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ISSN: 2162-6359
International Journal of Economics & Management Sciences
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Client Sensitivity about Celebrity Endorsement: A Study of FMCG Trademarks

Muhammad Anosh* and Naqvi Hamad

National College of Business Administration and Economics, Ghazi University, Dera Ghazi Khan Campus, Pakistan

*Corresponding Author:
Muhammad Anosh
National College of Business Administration
and Economics, Ghazi University
Dera Ghazi Khan Campus, Pakistan
Tel: +92(64)2004300
E-mail: [email protected]

Received date: January 27, 2015; Accepted date: February 27, 2015; Published date: March 07, 2015

Citation: Anosh M, Hamad N (2015) Client Sensitivity about Celebrity Endorsement: A Study of FMCG Trademarks. Int J Econ and Manage Sci 4:238. doi:10.4172/2162-6359.1000238

Copyright: © 2015 Muhammad A, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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Abstract

Concept of this cram is based on celebrity endorsement as a tool of Clint sensitivity regarding the brand. A Primary study of 478 folks was accomplished to investigate the aspect affecting purchase intentions among FMCG consumers of Pakistan. Three Predictor variables were studied as determinants of consumers’ purchase intentions with the help of SPSS and sales volume of the FMCG products in the specific region of Punjab Pakistan and found to have a positive association with purchase intentions while using a celebrity endorsement. This study will lead the marketers towards new dimensions of the branding and advertisement.

Keywords

Celebrity endorsement; Brand image; Brand loyalty; Purchase intention

Introduction

Celebrity endorsement is the abstract of the brand or advertising campaign that engage a well-known person using their fame to help promote a product or service. Producers of perfumes and clothing are some of the most common business users of classic celebrity endorsement ways such as TV ads and arrange event contributions, in the marketing of their products. Celebrities manipulate on clients emerge to be larger than ever before. Everyday consumers are passed to hundreds of voices and images in billboards, daily newspaper, radio adds. Every brand attempts to feel of a person‘s time to inform him or her of the astonishing and diverse feature of the product. Purchase intention is the implied promise to one’s self to buy the product again whenever one makes next trip to the market [1,2]. According to Anosh et al. [3] there are some factors that strongly influence on the purchase intention of the customers of lower Punjab i.e. brand image, Brand perception, Brand preference, product Awareness, product and brand loyalty. Basic purpose of this cram to sort out the influence of celebrity on the purchase intention of the customers of lower Punjab means either client is sensitive with the celebrity endorsement or not and how much celebrity play role in building trademark. This study will explain the purchase cycle of the client that how consumer attract to make purchase of the product advertised by some celebrity and also probe the unique aspects that are necessary to retain the re-buying of the product .

In the dynamic market hard to find out what kind of product actually the consumer wants. Celebrity endorsement is the only way to retain the mind share of the customer and market share of the competitive market. This study will provide the additional empirical evidence in the facts base of marketing promotions. It may also elevate the awareness of the concept of “branding with celebrity” in a market where lot of focal unbranded FMCG products are surviving. In Pakistan’s markets where advertisement and marketing is mostly organizational oriented, implying customer driven approach will provide the marketers with an insight into the consumer’s perception of their marketing efforts in an attempt to focus their efforts for more effective outcome.

Anam et al. [4] said that the combination of good characteristic makes a positive impact on the client, because frequently buyer like the celebrities for the trust worthiness, customers like their pleasant appearance and material attribute. Most significantly the company focus contest between the celebrity character and product or brand features or aspects.

