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Chrysanthemum in a Prominent Position of the Compendium of Materia Medica and Jin Shiyuan’s Modern Coping of Chrysanthemum

Ying D1*, Huaqiang Z1, Ningning W1, Zhaojuan G1, Yiping Y1, Yanping W2*, Shiyuan J3 and Yongyan W2

1School of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Beijing 100102, China

2China Academy of Chinese Medical Science, Beijing 100700, China

3Beijing Health School, Beijing 100053, China

*Corresponding Author:
Ying D
School of Traditional Chinese Medicine
Beijing University of Chinese Medicine
Beijing 100102, China
Tel: 18810689027
E-mail: 981161227@qq.com

Received Date: March 04, 2017 Accepted Date: March 10, 2017 Published Date: March 13, 2017

Citation: Ying D, Huaqiang Z, Ningning W, Zhaojuan G, Yiping Y, et al. (2017) Chrysanthemum in a Prominent Position of the Compendium of Materia Medica and Jin Shiyuan’s Modern Coping of Chrysanthemum. Med Chem (Los Angeles) 7: 807-811. doi: 10.4172/2161-0444.1000432

Copyright: © 2017 Ying D, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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Abstract

This paper is to publicize Li Shizhen 's academic thought and medicine culture, inherit the technical experience of Jin Shiyuan 's dispensing technology, and then develop and improve of Chrysanthemum technology. In the analysis process, CNKI, Wanfang data, and the other authoritative databases were searched with “Chrysanthemum” “Li Shizhen” “Jin Shiyuan” as key words, meanwhile, “Shen Nong's Materia Medica”, “Compendium of Materia Medica”, “Curative Measures for All Diseases”, “Prescriptions for Universal Relief”, and related ancient books were accessed systematically to summarize the historical change of processing methods of Chrysanthemum. Through the collation of research knew that “Compendium of Materia Medica” carries out detailed records on the chrysanthemum historical origin, its dispensing processing methods, its clinical application and other aspects. Chrysanthemum was first recorded in the Ancient books - “Shen Nong's Materia Medica”. Li Shizhen attached great importance to the clinical application of different types of chrysanthemum. Professor Jin Shiyuan emphasizes the clinical dispensing technology of chrysanthemum, including its place of origin, its nature identification technology, harvesting and processing technology, clinical processing technology, and packaging and transported technology. And with his proficient knowledge structure in medicine inherit Li Shizhen's academic thought of pharmacy and develop the clinical application of chrysanthemum technology to provide a more scientific theoretical support for the clinical application of Chrysanthemum.

Keywords

Chrysanthemum; Dispensing technology; Li Shizhen; Jin Shiyuan; Place of origin; Compendium of Materia Medica

Introduction

Li Shizhen is world-renowned as the great medical scientist of the Ming Dynasty, and his book “Compendium of Materia Medica” has a profound impact on the development of science and technology in China and the world. “Compendium of Materia Medica” is widely involved in medicine, pharmacology, biology, mineralogy, chemical, environmental and biological Sciences, genetic and variation and so on. In the history of chemistry, it has recorded a series of chemical reactions such as pure metal, metal, metal chlorides and sulfides. At the same time, it also recorded some operation methods of modern chemistry, such as distillation, crystallization, sublimation, precipitation, drying and so on. Li Shizhen also pointed out that the moon is a celestial body, likes the earth. "Compendium of Materia Medica" is not only one of China's pharmaceutical masterpiece, is also called the Encyclopedia of ancient china. As Li Jianyuan pointed out: "The content of “Compendium of Materia Medica” is from the classics to the legend and contains all the relevant knowledge, The book is not only a medical book, but also is a book on physics. "Even today some of these prescriptions can still play a good effect. Its splendid contents and extensive knowledge, is second to none in the world. Jin Shiyuan as Chinese medicine master, concentrates on studying and inheriting Li Shizhen's medical road culture connotation and techniques with his years of clinical experience, and applies the results of the study to the clinical work. And he finally forms the Jin Shiyuan’s unique dispensing system. Among the dispensing drugs, Chrysanthemum is one of the most striking aspects of medicine and popular since ancient times, and was welcomed in all walks of life. As everyone knows, chrysanthemum is a popular ornamental plant. In the Ming and Qing Dynasties, it began as a medicinal. Maybe you don't know how it works, but in real life it saves the lives of many people. Even in H7N9, SAS and other major infectious diseases, it played a key therapeutic effect.

