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Cardiac Steatosis: Is it Related to Ectopic Obesity, Insulin Sensitivity, Diabetes Mellitus and Metabolic Syndrome? | OMICS International
ISSN: 2329-9517
Journal of Cardiovascular Diseases & Diagnosis
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Cardiac Steatosis: Is it Related to Ectopic Obesity, Insulin Sensitivity, Diabetes Mellitus and Metabolic Syndrome?

Leonardo Roever1* and Anaisa Silva Roerver Borges2
1Department of Clinical Research, Federal University of Uberlândia, Brazil
2Master Institute of Education President Antonio Carlos - IMEPAC-Araguari, Brazil
Corresponding Author : Leonardo Roever
Department of Clinical Research, Av.Pará, 1720 - Bairro Umuarama
Uberlândia - MG - CEP 38400-902, Brazil
Tel: +553488039878
E-mail: [email protected]
Received: October 15, 2015; Accepted: October 16, 2015; Published: October 18, 2015
Citation: Roever L, Borges ASR (2015) Cardiac Steatosis: Is it Related to Ectopic Obesity, Insulin Sensitivity, Diabetes Mellitus and Metabolic Syndrome? J Cardiovasc Dis Diagn 3:e110. doi:10.4172/2329-9517.1000e110
Copyright: © 2015 Roever L, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
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Ectopic obesity is associated with a large number of diseases such as hypertension, inflammation, diabetes, brain disease, sleep disorders, cancer and heart disease [1-6]. Fat accumulated in the heart has been referred to as fatty infiltration, lipid overstorage, high free fatty acid flux, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia and lipotoxic injury to cardiomyocytes [7-13].
Muniyappa and colleagues conducted a cross-sectional study design of individuals with and without metabolic syndrome (MetS), the authors examined the relationships between cardiac steatosis and the sensitivity of the antilipolytic and glucose disposal actions of insulin. Pericardial fat (PF) volume, intramyocardial and hepatic fat (MF and HF) content, visceral fat (VF) and subcutaneous fat content were assessed by magnetic resonance imaging in 77 subjects (49) without MetS and 28 with MetS). In a subset of the cohort (n=52), peripheral insulin sensitivity index (SI) and adipocyte insulin sensitivity (Adipo- SI) were determined from an insulin-modified frequently sampled iv glucose tolerance test. The Quantitative Insulin Sensitivity Check Index was used as a surrogate for hepatic insulin sensitivity. Individuals with the MetS had significantly higher BMI, total body fat, and MF, PF, HF, and VF content. HF and VF, but not MF, were negatively correlated with the Quantitative Insulin Sensitivity Check Index, Adipo-SI, and SI. Stepwise regression revealed that waist circumference and serum triglyceride levels independently predicted MF and PF, respectively. Adipo-SI and serum triglyceride levels independently predict HF [14].
Myocardial steatosis is unrelated to hepatic, adipocyte, or peripheral insulin sensitivity. A large cohort study should be conducted to definitively determine the clinical significance of cardiac steatosis, its correlation with MetS and diabetes. Potential treatments such as lifestyle modification, ectopic fat reduction, and medications should be investigated.

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