Literature Review

The origin of the brand formed by brick makers in Egypt who put signs on their bricks to distinguish them Anosh et al. [3]. Many brands born without any personality, brand it-self is nothing. A brand can never walk, talk and get snapped. But with a celebrity is like a basic need fulfilled and purpose of communication to the audience is fulfilled, the name of a product or a company can take on instant glitz, glamour, appeal, and aspiration. Reeder (Greenlight LA) explained that, Customer absorption with celebrities isn't going away. And also Anam et al. [4], 2015 Celebrity endorsement of brands will absolutely sway the buying intention of customer Celebrity creditability inspire others to purchase the specific brand but the brand factors were undefined. Purchase intention is the repurchase proposal of an specific brand or product in the market while purchase of the product, purchase of the product in the future, and to buy the specific product Halim and Hameed [2]. It’s a behavior of client in short term in which he decided to purchase the unique product while having substitute in the competitive market Fandos and Flavian [1]. According to Anosh et al. [3] while survey of Smartphone market by using some of brand equity elements makes influence in purchase intention of the brand shows that brand loyalty and brand image has positively related to the sale of the brand other brand equity variables also play vital role in the process but these two variables are more influencers than other variables.

Anam et al. [4] explains Celebrities carry a positive image in the mind of purchaser that also helps to create the brand image in the mind of the customers and advertising agencies use this positive image to convey the message of their brand. Celebrity endorsement advertisement is not only interesting and attractive but also source of attention. The purchaser desires a diversity of feature from the endorsement like the credibility and acceptability. The celebrity should be completed and planned to describe the actual image of the brand and to convey right message to the target audience. The director of Nestle foods Pakistan and Haleeb foods Pakistan should be well chosen and the endorser good and well popular actors of Pakistan. According to Indian authors what they concluded in the related researches is Celebrity Endorsement significantly impact Brand Image. In the dynamic environment celebrities are used in marketing communication policy is quite general practice for major companies in sustaining brand imagery (Figure 1). According to Chan et al. [5] popularity is the main factor, a good image, and similarity between the celebrity’s image and that of the brand as significant feature for marketers to believe in selecting celebrity endorsers.

economics-and-management-sciences-theoretical-framework

Figure 1: Theoretical Framework of the Study.

Arslan and Altuna [6] defined brand image is the feeling regarding brand when purchaser wants to purchase the brand in the market. He explained three aspects of brand image favorability, strength, and distinctiveness. Every dimension of the brand image found the considerable effect on the consumer purchase intention. Anosh et al. [3] studied the influence of brand image on consumer purchase intention. They analyzed that brand image is significantly and positively related with the purchase intention. Erdogan [7], mentions several of the probable hazard in the use of celebrity personality that may cause a change in customer loyalty. Firstly, when the celebrity is entangled in some form of indignity or controversy. Dick et al. [8] explain customer loyalty with two aspects, that is, behavioral and attitude component. Moraga, Parraga and Gonzalez [9] said brand loyalty is a continuous purchase manners that make company to retain customers. Clients analysis unreliable celebrity endorsers in spite of their additional traits as questionable message [7]. On the basis of literature review regarding the variables hypotheses was generated to test and examine the market customers of lower Punjab, Pakistan. In theoretical framework celebrity is an independent variable. That’s play vital role in the generation of the Brand image and Brand Loyalty. In other word peoples only believe on the product if well know celebrity is endorsing the product. This is how after experience of the product consumer shows positive or negative word of mouth. Purchase intention shows as a dependent variable that is based on Brand image and brand loyalty of the products [10].

These dimensions may be summarized in the following model.

H1: Celebrity has directly or indirectly impact on Purchase intention.

H2: Brand Image has a significant and positive relationship with purchase intentions.

H3: Brand loyalty has a significant and positive relationship with purchase intentions.

Methodology

This cram is a cross sectional Study which was accomplished in Lower Punjab, Pakistan city includes were Mian Chanu, Khanewal, Multan, Layyah, Chowk Munda, Bhakar, KotAdu, Dera Ghazi khan, Jampur, Muhammad Pur, Fazal Pur, Rajanpur, Kot Mithan, Alipur, Muzaffargarh and jatoi. These are the most well-known markets of the lower Punjab regarding FMCG. Primary data was collected to complete the objective of the research, questions were asked to the folks regarding well known celebrities that mostly perform in the advertisement of Milk and Shampoo [11]. Questions were verbally asked to the targeted audience because specific level of awareness about variables was necessary in the study of FMCG market of Pakistan. 478 filled questionnaires were used for result analysis. SPSS is used to achieve the results of the study. The alliance between celebrity endorsement, Brand image, Brand loyalty and purchase intentions was originate using Pearson’s correlation to make sure whether there is a positive and significant relationship exists between different extent of the product and intention to purchase of the Product by consumers. During research best practice was collect sale’s data of FMCG products from above mention cities that’s confirms the result of SPSS.