Results and Discussion

Chrysanthemum in “Compendium of Materia Medica

Chrysanthemum as drug is first recorded in the “Shen Nong's Materia Medica” [1]. This book recorded that chrysanthemum tastes sweet, and mainly treats the wind dizziness pain, eyes to take off, tears out, dead skin muscle and rheumatism arthralgia. It can be seen that Chrysanthemum efficacy is treating headache, improving eyesight and doing dehumidification at first. At the same time, the differentiation of chrysanthemum varieties was first proposed by Tao Hongjing who was born in A. D. 456. He has made three kinds of chrysanthemum: the yellow chrysanthemum, wild chrysanthemum, the white chrysanthemum.

Li Shizhen in the Ming Dynasty was a medical doctor with a realistic spirit. In order to complete the arduous task of modifying Chinese Materia Medica, he visited nearly 31 cities in Hubei Province, Hunan, Jiangxi, Anhui, Jiangsu and other places. He walked for miles, and finally completed the "Compendium of Materia Medica" in his 61 years old. In the "Compendium of Materia Medica", Li Shizhen through their personal experience, make a comprehensive study on the medicinal value of chrysanthemum. The study was carried out in detail in terms of traits, efficacy, indications, clinical application, harvest seasons, and distinguished the varieties of chrysanthemum.

The places of origin: Li Shizhen investigated by himself, and recorded many studies on the origin. "Compendium of Materia Medica" [2] wrote: Probably people only use the sweet one of Chrysanthemum with the single leaves as drugs. Chamomile, written in “The Book of Chrysanthemum”, was found in Zhengzhou whether it was yellow or white. Chamomile was born in the mountains, but now Chamomile is planted by people. China can be said to be the first country to cultivate Chrysanthemum. “Xijing Zaji” [3] recorded: “When the chrysanthemum is open, collect its branches and leaves, and then use coarse wine to brew chrysanthemum until the September nine of the next lunar calendar. This is the production of chrysanthemum wine. ”At that time, the queen and maids of honor of different rank regarded the chrysanthemum wine as the longevity wine, and give it as a gift to each other. Song Dynasty is a period of vigorous development of medicinal chrysanthemum. Liu Meng in the book of “chrysanthemum” [4], on strengthening the management of cultivation to improve varieties, change the size of a small flower into a large flower and single flower into a double with detailed records: “In plants, its character depends on the cultivation of irrigation. The right way, then the branches, leaves, flowers, fruit, no fat that being the case, then a single leaf into a number of leaves, there are. Peony those grown in the wild field, the characters are single leaf and thin petals. As far as the growth in greenhouse on fertile land, suitable soil fertilization, characters are a plurality of leaves. Then enlarged petals, multiple leaves. Why doubt chrysanthemum?”

The traits, harvesting and processing technology of chrysanthemum: “Compendium of Materia Medica” wrote: Chrysanthemum is the product of all one hundred species and it can grow its own roots. The color of flowers, types of leaf and stem varied according to the varieties of chrysanthemum. In the Song Dynasty, many doctors have written books of chrysanthemum, but can't write all types around. There are different colors and types in its stems; there are different shapes and properties in its leaves; there are different forms and colors in its flowers; there are different textures in taste; there are even have different in seasons. It is said to its flowers are small and fragile. Its stamen, likes beehive, has seeds that can be sown. White chrysanthemum, harvesting in autumn, is slightly big, taste is not sweet. According to “Supplement to Invaluable Prescriptions for Ready Reference” [5] of the Tang Dynasty records: “Pick up Chrysanthemum’s root in the first lunar month. Collect its leaves in March of the lunar calendar. Collect its stems in May of the lunar calendar. Collect its flowers on the ninth month of the lunar year. Collect its fruits on the eleventh month of the lunar year. And then dry them in the shade.” Not only the collection time of chrysanthemum is different, but also the processing of Chrysanthemum.

