded and statistically analyzed. Least Significant Difference (LSD) was used for comparison of the mean values [21].

Results and Discussion

Chemical analysis of soil post-harvest

Data tabulated in Table 3 indicated inorganic or organic (poultry manure) fertilizer level with/without sulphur had a significant effect on the remaining nutrients, in the soil postharvest. Application of organic (poultry manure) fertilizer level, irrespective of phosphorus fertilizer, had the higher values of the remaining nutrients, i.e. N, P, K and OM% (organic matter%) than application of inorganic fertilizer in the soil postharvest. Also, application of poultry manure with sulphur had the higher values of the remaining nutrients, i.e. N, P, K and OM% than application of poultry manure without sulphur in the soil postharvest. Soil analysis values showed that the experimental field had nutrient deficiencies, particularly N, P and S. The application of N P as a cover and S fertilizer could help maintain soil fertility and provide a favorable response to the absorption of nutrients by plants that reflect greater garlic yield, Nasreen and Huq [22]. Some of soil nutritional elements are mostly in an un-accessible form to plants and need long time period to release part of them through biological activity and chemical processes [23]. The organic manure is played a significant role in soil biology, chemistry and physics. Consequently, biological fertilizers can be considered a suitable application for overcoming this problem, further by adding beneficial organisms to improve soil fertility and also increase the qualitative and quantitative products. In fact, using organic fertilizers like poultry manure can be used in a sustainable agricultural system [24].

Traits Season 2015/2016 Season 2016/2017
N ppm P ppm K ppm OM% N ppm P ppm K ppm OM%
Levels of nitrogen fertilizer with sulphur (NS):
NS1* 18.46 9.41 262 1.64 18.58 9.43 269 1.64
NS2** 18.54 9.80 267 1.66 18.83 9.81 274 1.65
NS3*** 19.02 9.69 266 1.74 19.21 9.76 272 1.73
NS4**** 19.45 10.30 275 1.78 19.62 10.34 278 1.78
L S D 5% 0.019 0.131 8.701 0.005 0.052 0.085 6.669 0.007
Levels of phosphorus (P)fertilizer (Kg P2O5/fed):
0 ( P1) 18.38 9.52 263 1.68 18.75 9.53 270 1.67
30 ( P2) 18.74 9.71 266 1.70 18.95 9.74 273 1.69
45 ( P3) 19.06 9.90 269 1.72 19.10 9.95 274 1.70
60 ( P4) 19.29 10.08 273 1.73 19.44 10.11 277 1.73
L S D 5% 0.027 0.048 3.483 0.005 0.039 0.064 3.210 0.004
Interaction NS X P:
NS1* ( P1) 18.14 9.18 258 1.62 18.24 9.18 264 1.62
( P2) 18.31 9.34 258 1.63 18.48 9.33 267 1.63
( P3) 18.67 9.43 263 1.65 18.72 9.46 271 1.64
( P4) 18.73 9.71 269 1.67 18.90 9.74 273 1.66
NS2** ( P1) 18.21 9.49 262 1.62 18.58 9.36 268 1.61
( P2) 18.43 9.75 266 1.65 18.74 9.69 274 1.64
( P3) 18.69 9.96 268 1.68 18.81 10.04 275 1.65
( P4) 19.84 10.11 272 1.70 19.20 10.13 279 1.70
NS3*** ( P1) 18.35 9.42 262 1.72 18.94 9.44 273 1.71
( P2) 19.03 9.54 265 1.73 19.23 9.66 273 1.73
( P3) 19.23 9.78 267 1.75 19.25 9.84 270 1.73
( P4) 19.45 10.04 271 1.77 19.41 10.08 272 1.74
NS4**** ( P1) 18.81 10.11 270 1.78 19.25 10.15 274 1.75
( P2) 19.22 10.20 274 1.78 19.36 10.27 276 1.78
( P3) 19.65 10.42 277 1.79 19.61 10.44 279 1.80
( P4) 20.13 10.46 280 1.79 20.25 10.51 283 1.81
L S D 5% 0.042 0.095 Ns 0.011 0.079 0.128 Ns 0.009
NS1*=Inorganic fertilizers; 100% of recommended dose (RD) {200 kg of ammonium nitrate (33.5% N)+Zero sulphur kg Fed-1.
NS2**=Inorganic fertilizers; 100% of recommended dose (RD) {200 kg of ammonium nitrate (33.5% N)+100 sulphur kg Fed-1.
NS3***=Organic fertilizers; 100% of recommended dose (RD) {Poultry manure 5 ton}+Zero sulphur kg Fed-1.
NS4****=Organic fertilizers; 100% of recommended dose (RD){Poultry manure 5 ton}+100 sulphur kg Fed-1.

