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The present overview is intended to point the readers’ attention to the important subject of calcium orthophosphates. They are of the special significance for the human beings because they represent the inorganic part of major normal (bones, teeth and antlers) and pathological (i.e., those appearing due to various diseases) calcified tissues of mammals. Therefore, the majority of the artificially prepared calcium orthophosphates of high purity appear to be well tolerated by human tissues in vivo and possess the excellent biocompatibility, osteoconductivity and bioresorbability. These biomedical properties of calcium orthophosphates are widely used to construct bone grafts. In addition, natural calcium orthophosphates are the major source of phosphorus, which are used to produce agricultural fertilizers, detergents and various phosphorus-containing chemicals. Thus, there is a great significance of calcium orthophosphates for the humankind and, here, an overview on the current knowledge on this subject is provided.