The processing technology of chrysanthemum: “Compendium of Materia Medica” for the first time was recorded chrysanthemum as drug. There are few literatures about chrysanthemum processing before the Song Dynasty. After the Song Dynasty, the literature began to get more and more. “General Medical Collection of Royal Benevolence” [6] of the Song Dynasty records baked chrysanthemum. “Taiping Shenghui Fang” (Taiping Royal Prescriptions) [7] put forward the chrysanthemum’s processing method of “smashing the wet chrysanthemum into plaster.” The processing method of stir frying was also recorded in “Leibian Zhushi Jingyan Yifang” [8] of the Song Dynasty. This method was also used to the Ming Dynasty. For example, “Puji Fang” (Prescriptions for Universal Relief) [9] of the Ming Dynasty recorded the method of "slightly fried". The book of “Luchanyan Bencao” [10] in the Song Dynasty put forward the processing method of brew system, and records that “Pick up chrysanthemum on 9 September after picking it drying by sun. Take the steamed glutinous rice 6 kg, adding 250 grams of chrysanthemum powder mixing, commonly used fine flour until fermentation, fermented into alcohol, filtering.” “Chuangyang Jingyan Quanshu” [11] of the Song Dynasty first appeared the processing method for chrysanthemum wine and wrote “Put admixture mixing chrysanthemum and wine under the blazing sun for quite a long time.” In the Ming and Qing Dynasties, chrysanthemum was used as medicine. “Prescriptions for Universal Relief ” continued to use the method which is recorded that taking chrysanthemum powder in chrysanthemum wine. The process of wine washing and dipping was appeared in the Ming Dynasty. “Yishu bianlan” [12] of the Ming Dynasty says, “Taking the chrysanthemum washing by wine.” This method has also been used in “Yizong Shuoyue” [13] of the Qing Dynasty, containing “Taking the sundried chrysanthemum washing by wine.” In addition, this method has also been recorded in the “Curative Measures for All Diseases” [14] of the Qing Dynasty and the book “Bencao Shugou Yan” [15] of the Ming Dynasty. “Depei Bencao” [16] of the Qing Dynasty advocated “Steam with chrysanthemums and wine, and then dry them by Sun.” “Bencao Chengya Banjie” [17] is recording that this is only a way of chrysanthemum’s process to dry in the shade. This method is also used in “Bencao Shugou Yuan” of the Qing Dynasty, recording that put it in the shade.” In the Qing Dynasty, there is the emergence of processing methods of charcoal. “Waike Dacheng” [18] wrote by Qishen of the Qing Dynasty, first proposed the processing method of carbonizing. ”Bencao Haili” [19] of the Qing Dynasty, recorded that Fry Chrysanthemum to black, or for carbon. ”Depei Bencao” wrote the processing method with the medicine. Specific conditions such as Table 1.

