alexa Commitment and Business Performance of Public Private Partnerships (PPPs) Enterprises in Bayelsa State | OMICS International
ISSN: 2162-6359
International Journal of Economics & Management Sciences
Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700+ peer reviewed, Open Access Journals that operates with the help of 50,000+ Editorial Board Members and esteemed reviewers and 1000+ Scientific associations in Medical, Clinical, Pharmaceutical, Engineering, Technology and Management Fields.
Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our 3000+ Global Conferenceseries Events with over 600+ Conferences, 1200+ Symposiums and 1200+ Workshops on
Medical, Pharma, Engineering, Science, Technology and Business

Commitment and Business Performance of Public Private Partnerships (PPPs) Enterprises in Bayelsa State

Poazi Francis WD1*, Jasmine OTA1 and Fems KM2

1Department of Business Administration, Niger Delta University, Amassoma, Bayelsa, Nigeria

2Centre for Entrepreneurship and Skills Development, Federal Polytechnic of Oil & Gas, Ekowe, Nigeria

*Corresponding Author:
Poazi Framcis WD
Lecturer, department of Business Administration
Niger Delta University
Amassoma, Bayelsa, Nigeria
Tel: 2348037685140; 2349084771183
E-mail: [email protected]

Received date: June 15, 2017; Accepted date: July 31, 2017; Published date: August 03, 2017

Citation: Poazi Francis WD, Jasmine OTA, Fems KM (2017) Commitment and Business Performance of Public Private Partnerships (PPPs) Enterprises in Bayelsa State. Int J Econ Manag Sci 6: 445. doi: 10.4172/2162-6359.1000445

Copyright: © 2017 Poazi Francis WD, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Visit for more related articles at International Journal of Economics & Management Sciences

Abstract

The prime aim of this study is to investigate the commitment and business performance of PPPS enterprises in Bayelsa state. To achieve such fit, the study critically looked at the behavioural disposition of host communities, the donor agencies and government towards influencing business performances of PPPs as perceived by people working in 3 case studies of PPP organizations in Bayelsa state. So the study examined the extent of relationship between the enabling PPP laws and business performance of various public private partnerships and the economic growth in Bayelsa state. In addition the study determined the extent of relationship between the political will and climate influences business performance of public private partnerships in Bayelsa state. Thus, a systematic approach of survey research design, quantitative method and a deductive approach were applied. Consequently, the target population of the study comprises 1,417 staff of Bayelsa Palm Ltd (BPL), Bayelsa Farms Ltd (BFL) Odi and Rural Access and Mobility Project (ORAMP) public private partnership enterprises all in Bayelsa state. Our sample size was 312 out of 1,417 using the proportionate stratified random sampling technique. Through the combination of the two methods of questionnaire and interview for data collections, we were able to double check results of the data gathered thus, prevailing over the biases that come with applying just a single method and increasing the validity of the results. Statistics Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) were applied to test hypotheses with Pearson Chi-Square statistics, z-test statistic and Chi-Square statistics to bring the significant relationship between two variables, this allows degree of freedom, level of significance and to give sufficient validity to the tested hypotheses. The result therefore, shows that indeed there is a significant relationship between enabling PPP laws and business performance of various public private partnerships and the economic growth in Bayelsa state. Also it suggests that both political will and climate has significant influences on business performance of PPP in Bayelsa state. In conclusion, the findings of the study reaffirm the role/magnitude played by PPPs towards influencing economic development in the state and indeed Nigeria. Understandably from the findings of the study, PPPs need to represent a unique domain of inter-personal relations of all stakeholders with an improved financial commitment with utmost level of agreements in pursuant of quality business performance and service delivery. Therefore, in order to capture a sustainable performance of PPPs in accelerating economic growth in Bayelsa State and its environs, it recommends the need for government and its private investors to conduct a proper consultation or carry out need assessment programs of host communities, state or nation before setting up and subsequent implementation of the project. This again will avoid the risk of allocation of financial resources but encourage financial structuring to the right project. Thus, it is expected for current and future PPPs schemes to review or have collective, workable legal frameworks addressing all issues raised by this study, that way PPPs will be utilized and seen as a signpost of economic growth in Bayelsa State. More so, adherence to the recommendations given on this study by government and its partners will of course bring to end of the perceived lackluster and lukewarm approach, performance and implementations of PPP in Bayelsa State. In order words, citizenries will not further see PPP as a conduit pipe to enrich private pocket. Thus, significant improvement will be recorded for PPPs to perform in order to bring sanity, trust of government, BOT and other stakeholders to redirect policies of PPPs as an innovative policy vehicle of economic development geared towards mitigating the lack of efficiency and enthusiasm in the public sector. 