Table 3: Effect of phosphorus, organic and sulphur on available N, P, K (ppm) and organic Matter (OM%) in the soil postharvest in 2015/2016 and 2016 /2017 seasons.

Data for the effect of phosphorus fertilizer level on the remaining nutrients, i.e. N, P, K and OM% in the soil postharvest, are shown in Table 3. Results cleared that phosphorus fertilizer level, irrespective of inorganic or organic fertilizers with/without sulphur, had a significant effect on the all previous traits. The present results indicated that increasing phosphorus fertilizer level from zero to 15, 30,45 and 60 kg P2O5 fed-1 led to an gradually increase in the remaining nutrients, i.e. N, P, K and OM% in the soil postharvest . These results are in the line with that reported by Nasreen and Huq [22].

Significant interactions between levels of phosphorus and inorganic or organic fertilizers with or without sulphur with regard to the remained nutrients in the soil postharvest in both seasons are recorded in Table 3. It could be revealed from the results that application of organic fertilizer 5 ton fed-1 (poultry manure) with 100 kg fed-1 sulphur+60 Kg P2O5 fed-1 recorded the highest values of the remained nutrients i.e. N (20.13 and 20.25 ppm), P (10.46 and 10.51 ppm) and OM % (1.79 and 1.81%) in the soil postharvest in both seasons, respectively. In general, it is revealed that such changes are related to the status of the previous nutrients in the soil and its adsorption by the plant. But, it is demonstrated that organic matter, such as poultry manure, which contains a high content of different nutrients, which is applied before sowing, has been able to provide a lot of nutrients in the soil. Murphy [25] pointed out that organic matter of soil can contribute to soil quality through aggregate stability and soil porosity, water retention capacity, especially available water, and exchange capacity action. Such data confirmed the previous reports of Kuldeep et al. [26], Stewart et al. [27], Naeem et al. [28].

Yield and its components

Data given in Table 4 showed that inorganic or organic (poultry manure) fertilizer with/without sulphur, irrespective of phosphorus fertilizer had a significant effect on plant height, fresh weight and blub yield of garlic in the two growing seasons. The shortest plant, smallest diameter and lowest bulbs were recorded in control treatment (Inorganic fertilizers; 100% of recommended dose (RD) {200 kg of ammonium nitrate (33.5% N)+ Zero sulphur kg fed-1). Using of poultry manure fertilizer had the higher values of plant height (cm), fresh weight ton fed-1 and yield ton fed-1 of garlic compared with inorganic fertilizer in the two growing seasons. Also, application of poultry manure with sulphur had the higher values of plant height (cm), fresh weight ton fed-1 and yield ton fed-1 of garlic than application of poultry manure without sulphur. This result might be due to better growth and development. Thus higher photosynthate accumulation in the cloves for higher leaves/plant would ensure higher cloves/bulb, large bulb diameter, and higher bulb weight. Kuldeep et al. [26] reported that farmers reduce the dose of inorganic fertilizer, significantly improve the state of soil fertility and derive economic benefits. Organic fertilizers improve the chemical, physical and physicochemical properties of the soil [27] and maximum growth value [29] resulting in increased root development and increased activity of soil microflora and fauna, which may affect micronutrients available to plants [30].