Times Processing technique Record Book
Song
(A.D.960-1247)
Steaming Smashing the wet chrysanthemum into plaster Taiping Royal Prescriptions
Stir-frying Fry the chrysanthemum “Leibian Zhushi Jiyan Yifang”
Brewing Pick up on 9 September after picking chrysanthemum sun drying, take the steamed glutinous rice 6 kg, adding 250 grams of chrysanthemum powder mixing, commonly used fine flour until fermentation, fermented into alcohol, filtering. “Lvchanyan Bencao”  
Processing with wine Put admixture mixing chrysanthemum and wine under the blazing sun for quite a long time. “Changyang Jingyan Quanshu”
Ming
(A.D.1368-1644)
Processing with wine Take chrysanthemum powder in chrysanthemum wine. “Prescriptions for Universal Relief”
Taking the chrysanthemum washing by wine. “Yishu Bianlan”
Taking the dry chrysanthemum washing by wine. “Measures for All Diseases”
Light stir-frying Take the light stir-fried chrysanthemum. “Prescriptions for Universal Relief”
Plasma system   “Bencao Tongxuan”
 Dry in the shade This is only a way of chrysanthemum’s process to dry in the shade . “Bencao Wenyan Banjie ”
Qing
(A.D.1644-1911)
Processing with wine Steam with chrysanthemums,honey and wine,and then dry them by Sun. “Fengshi Jinnang Milv”
Taking the dry chrysanthemum washing by wine. “Yizong shuoyue”
Steam with chrysanthemums and wine,and then dry them by Sun. “Depei Bencao”
cautery Chrysanthemum’s processing is cautery. “Yaoyao Fenji”
carbonizing Burning charcoal to preserve the properties. “Waike Dacheng”
Fry Chrysanthemum to black, or for carbon. “Bencao Haili”
Chrysanthemum’s charcoal “Sanjia Yian Heke”[20]
Processing with medicine Take the dry chrysanthemum steaming with cortex lycii radicis. “Depei Bencao ”

Table 1: Chrysanthemum’s processing history.

It is recorded that chrysanthemum has variety of processing functions in ancient books. Brewed chrysanthemum can treat dizziness and megrim. Chrysanthemum mixed with wine after sun exposure can treat all eye diseases. It can remove the wind-heat type common cold if it is used unprepared, and benefit the body after mixing with wine and steaming if take tonic altogether. The elder’s grey hair turned black if taking wine with rehmannia and chrysanthemum. The people of dimsighted from old age can get better if washing eyes with boiling with chrysanthemum and urine of boys under twelve. After micro fry and other processing, chrysanthemum can reduce the dispersion effect, and get more suitable for replenishing the body. Chrysanthemum charcoal can weaken the effect of the evacuation of wind heat, has a hemostatic effect, can be used for mild hemoptysis, and not to hurt the stomach if taken for a long time. "Compendium of Materia Medica" is introduced 9 pieces of empirical prescription in ancient which is simple and easy to understand. In the book, there are three pieces of prescription to take with wine. Obviously we can see that the ancient processing traces. For example, “In the lunar September 9, collect two pounds of white chrysanthemum. Mix it with a pound of Poria. And then put them into powder. Take 30 g three times a day with the warm wine. Or made pills, with the refined turpentine (such as egg size). One pill each time. This medicine is mainly used in the treatment of vertigo. It can also make person young if People take for a long time.

Professor Jin Shiyuan's chrysanthemum

Professor Jin Shiyuan inherited the academic thought of Li Shizhen's understanding of chrysanthemum, and further improved the dispensing technology of chrysanthemum. Professor Jin Shiyuan is a famous Chinese scholar in contemporary of China and has made outstanding contributions in Chinese medicine identification, dispensing, and processing work of traditional Chinese medicine. So it has important practical significance and scientific value to inherit the traditional Chinese medicine academic thought of him and Jin Shiyuan’s standard operation.

Characterization techniques of chrysanthemum: Jin Shiyuan engaged in traditional Chinese medicine industry has been more than and 60 years. In the 60 years of medical career, professor personally experience with each batch of medicinal properties. About the identification of chrysanthemum, Chinese Pharmacopoeia according to the origin of difference will put the chrysanthemum into 5 kinds: Bo chrysanthemum, the tribute chrysanthemum, Chu chrysanthemum, Hang chrysanthemum, Huai chrysanthemum. But Professor Jin does not think so, he always endeavoring to do better. He enlarges the record of the chrysanthemum’s species to 9 kinds: in addition to the above 5 kinds, there are Chuan Chrysanthemum, Qi chrysanthemum, the yellow chrysanthemum and De chrysanthemum. A variety of chrysanthemums have different areas, shapes, colors. Some varieties are only for medicinal purposes, so these varieties are referred to as "Chrysanthemum morifolium", such as Bo chrysanthemum, Huai chrysanthemum, Chuan chrysanthemum and Qi chrysanthemum. Some varieties of chrysanthemum are mostly for drinks. These varieties are mainly engaged in the operation of tea, such as Hang chrysanthemum, the nine kinds of chrysanthemum are compared and distinguished. The professor thinks the best quality of chrysanthemum is the tribute chrysanthemum.

