Received date: June 09, 2016; Accepted date: June 27, 2016; Published date: June 29, 2016
Citation: Khan QI, Shamsudin AS, Ismail SSS (2016) Career Success and Organizational Justice as the Potential Predictors of Perceived University Performance: A Study from Public Sector Universities of Pakistan. Int J Econ Manag Sci 5:354. doi:10.4172/2162-6359.1000354
Copyright: © 2016 Khan QI, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
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The main aspiration of the study remained to explore and examine the predictors of perceived university performance. While career success for the faculty members of public sector universities in Pakistan is becoming the area of interest for researchers and academicians. Data were collected from 223 faculty members who are currently serving as faculty members in public sector universities of Pakistan. The results supported the significant positive association of career success and organizational justice with perceived university performance. The study applied SPSS Version 20 for data screening and Structural Equation Modelling – Partial Least Square (SEM-PLS) technique through, Smart PLS 2.0 applied to explore the results.
Career success; Organizational justice; Perceived University Performance; Universities; Pakistan
Current study is a smart strive towards discovering potential determinants of university performance in public sector universities of Pakistan. While, the faculty members in public sector universities of Pakistan are deemed non-productive and they contribute towards the university performance rarely . As career success is an important goal for most of faculty members. However, it is deemed that Government sector organizations are not even effective, such organizations are criticised as the resource wasting institutions of the state. However, the career successes of faculty members’ is in best interest of universities under public sector more than the faculty members themselves [2,3].
In Pakistan there are 179 universities recognized by Higher Education Commission of Pakistan. Currently there are 75 universities under private sector and 104 under public sector [4-7]. The performance of the 179 universities are not good enough to get place in top 500 universities of the world for the year 2015, except one which has been ranked at 496th out of 500 best universities of the world for the year 2015 . Recently published QS ranking there are only 20 universities from Pakistan in top 800 universities of Pakistan. While, Pakistan’s educational system was ranked the poorest in world ranking . According to the universities in Pakistan are deemed like degree mills because of low employability of graduates from these institutions .
It is urged that the universities might have to improve their productivity to generate the employability in the professional studies, degree itself is nothing until and unless have the ability to provide proper employment for the graduates .
Why the public sector universities in Pakistan are not able to perform better internationally? There might be a lot of reasons including low salaries, higher workload, imperceptible opportunities of professional growth & career success and lack of organizational justice in the institutions of higher education of Pakistan. Whereas, Pakistan has been ranked at 55 in global cultural index [11-13].
The situations of law and order, justice are very poor due to the higher level of corruption by the higher leadership and parliamentarians including Prime Ministers, Presidents current and previous since independence [14,15]. According to transparency international Pakistan has been ranked 117/168 the most corrupt country of the world . In such a worst situation where some nations are only progressing in corruption, the possibilities of being treated in an impartial and unprejudiced way are very rare and cannot be expected.
Public sector universities of Pakistan are not performing well as compared to the international standards, because the faculty members working in such institutions are not contributing potentially towards universities’ growth, there might be a lot of reasons behind this such as feebler performance and lower contribution towards the overall university performance, hardly visible service structure for the faculty members. Upon analysing the trends of faculty members’ education and research publications as shown in Table 1 below. It has been observed from the available data that there are currently 9253 faculty members having PhD degrees and 25191 faculty members have no doctoral degrees up to 2013; and could hardly published only 6507 research articles.
Table 1: Statics of faculty and their contribution for universities.
According to the above mentioned table only 27% faculty members have PhD degrees to teach. While, 73% faculty members require to improve their qualification. Whilst, to recap there are 25191 faculty members those have to enhance their qualification for their own growth and survival in the same field. As in the contemporary situations in Pakistan survival in the profession is not easy, it has now become highly competitive, complex and complicated. As after the international global crises of 2008 many organizations have started following the retrenchment practices to minimize the operational cost to hedge themselves from heavy losses as well as their own survival [17,18]. Career success is deemed and necessary for the success and survival in the professional life and career [19-22].
Whilst, the organizational justice is necessary for organizational success and progress. In recent studies the importance of the career success has been focused for the institutional success (Khan, Shukor, & Soffian, 2015; Shahzad et al., 2008; Yasir et al., 2013). Career success cannot be ignored. Nevertheless, as all the human beings are not equal and the performance from all the employees at work cannot be expected the same [23-26]. Therefore the need of organizational justice is vital to allocate the workload and opportunities of progress in public sector institutions [27,28]. Human resource management practices with justice and fairness must be designed to extract higher performance from the available workforce by training them and enabling them to contribute towards their own career and development in the global market [25,29]. While, organizational justice and career success are utmost necessary for better performance of the institutions in educational sector of Pakistan and to enhance universities’ performance [30,31].