Traits Season 2015/2016 Season 2016/2017
plant height cm Fresh weight ton Fed-1 Yield
ton Fed-1
plant height cm Fresh weight ton Fed-1 Yield
ton Fed-1
Levels of nitrogen fertilizer with sulphur (NS):
NS1* 67.67 5.08 4.08 68.40 5.36 4.32
NS2** 73.55 5.60 4.46 73.69 5.68 4.41
NS3**** 75.14 5.81 4.81 75.21 6.03 4.90
NS4**** 76.68 6.14 4.99 76.98 6.31 5.08
L S D 5% 0.396 0.214 0.089 0.175 0.061 0.072
Levels of phosphorus (P)fertilizer (Kg P2O5/fed):
0 ( P1) 69.52 5.15 4.08 70.03 5.41 4.13
30 ( P2) 72.03 5.53 4.41 72.53 5.75 4.53
45 ( P3) 75.14 5.83 4.66 74.94 5.98 4.82
60 ( P4) 76.35 6.11 5.19 76.78 6.24 5.21
L S D 5% 0.410 0.073 0.085 0.367 0.052 0.052
Interaction NS X P:
  NS1* ( P1) 62.57 4.30 3.67 63.73 4.65 3.78
( P2) 66.47 4.97 3.76 66.47 5.35 4.12
( P3) 69.93 5.37 4.19 70.63 5.65 4.41
( P4) 71.70 5.70 4.69 72.77 5.80 4.95
  NS2** ( P1) 70.10 5.17 3.88 70.47 5.35 3.99
( P2) 72.03 5.47 4.41 72.93 5.55 4.35
( P3) 75.50 5.67 4.59 74.57 5.70 4.79
( P4) 76.57 6.10 4.94 76.80 6.10 4.51
 
NS3***
( P1) 71.97 5.30 4.20 72.50 5.65 4.23
( P2) 73.60 5.70 4.68 74.17 6.00 4.78
( P3) 76.73 6.05 4.86 76.37 6.15 4.96
( P4) 78.27 6.20 5.51 77.80 6.30 5.61
  NS4**** ( P1) 73.43 5.85 4.57 73.40 6.00 4.53
( P2) 76.00 6.00 4.79 76.57 6.10 4.89
( P3) 78.40 6.25 4.99 78.20 6.40 5.11
( P4) 78.87 6.45 5.62 79.77 6.75 5.78
L S D 5% 0.821 0.146 0.170 0.717 0.104 0.104
NS1*=Inorganic fertilizers; 100% of recommended dose (RD) {200 kg of ammonium nitrate (33.5% N)+Zero sulphur kg Fed-1.
NS2**=Inorganic fertilizers; 100% of recommended dose (RD) {200 kg of ammonium nitrate (33.5% N)+100 sulphur kg Fed-1.
NS3***=Organic fertilizers 100% of recommended dose (RD) {Poultry manure 5 ton}+Zero sulphur kg Fed-1.
NS4****=Organic fertilizers;100% of recommended dose (RD){Poultry manure 5 ton}+100sulphur kg Fed-1.

Table 4: Effect of phosphorus, organic and sulphur on yield and its components of garlic in 2015/2016 and 2016 /2017 seasons.

Data for the effect of phosphorus fertilizer level on plant height, fresh weight and blub yield of garlic in the two growing seasons are shown in Table 4. Results cleared that phosphorus fertilizer level had a significant effect on the all previous traits. The present results indicated that increasing phosphorus fertilizer level from zero to 15, 30,45 and 60 kg P2 O5 fed-1 led to an gradually increase in plant height (cm), fresh weight ton fed-1 and yield ton fed-1 of garlic. The rate of inappropriate application of phosphorus has affected the growth and development of the plant. The weak application of phosphorus eclipses garlic plants. These results confirm the role of phosphorus in increasing the growth, yield and N, P, K content of bulbs when combined with organic fertilizers treatments. The results of this survey are in close agreement with those obtained by many researchers have studied the effect of organic fertilization on the growth of the garlic plant such as Adem and Tadesse [31], Hassan [32] and Umrao et al. [33] Kuldeep et al., [26] and Zaki et al. [34].

Significant interactions between phosphorus levels and inorganic or organic fertilizer with or without sulphur with regard to plant height (cm), fresh weight ton fed-1 and yield ton fed-1 of garlic in both seasons are scored in Table 4. It could be demonstrated from the results that application of organic fertilizer 5 ton fed-1 (poultry manure) with 100 kg fed-1 + 60 Kg P2O5 recorded the highest values of plant height (78.87 and 79.77 cm), fresh weight (6.45 and 6.75 ton fed-1) and bulb yield (5.62 and 5.78 ton fed-1) of garlic in both seasons, respectively. Reasons for the low yield of garlic are mainly due to depletion of macro and micro-nutrients from the soil, use of low yielding varieties with low or no inputs and poor management practices. Umrao et al. [33], Damse et al. [35] and Hassan [32] clarified that treatment of organic manure had the highest values of plant height, fresh and dry yield of the whole plant, chemical composition and yield of garlic plants. In addition, they indicated that maximum clove yield and total fresh yield may be recommended for use of organic manure at a high level.