Bo chrysanthemum: The main production area is located in the Anhui suburb of Bozhou, Taihe and so on. The shape of dispersed flower likes a disk or fan. Its diameter is 1.5~3 cm. It has a saucer shaped involucre, 3~4 layer of bracts, hemispherical receptacle and its number of peripheral flower layer is more than three. Its white petal is straight and not curly. It also has pale purple red edge ligulate flower. Its yellow tubular flower mainly located in the center, and the top five tooth of the petal is crack. Its flower is lightweight, and the texture is soft and moist. It tastes sweet and slightly bitter with delicate fragrance.

Huai chrysanthemum: The main production area is located in Henan, such as Boai, Wenxian, Biyang, Xiuwu and so on. The flowers are large, long and pachytic. Its flower is white or yellowish white, with pale red or reddish brown. Its flower is small; light brown, loose and soft. It tastes light bitter with delicate fragrance.

Chuan chrysanthemum: The main production area is located in Sichuan, such as Cangxi, Yilong, Nanchong and so on. Its flowers are smaller and darker than Huai chrysanthemum.

Hang chrysanthemum: The main production area is located in Zhejiang, such as Tongxiang, Haining, Wuxing, Huzhou and so on. The flower is compressed. Its petal is wide and sparse, and its diameter is 2.5~4 cm, likes the dish is flat or oblate. Its yellowish white ligulate flowers stick to each other. Its radial striations are bigger and fellow. It tastes sweet and slightly bitter with delicate fragrance.

Qi chrysanthemum: The main production area is located in Hebei, such as Anguo, Dingzhou, Shenze, Boye and so on. Its flowers are smaller than the Bo chrysanthemum.

The yellow chrysanthemum: The main production area is located in Haining. It likes Hang chrysanthemum, but the color of it is deeper.

The tribute chrysanthemum: The main production area is located in Anhui, such as Huangshan, Xiuning and so on. Its flower is a thin oblate somewhat thick in the center and its diameter 1.5~2.5 cm. Its base of a flower is green. Its white ligulate flower slants out, and its upper fold with the edge slightly curled. Its radial striations are small, pale gold and soft. It tastes sweet and slightly bitter with delicate fragrance.

Chu chrysanthemum: The main production area is located in Anhui, such as Chuzhou, Quanjiao. Its flower is white or gray, likes an irregular oblate spherical or irregular one with slightly yellow center. Its diameter is 1.5 cm~2.5 cm. Its ligulate flower tends to curl around the center. It tastes sweet and slightly bitter with strong fragrance.

De chrysanthemum: The main production area is located in Deqing of Zhejiang province. It likes Chu chrysanthemum, but the flowers of it is small.

Bo chrysanthemum, Chu chrysanthemum, the tribute chrysanthemum is AnHui genunie medicinal materials, because of the different natural conditions and climate, are used for three different drying method. Bo chrysanthemum originated in Huaibei Plain, adopt the method of shade drying; Chu chrysanthemum originated in Jianghuai hilly region, using the sulfur smoked exposure to dry; the tribute Chrysanthemum originated in south anhui mountainous area, in the season of harvesting and processing, rainfall is larger, and the mountain fog all the year round, the sunshine time is less, but charcoal production is higher, and formed the drying processing history [21].