Keywords

Business; Commitment; Enterprises; Performance; Public private partnerships

Introduction

Public Private Partnerships (PPPs) are worldwide accepted apparatus involving various sets of governments to engage and collaborate with private sectors in delivering development, facilities and services to the citizenry [1]. According to Olaniyan [2], Public Private Partnerships (PPPs) are basically the official arrangements between governments and the private sector for the sole aim and purpose of providing good public infrastructure, community facilities and related services to the citizenries of a particular region or state.

Indeed Bayelsa state was created in 1996 by then military head of state, General Sani Abacha and relatively is still young in terms of PPPs; although full of potential and capacity to grow when the right PPPs are instituted. Such potentials and capacity that can pioneer economic development through PPPs could range from power, agriculture, aquaculture and tourism etc. No doubt public private partnerships (PPPs) have been in the front burner to almost the developed and developing countries all over the world; and are seen as the economic instigators and engine room of various economies. Thus, over time and recently the government of Bayelsa state has been giving PPPs its pride of place putting some number of political and economic inducement to affect the lots it people through various partnerships in almost all sectors [3]. The Nigerian government through the then minister for Niger Delta, Godsday Orubebe pronounced 3,000 SMEs which are packages of PPPs to be created in the Niger Delta region during a towday management retreat on the draft of Niger Delta action plan in Uyo [4]. In the same vein, the minister also stated that the SMEs will create employment and boost the economic fortunes across the Niger Delta states comprising of Abia, Akwa Ibom, Bayelsa, Cross River, Delta, Edo, Imo, Ondo, and Rivers. However, “clearly, government is returning to failed policies as business is better left to entrepreneurs. Government only needs to provide favorable business climate and access to low interest capital for businesses to grow and create jobs. Government has no businesses creating a number of enterprises” [4]. Though in the eyes of many it was another wasteful effort from the government because of failed states controlled PPPs previously in the region and there was no budgetary provision to back up the plan of create such 3,000 SMEs and PPPs across the Niger Delta region.

Public private partnerships (PPPs) have over the years impacted and affected the Indian economy wholesomely. According to UNDP report, notably, public private partnerships (PPPs) in Bayelsa and elsewhere are no doubt narrowed to sectors and ministries that are often times well defined as public goods. For instance in Bayelsa and even in other developing and developed nation good services and other utilities are expected to be provided by the government, and all of these falls within the ambit of public private partnerships (PPPs). Although in recent times Bayelsa state and other states particularly in Nigeria are lagging behind and now experiences lopsided public sector support in creating valuable assets for goods and services that are fundamentally for private use. The Nigerian Integrated Infrastructure Plan (NIIP) and the ratification of Infrastructure Concession Regulatory Commission Act are all poised and in support of allowing private sector participation in infrastructural development in Nigeria to thrive through a robust adoption of public private partnership (PPP) in terms of infrastructural development and projects [5,6]. Likewise Ismail is of the opinion that PPPs concepts are not totally new in the acquisition of infrastructural advancement and development [7]. Definitely, the various bold steps undertake by Nigerian government and indeed other states governments to build and bring infrastructural development through PPP is a pointer to a good omen if good practice and implementation of PPPs are followed to the last letter as obtainable in other developed and developing Nations and states [8]. Thus, if such giant trend is sustained by successive various levels of governments to secure infrastructure projects in the course of the use of PPPs, then such fits will allow the benefits of PPPs to be harnessed and eventually spread to all nooks and crannies in Bayelsa state.

Of course the absent of infrastructural and how to bridge the gap of infrastructural deficit is not synonymous to Bayelsa or Niger Delta region alone but it has trickle down to almost all parts Nigeria. Perhaps and quiet unfortunate even the Federal government and its financial agencies are still unable to exterminate or stem the gap of infrastructural decay after much over bogus budgetary provisions. Undoubtedly, the underlined reasons for adopting PPPs around the globe and Bayelsa in particular is owed to significantly shrink the cost of governance which allows various government parastatals to partner with the innovative ideas from private sectors to provide and improve public facilities and services [9-11]. In order words, adequate utilization of PPPs project, goals and targets indeed can ameliorate or bridge the gap of infrastructural deficiencies which may be seen as lack of government presence. No doubt Niger Delta and indeed Bayelsa State is suffering from the inadequate or well thought out Public Private Partnership (PPP) programs.