1. Does career success has relationship with university performance?
2. Does organizational justice has relationship with university performance?
1. To examine the relationship of career success with university performance.
2. To examine the relationship of organizational justice with university performance?
University performance has not remained the area of focus in previous studies. The ranking criteria of the international bodies specially focus the universities of developed countries . These are the employees who help the organizations to achieve their desired objectives. Therefore, it can be said that employees are the backbone of organizational success but there is a strong need to motivate and maintain them to get the competitive advantage in terms of giving quality products and services to the stakeholders . In this regard professionally trained workforce plays an important role for achieving competitive advantage by providing good quality output and potential contribution . In the study Career has been derived from Latin word, “Carraria” in English like road, carriage. Career success is the permutation of two different words, Career and Success, while it can be interpreted as an individuals’ journey through learning, efforts, professional experience and other aspects of life.
There are countless techniques for defining career and the term is applied in a variety of ways. So it might be construed meritoriously that it is an agenda of an individual's progress from first to last [1,23,34]. As the people are not same, their emotions about the same phenomenon can vary in different perspectives and perceptions. As according to  it is redundant that an individual in the age of twenty year might have different reflection or perceptions about the career while an individual at the age of thirty might be having the same reflections as the individual in the age of fifty or sixty years; it is further not necessary that both have the same perceptions about the career in same sense or meanings. There are imaginable upshots of dissimilarity of assumptions in idiosyncratic individuals may be because of diverse civilizations, learning, knowledge and physical and mental abilities. Currently, it is proposed that the current study will reveal insight into the dilemma of inclination by defining career success, through its imperative commitment in the collection of evidence and theory also. Career success has been partitioned into two reflections, (i) Intrinsic and (ii) extrinsic reflections separately, sometimes interchangeably called (i) subjective and (ii) objective in nature as well. Extrinsic reflection can be seen and observable; relatively objective in nature comprises on noticeable outcomes including (i) salary, (ii) ascendancy and (iii) professional status, while intrinsic career success stands for the internal satisfaction of the employee from his/her profession and life . The neutrality of observer might be apparent while evaluating the extraneous reflections or objective achievement of the individual. While, intrinsic reflections or subjective career success means individual's own perceptions identified with his/her own profession [2,35,36].
The negligible has been observed in the area of organizational justice for organizational progress [37,38]. The psychological processes, where organizational justice have the potential to determine the attitude and behaviour of the employees’ working in the organization [39,40]. Globally the organizations have been found in the strict competitive environment. The opportunities for the work or employment are scarce as well, but for high performing worker the opportunities are abundant and countless to mention [34,41]. Universities are deemed the most important and competitive weapon in contributing towards lowering down the poverty, unemployment and enhancing national income & integrity . Nevertheless, the organizational justice must be in order to accommodate and facilitate the employees at work as well as to derive motivation to work and satisfaction from work; to facilitate and boost organizational functioning in the dynamically competitive and complex environment [38,42].
Organizational justice and the opportunities of professional growth are now a days getting increased influence in the academia due to the ability to manage employees’ attitude and behaviour at workplace . Existing literature provided the guidance about the perceptions of organizational justice that are considered more important to enhance organizational performance and retain the quality work force to produce better productivity [31,44].
Whilst, the university performance has always been desired and necessary for the development and sustainability in the competitive world, funding agencies are also concerned about the utilization of their fund either used in right way; to be utilized in extracting the maximum efficiency in productivity, otherwise the distribution of such grants can be moved to some other institution that can produce better output from these funds [45,46].
However, the heads of the institutions have to remain impartial and fair while dealing with the faculty members, all the work loads and assignments are supposed to be allocated according to the capacity and capabilities of the individuals. The discussion of legal proceedings and administrative justice are another aspect of procedural justice.
Whilst, the distributive justice is all about perturbs, a kind of a communally just to allocate goods to the society. A society where, minor inequities in outcome do not occur would be deemed as a society directed by the doctrine of distributive justice [47-51]. Individuals have the potential to contribute better towards the attainment of organizational objectives. If the individuals are given the equal opportunities of growth and progress they can contribute towards the university performance better .
In the organizational context as individuals’ career success contributes better and enhances organizational performance. Therefore, it is necessarily required to evaluate the areas of human aspects, that are helpful in enhancing performance at work, that enable the individuals to work for their own success, which ultimately contribute better towards the organizational performance [42,53]. So it can be hypothesized that:
H1: Career success has significantly positive relationship with university performance.
H2: Organizational justice has significantly positive relationship with career success.
Research Framework is depicted in Figure 1
The theory of dynamic capability has been found supporting the conceptual model [54-58]. According to  the human beings have the potential to contribute better towards the attainment of organizational objectives. If the individuals are given the equal opportunities of growth and progress they can contribute towards the university performance better and have the abilities to enhance the performance with their impending contribution . The study contributed in theoretical perspective as well by enhancing the chapter of Pakistan.