Studies have found that [22], now the white chrysanthemum of Hangzhou and the tribute chrysanthemum are developing rapidly, because of its good quality, high price recovery, so their planting area is more and more big. Such as the white chrysanthemum of Hangzhou is not only planted in the main producing areas of Sheyang and Hubei, but also is planted in Jiangsu and Hubei which formed already a certain scale. But as a medicinal, many chrysanthemum’s planting area is gradually shrinking even on the brink of extinction, such as Chu chrysanthemum, Huai chrysanthemum, and Chuan chrysanthemum, Huai chrysanthemum, as one of the one of the four most famous drug, but could not escape the dilemma. Chrysanthemum is a commonly used Chinese herbal medicine, in order to ensure the effectiveness of clinical treatment, local governments should attach importance to the cultivation and use of chrysanthemum.

The harvesting and processing technology of chrysanthemum: Now there is a common method of chrysanthemum’s harvest processing is a natural drying method in the market, that is, Founding a dry ventilated place to build a drying rack for drying chrysanthemum. Chrysanthemum flower in the stem after the harvest will be placed on the shelves on the dried out after 1~2 months after the dried off the shelf. Then cut the flowers with scissors.

There are other three methods:

First, the steaming and sunning method is refers to put fresh chrysanthemum spreading on the bamboo sieve within about 3 cm thick. Next, put in the food steamer steam over high heat for 4~5 minutes. The chrysanthemum will be under the blazing sun for quite a long time after steamed. Then turn it every 3 days over 1, and take it into the room at night (do not squeeze). After a few days of continuous drying 6~7 days, take it home for a several days. And then dry it 1~2 days again, so that when the flower becomes completely dry hard.

Second, fumigation and sunning method is refers to put fresh chrysanthemum in cool, dry ventilated place. Dry it to around eighty percent (21~28 days) firstly, and then moved it to smoke chamber. According to every 50 kg chrysanthemum with sulfur burning sulfur 2~3 hours of drying, it can be baked.

Third, the baking method is refers to the harvesting of fresh chrysanthemum, fluff spread on the bamboo curtain 5~6 cm thick in the barn with 45~50 degrees bake for 12 hours, then 60 degrees bake for 12 hours, and the chrysanthemum can be dried and baked. In the baking process, chrysanthemum want to be turned often, maintained temperature balance, and prevent chrysanthemum from burning. The action can promote uniform drying.

Professor Jin believes that according to the different origin of chrysanthemum, the processing methods should be different [23]. After the flowers have been opened, the flowers, likes Huai chrysanthemum, Bo chrysanthemum, Chuan chrysanthemum and Qi chrysanthemum, be picked up on sunny days. Then make them in a tuftlet, and dry them under the sun or put them to be placed in the shade to dry. According to the flowering period, that flowers which are Hang chrysanthemums and the yellow chrysanthemums are divided into three times, and then steamed in the food steamer when the flowers are fresh. Finally, pack those chrysanthemums after steaming. The tribute chrysanthemum and De chrysanthemum are made by drying method. It is noticed that the petals must be pressed to avoid scattered absorption of moisture and discolor.

The prescription-based processing of chrysanthemum: In order to remove impurities and ensure the purity and quality of medicinal materials, the chrysanthemum must be clean. The processing history of chrysanthemum was first recorded, in Song Dynasty, which was supplemented and developed in Ming and Qing Dynasty. In ancient times, the chrysanthemum’s processing was mainly based on wine. There were many methods, such as "wine mixing", "wine washing", "wine dip", "wine steaming" and so on. And most of the modern literature records for charcoal processing. "Chinese Pharmacopoeia (1963)" recorded the chrysanthemum charcoal [24]. These methods have now disappeared, such as processing method with urine of boys under twelve. Professor Jin Shiyuan investigating of the actual situation knows that commonly used chrysanthemum products for clinical dispensing can be used after processing in production place. Only part of the region also has the processing methods of chrysanthemum charcoal and fried chrysanthemum [25]. Professor Jin Shiyuan believes that a variety of processing technologies of chrysanthemum are the essence of chrysanthemum clinical use. We should inherit the ancient technology and expand the processing system of chrysanthemum.