Bulb quality and nutritional value

Results from Figures 1-3 indicated that inorganic or organic (poultry manure) fertilizer with /without sulphur, irrespective of phosphorus fertilizer had a significant effect on dry matter % (DM%), Total Soluble Solids % (TSS%), carbohydrates %, protein %, lipids %, ash %, nitrite and nitrate contents (mg/kg FW) of garlic in the two growing seasons. Application of poultry manure fertilizer had the higher values of DM%, TSS%, carbohydrates %, protein %, lipids % and ash % as well as the lowest values of nitrite and nitrate contents (mg/kg FW) of garlic compared with inorganic fertilizer in the two growing seasons. Also, application of poultry manure with sulphur had the higher values of the all previous traits compared with application of poultry manure without sulphur. This indicates that the availability of S along with N influenced the uptake and utilization by garlic to synthesis more protein and strong building amino acids that are used to increase the bulbs quality. Yassen and Khalid [36] showed that, the mix of farm manure and chicken manure overcame the control treatment (inorganic NPK recommended), enhanced vegetative growth trait. Organic fertilizers would give a higher quality of garlic with a higher spiciness than the widely used NPK fertilizer and no fertilizer application [37]. The results are in good agreement with those reported by Van-Der-Schee [1], who pointed out that the average of nitrate content in plants is 35 mg/kg. Plants fertilized by inorganic fertilizer with /without sulphur contained the highest values (2.674 and 2.712 mg/kg) of nitrite and (44.32 and 46.15 mg/kg) of nitrate contents in both seasons, respectively. While, garlic plants fertilized by organic (poultry manure) fertilizer with / without sulphur scored the lowest values (1.113 and 1.126 mg/kg) of nitrite and (2.45 and 2.10 mg/kg) of nitrate contents in both seasons, respectively. Nitrate contents in vegetable crops vary enormously, ranging from 1 to 1000 mg/kg of fresh weight. These levels with application of poultry manure fertilizer were in the safe extent (10 mg/ kg FW) and do not cause any toxic effects [38].

food-processing-technology-phosphorus-organic

Figure 1: Effect of phosphorus, organic and sulphur on dry matter% and TSS% of garlic in 2015/2016 and 2016/2017 seasons.

food-processing-technology-Organic-fertilizations

Figure 2: Effect of Phosphorus, Organic fertilizations and sulphur on nutritional value of garlic in 2015/2016 and 2016/2017 seasons.

food-processing-technology-fertilizations-sulphur

Figure 3: Effect of phosphorus and organic fertilizations, sulphur on nitrite and nitrate content (mg/ kg FW) of garlic in 2015/2016 and 2016/2017 seasons.

Data for the effect of phosphorus fertilizer level on of DM%, TSS%, carbohydrates %, protein %, lipids %, ash %, nitrite and nitrate contents (mg/kg FW) of garlic in the two growing seasons are shown in Figures 1-3. Results cleared that phosphorus fertilizer level had a significant effect on the all previous traits. The present results indicated that increasing phosphorus fertilizer level from zero to 15, 30,45 and 60 kg P2O5 fed-1 led to an gradually increase in of DM%, TSS%, carbohydrates %, protein %, lipids %, ash %, nitrite and nitrate contents (mg/kg FW) of garlic. Bulb quality is constrained by several factors in the country among which imbalanced and low availability of nutrients in the soil is prominent. These findings are in the same line with those obtained by Petropoulos et al. [4].

A significant interactions between levels of phosphorus and inorganic or organic fertilizers with or without sulphur with regard to of DM%, TSS%, carbohydrates %, protein %, lipids %, ash %, nitrite and nitrate contents (mg/ kg FW) of garlic in both seasons were recorded in Figures 1-3. It could be revealed from the results that application of organic fertilizer by 5 ton fed-1 (poultry manure) with 100 kg fed-1 + 60 Kg P2O5 recorded the highest values of DM (41.35 and 41.25%), TSS% (38.05 and 38.15 %), carbohydrates (32.52 and 32.61 %), protein (6.95 and 7.07 %), lipids (0.32 and 0.33%) and ash (1.65 and 1.62)% as well as lowest values of nitrite (1.521 and 1.612 mg/ kg FW) and nitrate contents (2.43 and 2.90 mg/kg FW) of garlic compared with inorganic fertilizer in both seasons, respectively. These results are in harmony with those reported by Singh and Singh [39] they showed that dry matter yield of garlic bulb increased significantly with application of 80.0 kg P2O5 and 40.0 kg S ha-1 individually as well as in combination over control. These results are in a good accordance with those reported by Chandel et al. [11].