Current study intended to explore the relationship and impact of career success and organizational justice on university performance. This effort has been undertaken to enhance the existing literature by adding new chapter from Pakistan in theory and practice. The suitable approach to test theory and hypothesis has been found quantitative as the purpose of the study is to test the hypothesis and theory rather than developing new theory. For the sake of analysis quantitative tools and techniques were applied by using statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) version 20 for data validation and SMART PLS version 2.0 for assessing Reliability, Validity, Cronbach’s alpha, R2, Path Coefficient, Bootstrapping, T-statistics and standard deviation.
Sample and respondents
Sample for the study has been chosen from 104 public sector universities. 223 faculty members working in public sector universities, has participated and responded for this study. For the study a self-administrated questionnaire was personally disseminated among the respondents.
Measures and instruments
The perceptual information from respondents has been received upon the existence. However the 5 items measurement scale for career success has been adopted from the genuine source . Organizational justice has been adopted from genuine source, having 11 items . Whilst the perceived university performance has been adopted from , consisting on 11 items that has already been tested in Pakistani environment with different predictors. The questionnaire used in this study consist of 27 items overall. All the respondents were requested to articulate their adjudication by using a five point likert scale ranging from (1) strongly disagree, (2) disagree, (3) neither agree nor disagree, (4) agree and (5) strongly agree. As the measurement instrument has been tested widely in previous studies so the need of EFA has not been realised here for the study.
The following Table 2 demonstrates the composite reliability and convergent validity for the latent variables of the current study. Composite reliability, Cronbach’s alpha and average variance extracted (AVE) has been derived by using SMART PLS software 2.0 version. Cronbach’s alpha which measures how well the variables are associate with each and other has been shown in the Table 2 as below. Table 3 represents discriminant validity of the construct. Table 4 represents the factor loading of the items, all the items remained within threshold values; as the measurements has been tested in the Asian context. Perceived university has been also tested in Pakistan earlier .
|Composite Reliability||Cronbach’s Alpha||AVE|
Table 2: Reliability and the internal consistency of the variables.
|Career Success||Org. Justice||Univ.Perf|
Table 3: Discriminant Validity, it is desired that the sqrt (AVE) should be above the latent variable correlation.
|Career Success||Organizational Justice||University Performance|
Table 4: Factor loading.
AVE should be above 0.5 Threshold for Convergent Validity [61,62]. The desired value for composite reliability is 0.7 and above. While for the exploratory research a value equal to above 0.6 can also be accepted [61,63].
It is desired that the sqrt (AVE) should be above the latent variable correlation.
After verifying the basic assumptions that all are found within threshold value and standards. So the next step can be taken to test the hypothesis as visible clearly in Figure 2 below. Bootstrapping was used from sample of 223 up to 1000 to test the hypothesis.
Further details have been provided in Table 5 for making decision and testing hypothesis on threshold values and standards. As the Table 5 demonstrates the model indices fit at which the model is legitimated . T-Value for two tail test is appropriate and acceptable is found equal to or above 1.96 . Here T-Value has been found over and above 1.96 converted into P-Values which resulted 0.0045 and 0.0000 which are <0.05. Therefore, the hypothesis is being accepted.
|Standard Deviation||Standard Error||T-Value||P-Value|
|Career Success → University Performance||0.0668||0.0668||2.85||0.0045|
|Organizational Justice → University Performance||0.0536||0.0536||9.23||0.0000|
|P. Value is <0.05.
H1 and H2 both are Accepted.
Table 5: T-Statistics for testing hypothesis.
The study in its unique construct is exploratory in Pakistan. This research was executed for the faculty members in public sector universities of Pakistan. The study has tried to explore the impact of career success and organizational justice in predicting university performance. As the r2 remained 0.337 that represents there are more than 66% other factors that determine university performance such as personality traits cultural factor that might be able to determine university performance in better and potentially significant way.
As the scope of the study is very narrow and covers only 223 faculty members; those who are full time lecturers, assistant professors, associate professors and professors. Due to some financial constraints the data collection period also remained limited up to 45 days. The study has tested only two predictors of perceived university performance (i) Career Success (Subjective) and (ii) Organizational Justice (Procedural and Distributed), that has been remained the major limitation as well. Further, as mentioned earlier that the R2 remained 0.337. It means there is still 66% other factor which remained unexplored in this study.
Future researcher may choose the larger sample and there are many other influential factors that have not been investigated in the current study. It is urged that environmental turbulence might be tested as moderator for such type of studies as the electricity shortfall, corruption, industrial setbacks are reshaping the business environment rapidly and supposed as the potential moderator for future studies. Qualitative evaluation is assumed to serve the purpose better.