Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation
Received Date: Jul 26, 2018 / Accepted Date: Aug 24, 2018 / Published Date: Aug 30, 2018
Mankind has gone the wrong way to adjust the climate. Not СО2, but our attitude to water leads life on the planet to a catastrophe. Water affects not only the environment, but also the climate. As a result of human activity, the functions of the main part of the water have changed. Instead of keeping the biota and cleaning it, by supplying it with moisture, mineral and organic substances, the water comes with precipitation and returns to the atmosphere by artificial evaporation from arable lands, asphalt, reservoirs, dumps. In total, people took from nature 63% of the inhabited earth for these purposes, each hectare of which contained 20 tons of underground living creatures. These are microbes, worms, and so on living creatures that, in symbiosis with plants and terrestrial populations, absorb moisture, transform in food chains and exhale purely individual pairs, which we call natural or organic vapors. Human intervention in the circulation of water reduces food chains, and water from asphalt and other destroyed areas evaporates immediately after precipitation. We call this evaporation artificial. More artificial fumes are produced by industry and utilities around the world. The total artificial evaporation creates unprecedented volumes of water in the atmosphere, which destroyed the mechanism of atmospheric phenomena, which has been improved for millions of years. The cyclicity, massiveness and zones of precipitation have changed.
Keywords: Climate change; Mitigation; Adaptation
Almost the whole of Europe has “ennobled” its territories with arable land, water reservoirs, and cities. Only the all-round return to nature of organic fumes and the reduction of artificial fumes can save the world. Among the measures to reduce artificial fumes should be the total water saving in everyday life by every person, every enterprise of all branches of agriculture and industry. Reconstruction of the entire agriculture with the introduction of non-waste plowing, drip irrigation. There are many different ways and means of reducing water consumption.
One of the most capacious in artificial evaporation is man-made reservoirs. Full stop of projects and construction of new reservoirs, gradual liquidation of existing ones is necessary. There are interesting technical solutions for preserving the generation of electricity without dams and water accumulation. Climate degradation is a huge problem that requires new thinking. The Paris agreements call for a reduction in the emission of carbon dioxide. This is not a proven assumption. There is no convincing argument in the direct dependence of the increase in temperature on the Earth from the increase in CO2 in the atmosphere. “Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation,” the need for which 750 experts say, lead to humility with climate change. This leads to a distraction of humanity from finding out the true causes of climate change, the loss of time, to a catastrophe. Attempts to reduce fuel burning are similar to the movement of a vessel with a hole on the bottom, passengers who are scooping up water. A hole is increasing.
It is known that climate, natural disasters, and weather are all formed in the atmosphere. A lot of different gases enter the atmosphere. Among them, water vapor and carbon dioxide. Since the beginning of the XX century, according to UN experts, the increase in CO2 emissions was from 0.5% to 5% per year. As a result, over the last hundred years, 400 billion tons of CO2 has been supplied by combustion of fuel to the atmosphere 4 billion tons a year. Is this a lot or a little? Let’s look at the water. Every year people irretrievably take from rivers and lakes about 2000 cubic kilometers of fresh water. All this water after use in irrigation, industrial and communal processes, leaves in an atmosphere without organic changes. In terms of tons, this is the picture: (Figure 1).
1 year 4 billion tons of CO2 is released into the atmosphere.
1 year 2000 billion tons of water is released into the atmosphere by artificial evaporation from communal, industrial and agricultural processes.
It is necessary to add to this the volumes of fumes from the land. And the entire inhabited part of the planet is divided into two parts. The first is the existing biota; a part untouched by civilization- its 37%. The second is the degraded areas that we tore from nature to arable land, asphalt, artificial reservoirs, landfills, deforestation, etc. such areas 63%. Vaporization from biota is quite extensive each birch evaporates, about 200 liters of water per day, each person exhales and releases about 3 liters as an element of the biota. Vapors from degraded territories are much higher in volume and speed. Compare evaporation with asphalt and soil immediately after rain. Not speaking about quality of artificial and organic evaporations, it is possible to draw a conclusion that the right column in the presented schedule grows appreciably enough. Imagine that if there was no anthropogenic evaporation of water, there would be any civilization, this column would be shorter by several times. And he was such in the preindustrial era. Our generation still felt the charm of a climate untouched by civilization. Present generations still see its elements. Subsequent generations of this may find themselves in a world of permanent natural disasters.
Now, a lot of new hydroelectric power stations are being designed and built with the flooding of vast areas. Rapidly developing new technologies with the consumption of new volumes of water. The bar on the chart grows with increasing speed.
Artificial evaporation increases with each destroyed hectare . what grows on cultivated land and exploited “forests” is not a biota. These kinds of plants and the people they eat never form natural communities and are not capable of controlling the environment. Moreover, due to the achieved high productivity of such artificial sets of living organisms, they exert a destructive effect on the environment, often exceeding the control effect of natural aboriginal biota that existed earlier in the same territory. Therefore, in the deserts (including all territories covered by glaciers now or in the past), biotic control is simply turned off, but the deserts do not destroy the environment on a global scale, which cannot be said of cultivated lands and waters where a highly productive “antibiotic” (producing at high speed but environmentally senseless products) destabilizes the environment .