Analysis and Results

The results of Pearson’s Correlation Coefficient demonstrate that Celebrity Endorsement, brand image and brand loyalty have positive and significant relationship with purchase intentions and purchase intention is directly or indirectly affects the purchase intention of the brand or product at 0.01 level of significance with “r” scores .327, . 288, .419 respectively. These results shows that folks of lower Punjab are very much loyal toward the using brands or products and brand image is on the third number with .288 score second one is Celebrity endorsement that is directly or indirectly effects the purchase intention of the brand.

According to the survey as show in the Figure 1 that Nestle sales share is much greater than the all other milk brands just due to the well-known celebrity Anwer maqsood who perform in the advertisement of Nestle Milk Pack and Peoples are inspire of him and love to use the products affiliated with the Anwer Maqsood (Table 1).

Predictor variable Response variable Purchase Intentions
Celebrity Endorsement Pearson Correlation .327**
  Sig. (2-tailed) 0
Brand Image Pearson Correlation .288**
  Sig. (2-tailed) 0
Brand Loyalty Pearson Correlation .419**
  Sig. (2-tailed) 0

Table 1: Correlation Analysis, **Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).

After compiling of the data of sales of three Shampoo brands results shows that head&shoulder is the large number of seller in the lower Punjab and one the second num sun-silk and last one is Pantene. After seek out the reason come to know that most of the people know about the head&shoulder just because of a famous cricketer Shahid afridi as the brand ambassador of head&shoulder shampoo Availability of the product play imperative role in the sales volume but customer affiliation with a certain product and retain Brand loyal with good image of the product is only come from the celebrity endorsement as mention in text that brand itself Can’t Talk, Walk and get snapped. These two case studies shows that celebrity play vital role in sale of the product and customers are always influenced by the Credible and well known celebrity. Purchase intention is directly or indirectly related to the celebrity endorsement (Figures 2 and 3).

economics-and-management-sciences-sales-volume-lower-punjab

Figure 2: Sales Volume of lower Punjab.

economics-and-management-sciences-secondly-product-fmcg

Figure 3: Secondly product that was study in the research related to FMCG is from Shampoo industry

Conclusion and Recommendations

In the FMCG sector of lower Punjab Pakistan mostly customers are brand loyal and mostly inspired by the TV adds. Companies must focus on the folk’s celebrities as show in the research companies should make adds with local celebrities so a common person should also be aware of the social and behavioral issues of the society. The element of reliability and attractiveness in their ads are very low. Credibility of the celebrity is very important in the building of brand. Celebrity should not be involved in any type of scandal or controversy this can affect the worth of the product in the market. Like some years ago Lays Chips issue arises as a HARAM food (not according to the Islamic procedure) and in this case again an Celebrity Junaid jamsheed performed his role and let the people know in the advertisement that Lays is an HALLAL food (According to Islamic process manufacturing) due to the credibility of the celebrity again sales increases and still they have face any type of HALLAL HARAM Issue.

No doubt brand equity is the strong influencer of the purchase intention but celebrity has its own role in the development of the brand equity. As with all pragmatic observations, this research has certain boundaries which themselves compose possible line of research in further studies. Restriction is that only those variables measured to be the most appropriate for achieving the objectives were included in their search model. A further limitation of this study lies in the application of the empirical study specifically in the FMCG market. For suggestions of more researches in the future, imitation and extension of this study should be conducted along with a relative analysis study of the consumer point views towards celebrity endorsement between a developed country and a developing country.

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