Plant nutrient status

Results in Tables 5 and 6 showed that inorganic or organic (poultry manure) fertilizer level with /without sulphur, irrespective of phosphorus fertilizer, had a significant effect on N%, P%, K% and S% of garlic blub and uptake of N, P, K and S uptake kg fed-1 of garlic blub in the two growing seasons. Application of poultry manure fertilizer had the higher values of N%, P%, K% and S% of garlic blub and uptake of N, P, K and S uptake kg fed-1 of garlic blub compared with inorganic fertilizer in the two growing seasons. Also, application of poultry manure with sulphur had the higher values of the all previous traits compared with application of poultry manure without sulphur in both two seasons. This result might be due to poultry manure which contains a broader range of nutrients than most commercial fertilizers Magdi et al. [40] and Oyewole and Oyewole [41], Hassaneen [42] found that sulphur element reduced pH and conversed the unavailable phosphorus to available form. Also, reducing the pH values and improves the availability of micro elements [43] and improves the chemical properties [44].

Traits Season 2015/2016 Season 2016/2017
N % P % K % S% N P % K % S%
Levels of Inorganic and Organic fertilizer with sulphur
NS1* 0.926 0.403 0.782 0.271 0.930 0.392 0.817 0.256
NS2** 0.975 0.412 0.827 0.362 0.935 0.410 0.825 0.264
NS3**** 1.100 0.424 0.842 0.268 1.175 0.412 0.872 0.307
NS4**** 1.126 0.431 0.904 0.312 1.221 0.421 0.939 0.361
L S D 5% 0.021 0.003 0.005 0.008 0.010 0.009 0.020 0.010
Levels of phosphorus (P)fertilizer (Kg P2O5/fed)
0 (P1) 1.065 0.399 0.782 0.328 0.904 0.388 0.828 0.276
30 (P2) 1.089 0.417 0.827 0.310 0.951 0.403 0.862 0.287
45 (P3) 1.133 0.424 0.852 0.298 1.096 0.419 0.874 0.300
60 (P4) 1.177 0.430 0.879 0.276 1.126 0.426 0.889 0.324
L S D 5% 0.005 0.003 0.004 0.004 0.004 0.004 0.007 0.007
Interaction (NS X P)
  NS1*  (P1) 1.004 0.387 0.760 0.243 1.012 0.376 0.767 0.231
 (P2) 1.030 0.396 0.777 0.265 1.035 0.384 0.800 0.253
 (P3) 1.112 0.411 0.787 0.284 1.140 0.402 0.847 0.260
 (P4) 1.121 0.420 0.807 0.290 1.128 0.406 0.887 0.281
  NS2**  (P1) 1.028 0.398 0.777 0.341 1.037 0.378 0.787 0.335
 (P2) 1.047 0.414 0.817 0.350 1.053 0.406 0.810 0.363
 (P3) 1.156 0.417 0.837 0.362 1.161 0.425 0.830 0.366
 (P4) 1.168 0.421 0.877 0.394 1.175 0.434 0.840 0.379
 
NS3***
 (P1) 1.077 0.406 0.810 0.235 1.084 0.390 0.860 0.231
 (P2) 1.118 0.426 0.837 0.265 1.126 0.405 0.900 0.258
 (P3) 1.207 0.430 0.847 0.273 1.218 0.422 0.860 0.266
 (P4) 1.218 0.434 0.877 0.286 1.237 0.430 0.870 0.299
  NS4****  (P1) 1.142 0.407 0.847 0.321 1.158 0.407 0.900 0.277
 (P2) 1.200 0.432 0.877 0.313 1.212 0.417 0.937 0.304
 (P3) 1.216 0.438 0.937 0.330 1.221 0.427 0.960 0.312
 (P4) 1.219 0.446 0.957 0.399 1.240 0.434 0.960 0.335
L S D 5% 0.010 0.006 0.008 0.008 0.008 0.007 0.015 0.014
NS1*=Inorganic fertilizers; 100% of recommended dose (RD) {200 kg of ammonium nitrate (33.5% N)+Zero sulphur (kg Fed-1).
NS2**=Inorganic fertilizers; 100% of recommended dose (RD) {200 kg of ammonium nitrate (33.5% N)+100 kg sulphur (kg Fed-1).
NS3***=Organic fertilizers; 100% of recommended dose (RD) {Poultry manure 5 ton}+Zero sulphur (kg Fed-1).
NS4****=Organic fertilizers; 100% of recommended dose (RD) {Poultry manure 5 ton}+100 kg sulphur (kg Fed-1)

Table 5: Effect of phosphorus, organic fertilizations and sulphur on N%, P%, K% and S% of garlic bulbs in 2015/2016 and 2016/2017 seasons.