Bayelsa State is one of the youngest states in the Nigerian but no doubt is suffering from insufficient or better still lack of world class infrastructures which perhaps is a common denominator in most of the Niger Delta States that is very rich in God given human, crude oil and other natural mineral resources. Obviously this is an irony particularly looking at the level of contribution and sacrifice from this region to the wealth of the entire nation Nigeria. Clearly, this deficiency of world class and ground breaking infrastructures in the state has plunged the developmental strides into a crawling economic mode of growth. All over the world, it is not secrecy for any well-meaning government to put the best human and other pool of resources forward into making life better for their citizenries by provide quality infrastructures through various PPP projects. But at what cost even? Developed and developing countries and states are where they are today by applying a considerable wealth or resources in order to infuse strategic cost and benefit prowess in financing their PPP projects needed for such an undertaking. In order words, the key indicator that dives success in infrastructural or PPPs is the level of significant approach of cost benefit analysis before delving into financing such projects. But to a large extent does emerging markets or state like Bayelsa really identify such trend of cost and benefit principle before investing or sponsoring such PPP projects? Secondly does the risk worthiness or not put into the front burner? Or were the PPPs created to test, score or gain a cheap political popularity? These are some questions begging for concerted answers.

It is a firm belief of citizens and even the political office holders to see its resources to be fully utilized efficiently and effectively. In recent times there has been a collective and concerted effort by Bayelsa state government to use PPPs as a dashboard to improve public facilities and or improve the economic fortune of the state [12]. Nevertheless, the increase of government unprecedented expenditures of PPPs projects in Bayelsa state raises questions if the business performances of these PPP projects are commensurate with the economic growth of Bayelsa State. More so, even in the developed countries or states there some few cases where the planning and implementation to attract viability have lost the savor cost benefit analysis of PPPs. However, there are no comparable evidences and clear cut fact of the PPPs performance analysis in the Bayelsian context to those other Nations or cities. Apparently, in achieving government interests and intentions of larger involvement of private sectors in building strong PPPs, it is expected to really categories the salient but dynamic factors that will woo or trigger private investors to mobilize and partner with government to bring and enhance development to the citizenry. It is noteworthy that public infrastructures investments like transport, stadium and roads are not automatically built and developed in isolation without the inclusion of other economic structures like tourism, urban, housing etc. [13].

As a well-known fact, the private sector is fully persuaded, assured and aware of the cost, benefit and the risks involves in partnering with government in order to undertake or finance a viable PPP projects. And it is a common knowledge that financially viable aspects of economic infrastructural development are enshrined by committed investors. Furthermore, an agreement was reached between the bank of industry (BOI) and Bayelsa state to revamp and support small and medium enterprises growth in the state. Bayelsa state government based on the memorandum of understanding signed with the bank of industry (BOI) is to dole out the sum of ?2.5bn about £9.75m as a counterpart funding to the SMEs [14]. Responding to the MOU signed with the Bayelsa state, the MD of the bank of industry (BOI) stressed the readiness on their part to partner with government in order to foster economic growth through public private partnership in the state and the country at large. No doubt most of the countries and states like the US, UK, Barcelona, Japan, South Africa, Equatorial Guinea etc., are just few examples successfully hosting world and Nation cup sports tournaments and events and other PPP projects. Amazingly, such projects are still in top notch shape. The reason is simple, the private investors and government applied the principle of cost, benefit and the risks analysis approach to finance, execute and achieving viable PPP projects which are now a giant strides of developments. Today, those Nations and cities has shifted from their old looks and shapes to be considered as the leading and shining examples in the world with top notch infrastructures. Whereas in some developing countries or cities like Nigeria and Bayelsa in context public private partnership (PPP) projects struggle to maintain preconceived partnership agreements not to talk aftermath maintenance of such projects. Reason been that most of such partnerships were not predicated upon or rooted in the value chain of cost, benefit and risk analysis. The scourge of infrastructural deficit in Bayelsa and other environs in Niger Delta and Nigeria at large is simply down to our inabilities, private investors and government for not applying or adhering to the principle and tenets of cost, benefit and the risks analysis in approaching PPPs. Notwithstanding though, the government of Nigeria and Bayelsa over the years have taken concerted efforts presently in addressing this infrastructure gap are implementation through viable PPP packages and programs.