The manufacture of each item requires water flow. For example, 400 m3 of water is required for the production of 1 ton of glue; 250 m3 of water is used for the production of 1 ton of cotton fabric of the factory. A lot of water is required by the chemical industry. Thus, about 1000 m3 of water is expended on the production of 1 ton of ammonia. Modern large thermal power plants consume a huge amount of water. Only one station with a capacity of 300,000 kW consumes up to 120 m3/s, or more than 300 million m3 per year .
At the water we took away its most important link, the function - the transformation in the organic. Gigants mass of water rises to the atmosphere without natural structural transformations. Evaporation of water from asphalt, steam generator, from the kettle and drying dishes is artificial evaporation or evaporation with a reduced cycle. These waters have not fulfilled their natural destinies. The dialectic transition of quantity to quality - an increase in the volumes and rates of evaporation led to a change in the circulation of water, led to a distortion of the essence of the most important natural process [4-7]. Hence the natural disasters, the intensity and frequency of which increases every year and leads to the complete destruction of life on the planet. And it, destruction, has already begun many kinds of plants, animal, birds and insects disappear from the face of our planet 1,000 times faster than the natural level. This means that we lose 10 to 130 species every day. The economic damage caused by natural disasters, calculated by the authors of one of the studies, amounted to seven trillion dollars. The scientists came to their conclusions by analyzing the data on 35 thousand natural disasters that occurred in the last hundred years, which led to the death of more than eight million people. The agony of the planet begins [8-10].
Adaptation to a changing climate, as called for by modern climatologists, may extend life on the planet for a decade, maybe for the 1st century. The fight against carbon dioxide, the transition to “green technologies”, alternative energy sources-all these are necessary, useful, but far from sufficient measures. They are microscopic.
It is necessary to work out a new strategy based not on “scooping up water, but on closing the hole”, it is necessary to save the ship - life on the planet. The intensity of artificial fumes increases with the increase in the degradation of territories, the development of technologies in all spheres of human life .
A person must understand and create a new direction in the relationship with nature. If we want to preserve life on the planet for our descendants, we urgently need to return water to its natural functions. Only the all-round return to nature of organic fumes and the reduction of artificial fumes can save the world. Among the measures to reduce artificial fumes should be the total water saving in everyday life by every person, every enterprise of all branches of agriculture and industry. Reconstruction of all agriculture with the introduction of shallow plowing, drip irrigation, other ways to reduce water consumption . One of the most capacious in artificial evaporation is man-made reservoirs. Now everywhere is building up new hydroelectric power stations with the flooding of new vast territories. It is necessary to completely stop the projects and construction of these reservoirs, the gradual elimination of existing ones.
The author declares there is no acknowledgement.
Conflicts of Interest
The author declares there is no conflict of interest.
- (2009) On the occasion of Russia’s signing of the Kyoto Protocol: Is the climate warming or falling apart? Bioticheskaya Regulation for all.
- Musthafa MM (2015) A review of microsatellite marker usage in the assessment of genetic diversity of Camelus. Irarian J Appl Anim Sci 5: 1-4.
- Nei M (1972) Genetic distance between populations. American Naturalist 106: 283-292.
- Nolte M, Kotzé A, Bank FHVD, Grobler JP (2005) Microsatellite markers reveal low genetic differentiation among southern African Camelus dromedarius populations. South African J Anim Sci 35: 152-161.
- Nouairia G, Kdidi S, Ben SR, Hammadi M, Khorchani T, et al. (2015) Assessing genetic diversity of three Tunisian dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius) sub populations using microsatellite markers. Emir J Food Agric 27: 362-366.
- Obreque V, Coogle L, Henney PJ, Bailey E, Mancilla R, et al. (1998) Characterization of 10 polymorphic alpaca dinucleotide microsatellites. Anim Genet 29: 460-477.
- Ould AM, Ben SF, Bedhiaf S, Rekik B, Djemali M, et al. (2010) Genetic diversity in Tunisian dromedary (Camelus dromedarius) populations using microsatellite markers. Livest Sci 132: 182-185.
- Patel AC, Jisha TK, Upadhyay D, Parikh R, Upadhyay M, et al. (2015) Molecular characterization of camel breeds of Gujarat using microsatellite markers. Livest Sci 181: 85-88.
- Peakall R, Smouse PE (2006) Genalex 6: Genetic analysis in Excel. Population genetic software for teaching and research. Mol Ecol Notes 6: 288- 295.
- Penedo MCT, Caetano AR, Cordova K (1999) Six microsatellite markers for South American camelids. Anim Genet 30: 161-168.
- Shuvalov (2000) On singular features of acoustic wave propagation in weakly dissipative anisotropic thermoviscoelasticity. Acta Mechanica. 140:1-15.
- Avakyan AB, Shirokov BM (1990) Complex use and protection of water resources Minsk: Universitetskoye. Russia.
Citation: Hlidullin O (2018) Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation . J Biodivers Endanger Species 6:005. DOI: 10.4172/2332-2543.S2-005
Copyright: © 2018 Hlidullin O. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Select your language of interest to view the total content in your interested language
Share This Article
- Total views: 276
- [From(publication date): 0-0 - Dec 15, 2018]
- Breakdown by view type
- HTML page views: 243
- PDF downloads: 33