Traits Season 2015/2016 Season 2016/2017
N uptake P uptake K uptake S uptake N uptake P uptake K
uptake
S uptake
Levels of nitrogen fertilizer with sulphur (NS):
NS1* 37.78 16.49 31.95 10.94 40.18 16.97 32.79 10.98
NS2** 43.49 18.32 36.95 16.02 41.23 18.17 36.10 15.85
NS3**** 52.91 20.45 40.66 12.78 57.58 20.23 42.73 12.78
NS4**** 56.19 20.90 45.30 15.52 62.03 21.38 47.43 15.45
L S D 5% 1.901 1.286 0.672 0.084 1.879 0.779 1.675 0.093
Levels of phosphorus (P) fertilizer (Kg P2O5/fed):
0 (P1) 43.45 15.58 32.68 13.38 37.34 16.04 34.32 13.37
30 (P2) 48.02 18.44 36.59 13.68 43.08 18.30 39.00 13.61
45 (P3) 52.80 19.76 39.79 13.90 52.83 20.20 42.19 13.86
60 (P4) 61.09 22.37 45.80 14.30 58.66 22.21 46.54 14.20
L S D 5% 1.152 1.093 .0496 0.031 1.977 0.451 0.885 0.036
Interaction between NS X P
  NS1*  (P1) 36.85 14.19 27.87 10.62 38.25 14.23 28.89 10.64
 (P2) 38.73 14.78 29.19 10.68 42.64 15.82 32.96 10.70
 (P3) 46.59 17.20 32.92 11.08 50.27 17.43 37.34 11.14
 (P4) 52.57 19.67 37.81 11.40 55.84 20.08 43.86 11.43
  NS2**  (P1) 39.89 15.12 30.15 15.28 41.38 15.10 31.43 15.16
 (P2) 46.17 18.24 36.00 15.92 45.81 17.64 35.19 15.78
 (P3) 53.06 19.13 38.38 16.05 55.61 20.36 39.80 16.03
 (P4) 57.70 20.79 43.29 16.83 52.99 19.59 37.97 16.42
 
NS3***
 (P1) 45.23 17.05 34.03 12.57 45.85 16.51 36.36 12.63
 (P2) 52.32 19.94 39.18 12.76 53.82 19.37 43.06 12.71
 (P3) 58.66 20.88 41.13 12.87 60.41 20.93 42.67 12.80
 (P4) 67.11 23.92 48.30 12.94 69.40 24.10 48.86 12.97
  NS4****  (P1) 52.19 15.94 38.67 15.07 52.46 18.32 40.50 15.06
 (P2) 57.48 20.71 42.01 15.37 59.27 20.37 44.80 15.27
 (P3) 60.68 21.85 46.72 15.61 62.39 21.77 48.96 15.49
 (P4) 68.51 25.07 53.80 16.05 71.67 25.06 55.48 15.99
L S D 5% 2.303 Ns 0.992 0.062 1.035 0.903 1.770 0.073
NS1*=Inorganic fertilizers; 100% of recommended dose (RD) {200 kg of ammonium nitrate (33.5% N)+Zero sulphur kg Fed-1.
NS2**=Inorganic fertilizers; 100% of recommended dose (RD) {200 kg of ammonium nitrate (33.5% N)+100 sulphur kg Fed-1.
NS3***=Organic fertilizers *****; 100% of recommended dose (RD) {Poultry manure 5 ton}+Zero sulphur kg Fed-1.
NS4****=Organic fertilizers; 100% of recommended dose (RD) {Poultry manure 5 ton}+100 sulphur kg Fed-1.

Table 6: Effect of phosphorus, organic fertilizations and sulphur on uptake of N, P, K and S kg fed-1 in 2015/2016 and 2016/2017 seasons.