The chrysanthemum’s prescription audit technology: Professor Jin Shiyuan believes that to the prescription of the chrysanthemum audit technology, there is a urgent need for the pharmacist to get a prescription after the first prescription. Including the patient's basic information to examine the TCM name of the prescription, processing specifications and dosage. Particular attention should be paid to the formulation of the kind of chrysanthemum.

In the "Chinese Pharmacopoeia (2010 Edition)" [26] provisions chrysanthemum consumption, from 5 to 10 g. External application should be reasonable. In the prescription audit process, if there is beyond the scope, should be timely communication with clinicians, and double signature. In the prescription, when the lack of medicine, prescription audit personnel should not be free to change or to cross out, should communicate with clinicians, and the appropriate exchange.

The chrysanthemum prescription coping technology: Professor Jin Shiyuan found in many years of dispensing work, whether it is issued by the white chrysanthemum or the yellow chrysanthemum, pharmacies will be unified payment chrysanthemum. But in fact, different colors of Chrysanthemum’s effect are obviously different. White chrysanthemum is clearing liver fire, while the yellow chrysanthemum is partial to the evacuation of wind heat. When prescribing, it should not be confused.

The drug dispensing technology of chrysanthemum: Professor Jin Shiyuan believes that in the process of the chrysanthemum’s delivery, the quality and expertise of the pharmaceutical staff has an important role in the the need to account for the method of medication and medication notes and taboos of chrysanthemum [27].

1. Method for taking chrysanthemum: Decoction of two suits, 1 daily. Time and frequency of taking medicine according to different disease treatment.

2. Precautions and contraindications for taking chrysanthemum: People of affection of exogenous wind-cold or insufficiency of spleen- YANG, deficiency cold of the spleen should not be used.

The packaging and transported technology of chrysanthemum: The professor knows a lot about the packaging of chrysanthemum. He mentioned that, Bo chrysanthemum is high-grade goods and usually use boxes for transport; Huai chrysanthemum usually use five piece of white cloth for packaging; Chuan chrysanthemum loaded in bamboo basket; Qi chrysanthemum packed in reed mat; Hang chrysanthemum and De chrysanthemum packed with white paper; the white chrysanthemum and the tribute chrysanthemum are the use of wood processing and then packaging with the paper. He believes that no matter what kind of packaging can prevent moisture, chrysanthemum quality to play a role in ensuring.

Conclusions

Today, chrysanthemum is a commonly used Chinese herbal medicine. Due to the diversity of chrysanthemum varieties, origin, color, processing technology, there is a difference in the efficacy [28]. But in many areas, people think that the effect of different varieties of chrysanthemum is not obvious, so they confound the chrysanthemum, regardless of yellow and white, And then they deliver the confusion of chrysanthemum, resulting in confusion of efficacy. This approach is contrary to the traditional Chinese medicine scholars which need to inherit Li Shizhen's academic thought. In the book "Compendium of Materia Medica", Li Shizhen keeps improving the attitude of the traditional Chinese medicine spirt and applies Chrysanthemum in accordance with the color of chrysanthemum. Professor Jin Shiyuan inherited Li Shizhen’s medical culture and medicine academic thought, according to the different varieties of chrysanthemum, investigates harvesting method, processing method and the clinical efficacy of different chrysanthemum. This action improves and perfect the development of chrysanthemum’s dispensing technology, and promote a reasonable clinical medication to protect the chrysanthemum and provide pharmaceutical care for the clinical application of chrysanthemum.

Conflict of Interest

The authors Dai Ying, Zhai Huaqiang, Wang Ningning, Guo Zhaojuan, Yuan Yiping, Wang Yanping, Jin Shiyuan, Wang Yongyan declare that they have no competing interests.

Acknowledgements

We thank Prof Zhai Huaqiang (Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Beijing, China) for conducting to writing the paper. This work was supported by the National Standardization Program for Chinese Medicine (grant numbers ZYBZH-Y-HEN-18) and the Natural Science Foundation of China (grant numbers 81373887).

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