It is worthy to note here though, that the setting up and even implementation processes of PPPs are uniquely characterized and as such differs from country to country and even state-to-state; hence has various benchmarking factors or apparatus that may have influenced the PPPs high or low performance. Yet the tenets or principles of cost benefit and the risks analysis approach brings same results when genuinely followed by private investors and government apparatus. Thus raises augments that negates the partnership between private investors and government as government and other privates bodies most times spends so much funds on facilities whose uses are expended immediately after the commissioning or opening and most times closing ceremonies which perhaps due to lack of maintenance culture. Consequently such massive or giant ground breaking PPP projects most times abandoned and constitute wasteful and what economics and efficiency managers will call reckless and perhaps irrational spending of scarce resources. According to the findings of Institute for Public Private Partnership [14], this is commonly found in the developing countries and cities. Apparently such wasteful funds could have been plunged into more pressing, urgent and endearing projects elsewhere.

Thus, this study is exceptional and is geared towards the fact that it goes beyond adopting the PPPs in Bayelsa state by offering the evidence on different views of government/public sector, private sectors and beneficiaries or host communities which are basically the threefold cords involved in PPPs in the state. To this end, it is the legitimate onus and interest of the general public to really scrutinize the PPPs cost, business performance and viability of the projects in the state. Accordingly, such process of public scrutiny presumes of having a transparent, timely and reliable utilization of public fund in venturing into PPPs projects.

Sequel to this, this study seeks to investigate into the commitment of both donor agencies/government and host communities as well as business performance of PPPs in Bayelsa state. It empirically examines the relationship between business performances of PPPs and economic growth as well as determining the extent of commitment/ attitudes of both beneficiaries and benefactors towards PPPs project that can influence business performance of PPPs in Bayelsa state. The study is expectant to fill the gap by investigating the commitment of both government/donor agencies and benefiting communities plays in influencing the business performance of PPPs in Bayelsa state. Consequently, this study is poised to give some support to this issue with the following two specific objectives of the study such as: aiming to shed light on the extent of relationship between business performance of public private partnerships and economic growth of Bayelsa state. In addition the study intends to investigate the extent to which commitment of both beneficiaries and benefactors influence the business performance of PPPs in Bayelsa state.

Objectives of the Study

As earlier stated the general intent of this study is to investigate commitment and business performances of public private partnerships (PPPs) in Bayelsa state as perceived by people working in three case study PPP organizations in Bayelsa state. Specifically the objective of the study is to investigate whether those working within the three selected PPP organizations can shed light on the extent of relationship between business performance of public private partnerships and economic growth of Bayelsa state. This objective highlights the role given the existing enabling PPP laws and business performance of various public private partnerships in order to transform economic growth in Bayelsa state.

Secondly, the study determines the extent to which political will and climate influences business performance of public private partnerships in Bayelsa state. Indeed this objective is to clarify the role of political willingness and disposition of government as well as influencing host communities, the donor agencies and towards genuine intentions and commitment of PPPs and implementation that will bring the needed economic and social benefits to Bayelsa state. The chosen case study PPP organizations can provide evidence about these relationships that has plagued previous researched.

Significance of the Study

The benefits of public private partnership schemes are easily noticeable in any economy, because the public private partnerships assemble the potentials to create a better and more proficiency geared towards the developing and providing quality service [15]. Indeed, it is worthy to note here that PPPs in Bayelsa are dashboards to economic gains that are significant to increase or boosting the entire GDP of Nigeria. Consequently this study is of significant benefit to researchers, scholars, government and non-governmental organization (NGOs) and the society at large because the PPPs are posed to bring value for money, greater capacity of labor, resources and construction [16].