Data for the effect of phosphorus fertilizer level on N%, P%, K% and S% of garlic blub and uptake of N, P, K and S uptake kg fed-1 of garlic blub in the two seasons are shown in Tables 5 and 6. Results cleared that phosphorus fertilizer level had a significant effect on the all previous traits, irrespective of an inorganic or organic (poultry manure) fertilizer level with/without sulphur. The present results indicated that increasing phosphorus fertilizer level from zero to 15, 30,45 and 60 kg P2O5 fed-1 led to an gradually increase in N%, P%, K% and S% of garlic blub and uptake of N, P, K and S uptake kg fed-1 of garlic blub in both two seasons. These results are in the line with that reported by Almadini et al. [45], Alkaff et al. [46] and Shaheen et al. [47].

Significant interactions between phosphorus levels and inorganic or organic fertilizer with or without sulphur with regard to N%, P%, K% and S% of garlic blub and uptake of N, P, K and S uptake kg fed-1 of garlic blub in the two seasons, except P uptake in first season, are shown in Tables 5 and 6. It could be revealed from the results that application of organic fertilizer by 5 ton fed-1 (poultry manure) with 100 kg fed-1+60 Kg P2O5 recorded the highest values of N% (2.427 and 2.437%), P% (0.446 and 0.434%), K% (0.957 and 0.960%) and S% (0.399 and 0.335%) of garlic bulbs and uptake of N (136.46 and 14078 kg fed-1), K (53.80-55.48 kg fed-1) and S(16.05-15.99 kg fed-1) of garlic of garlic blub in the two seasons, respectively. Many investigators showed that with increasing the levels of phosphorus in root zone, the increase in its absorption by plants was increased and consequently increased the ability of plant roots to uptake more elements in plant tissues [45-47].

Storability and weight losses %

Results in Table 7 showed that inorganic or organic (poultry manure) fertilizer level with/without sulphur, irrespective of phosphorus fertilizer had a significant effect on weight losses % of garlic blub during the storage for 2-8 months in the two growing seasons. Application of poultry manure fertilizer had the lower values of weight losses % of garlic blub during the storage for 2-8 months compared with inorganic fertilizer in the two growing seasons. Also, application of poultry manure with sulphur had the lower values of weight losses % of garlic blub during the storage for 2-8 months compared with application of poultry manure without sulphur in both two seasons. According to one study water losses of garlic bulb were lower at higher sulphur levels, and this relationship is proved to be significant in the absence of N application. Zaki, et al. [34], referred that decreasing bulb weight loss during storage might be referred to improve the uptake of both macro and micro-elements which positively influenced by organic (poultry manure) fertilizer with /without sulphur.

Traits Season 2015/2016 Season 2016/2017
Storage months
2 4 6 8 2 4 6 8
Levels of nitrogen fertilizer with sulphur (NS):
NS1* 3.42 11.19 16.54 27.89 2.92 11.00 15.39 26.12
NS2** 3.17 9.49 14.40 24.70 2.56 9.08 13.14 22.79
NS3**** 3.03 8.24 11.04 19.15 2.39 8.17 10.79 18.87
NS4**** 2.45 7.28 9.42 13.01 2.17 7.25 9.66 13.00
L S D 5% 0.151 0.013 0.082 0.204 0.145 0.044 0.165 0.058
Levels of phosphorus (P) fertilizer (Kg P2O5/fed):
0 (P1) 3.14 9.84 13.76 23.18 2.56 9.85 13.22 21.79
30 (P2) 3.10 9.29 13.46 21.83 2.59 8.89 12.50 20.76
45 (P3) 2.95 8.24 12.60 20.66 2.50 8.52 11.82 19.92
60 (P4) 2.88 7.28 11.60 19.08 2.38 8.25 11.44 18.32
L S D 5% 0.132 0.043 0.038 0.110 0.123 0.028 0.141 0.097
Interaction between NS X P
  NS1*  (P1) 3.66 12.87 17.17 29.53 3.15 13.76 16.43 28.06
 (P2) 3.43 11.83 17.05 28.23 2.92 10.35 15.23 27.14
 (P3) 3.37 10.12 16.10 27.06 2.92 10.18 15.06 25.24
 (P4) 3.24 9.96 15.84 26.75 2.70 9.76 14.85 24.05
  NS2**  (P1) 3.20 9.83 15.76 26.06 2.62 9.44 14.75 23.85
 (P2) 3.17 9.65 15.45 25.25 2.57 9.25 14.05 22.65
 (P3) 3.17 9.33 14.26 24.15 2.53 9.07 12.03 22.46
 (P4) 3.12 9.15 12.15 23.35 2.51 8.57 11.75 22.22
 
NS3***
 (P1) 3.05 9.15 11.86 23.10 2.48 8.43 11.60 21.05
 (P2) 3.31 8.34 11.60 20.75 2.43 8.23 10.82 20.10
 (P3) 2.91 7.82 10.36 18.65 2.39 8.26 10.48 19.25
 (P4) 2.86 7.67 10.35 14.10 2.27 7.96 10.27 15.10
  NS4****  (P1) 2.64 7.53 10.24 14.05 2.25 7.77 10.10 14.20
 (P2) 2.48 7.34 9.73 13.10 2.22 7.75 9.90 13.15
 (P3) 2.36 7.15 9.68 12.80 2.15 6.78 9.74 12.75
 (P4) 2.30 7.12 8.05 12.10 2.05 7.72 8.90 11.90
L S D 5% Ns 0.085 0.076 0.220 0.045 0.055 0.289 0.195
NS1*= Inorganic fertilizers; 100% of recommended dose (RD) {200 kg of ammonium nitrate (33.5% N)+Zero sulphur kg Fed-1.
NS2**= Inorganic fertilizers; 100% of recommended dose (RD) {200 kg of ammonium nitrate (33.5% N)+100 sulphur kg Fed-1.
NS3*** = Organic fertilizers; 100% of recommended dose (RD) {Poultry manure 5 ton}+Zero sulphur kg Fed-1.
NS4****= Organic fertilizers; 100% of recommended dose (RD) {Poultry manure 5 ton}+100 sulphur kg Fed-1.

Table 7: Effect of Phosphorus, organic fertilizations and sulphur on weight losses % after 2,4,6 and 8 months of storage in 2015/2016 and 2016/2017 seasons.

Data for the effect of phosphorus fertilizer level on weight losses % of garlic blub during the storage for 2-8 months in the two seasons is shown in Table 7. Results cleared that phosphorus fertilizer level had a significant effect on weight losses % of garlic blub during the storage for 2-8 months in both seasons. The present results indicated that increasing phosphorus fertilizer level from zero to 15, 30,45 and 60 kg P2O5 fed-1 led to an gradually decrease in weight losses % of garlic blub during the storage for 2-8 months in both two seasons. This might be due to the role of phosphors in plants which play a key role in balance nutrition of the crop [12].

A significant interaction between phosphorus levels and inorganic or organic fertilizer with or without sulphur with regard to weight losses % of garlic blub during the storage for 2-8 months in the two seasons are shown in Table 7. It could be revealed from the results that application of organic fertilizer by 5 ton fed-1 (poultry manure) with 100 kg fed-1+60 Kg P2O5 recorded the lowest values of weight losses % of garlic blub during the storage for two month (2.30 and 2.05 %), four month (7.12 and 7.72 %), six month (8.05 and 8.90%) and eight month (12.10 and 11.90) in the 1st and 2nd seasons respectively. Many investigators showed that with increasing the levels of phosphorus in root zone, the increase in its absorption by plants was increased and consequently increased the ability of plant roots to uptake more elements in plant tissues [45-47].

Conclusion

The study revealed that application of organic fertilizer by 5 ton fed-1 (poultry manure) with 100 kg fed-1 sulphur + 60 Kg P2O5 recorded the higher values of the remaining nutrients, i.e. N, P and OM% in the soil postharvest, highest values of nutritional value (DM%, TSS%, carbohydrates %, protein %, lipids % and ash %), the lowest values of nitrite and nitrate contents (mg/ kg FW), the highest values of fresh weight (6.45 and 6.75 ton fed-1) and bulb yield (5.62 and 5.78 ton fed-1) the lowest values of weight losses % of garlic blub during the storage for 2-8 months in both seasons respectively, would be suitable economical, Productivity, nutritional, storability and health for garlic production in Egypt under experimental conditions.

References

Citation: Rashwan BRA, MAM A, Ferweez H (2018) Bulb Yield, Quality and Weight Losses% during Storage of Garlic (Allium Sativum L.) as Affected by using of Phosphorus, Organic (Poultry Manure) Fertilizers with or without Sulphur. J Food Process A Technol 9:753. DOI: 10.4172/2157-7110.1000753

Copyright: © 2018 Rashwan BRA, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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