Analysing Public Private Partnerships

One of the most vital issues surrounding any public private partnerships over the years has been that of having many stakeholders with divergent opinion or reasons which need to be harnessed to ensure all-inclusive partnerships and in most parts successful completion of projects. In order words, a well-meaning project can be thrown off balance if one party decides to throw in a spanner into the moving wheels of the project. Meaning if the contractual agreement of PPPs is not adequately spelt out or clear in terms of roles, purpose lack of technical prowess and commitment amongst the stakeholders’ can indeed endanger the completion of the project which in turn can hunt the image of those involve in the PPPs negatively. So particularly the government and other captains of industries thinking to partner in PPPs in Bayelsa and other places as a matter of fact exhibit some level objective central and purpose role than other stakeholders. Because recently in Bayelsa, government do not own up responsibilities to provide the clear leadership needed in executing PPPs in the state but often hide under failed PPPs projects and at the same time take most of the glory if success is recorded in PPPs. Typical example of such behavior from government is the Ogbia-Nembe road that government has taken the shine off other genuine partners like NDDC and Shell after contributing some paltry amount of money as compared to other stakeholders’. No doubt any serious government has the capacity to propagate, regulate and facilitate through its robust law-making authorities for any PPPs project in the state to have a fruitful ending or completion.

Current Status of Public Private Partnerships in Bayelsa State

Bayelsa state since the creation in 1996 to my own understanding has witnessed many collaboration and partnerships amongst various stakeholders including government [4]. Most importantly, it has been evident though with diverse traction in terms of development of PPPs in the state. In fact, these project span through almost all the sectors in terms roads, housing, hospital and tourism etc. and PPPs has been the most preferred and welcome means of developing and completion of such projects. In view of the above, the Bayelsa state government through the ministry of finance has gone ahead to establish public private partnerships (PPPs) office with a view of ensuring effective and efficient robust partnerships of would be partners as well as current partners. According the government it is an opportunity for investors to partner and further create employment to the teeming youths, men and women as well as providing social amenities for the populace. Government through this office is no doubt will woo potential investors and working out best modalities of partnership in order to have a performing PPPs as well as reassuring partners/investors of investors of government commitment in providing a favorable investment climate for investments in the state. Despite the good programs of the state government towards PPPs targeting various potential investors, one thing is key and needful to make these lofty and healthy ideas come into fruition.

Research questions

Research questions are not proven facts rather they are seen as the working principles of the research Thomas, cited in Creswell [17]. Thus, the following research questions were asked to guide the study in meeting the objectives of the study.

i. What is the extent of relationship between the existing enabling PPP laws and business performance of various public private partnerships and the economic growth in Bayelsa state?

ii. To what extent of relationship between the political will and ambiance influences business performance of public private partnerships in Bayelsa state?

Research hypothesis

According to Creswell researcher uses hypotheses to forecast the expected answers and relationship amongst variables under investigation. Creswell stated that ‘‘testing of hypotheses employs statistical procedures in which the investigator draws inferences about the population from a study sample”. Thus, the following research null hypotheses brings clarity and relationships amongst the variables been investigated. In addition, the following hypothesis will indeed help our investigation and facilitate in achieving the objectives of this study.

Hypothesis one

H01: There is no significant relationship between the existing enabling PPP laws and business performance of various public private partnerships and the economic growth in Bayelsa state.

H1: There is significant relationship between the existing enabling PPP laws and business performance of various public private partnerships and the economic growth in Bayelsa state.

Hypothesis two

H02: Political will and climate do not have significant influences business performance of public private partnerships in Bayelsa state

H2: Political will and ambiance do have significant influences business performance of public private partnerships in Bayelsa state

Research Method(S)/Approaches and Rationale

The study of this magnitude vitally requires a systematic approach in order to achieve its goals. Accordingly, the highlights of this section are research method(s)/approaches and rationale, sources of data, population, sampling procedure, data collection method, and data analysis techniques. The study applied survey research design, quantitative method and a deductive approach. The rationale behind adopting survey method is because is a common research method applied in social science investigations [18]. The rationale why the study chooses these method(s) and approaches is because quantitative research approaches the researcher collect data and test existing supporting and rebuttal premises. The study opts for positivism because positivists “reflect the need to identify and assess the causes that influence outcomes”. Creswell also argued that Positivism focus on empirical observation and tends have a view point of positivism in the conduct of a research which brings empirical observations. This study applied a cross sectional time horizon timeframe. The rationale behind using cross-sectional time horizon technique was due to the fact that longitudinal time horizon consumes more time and resources [19]. The time scale and frame of the study is cross sectional due to limited and scarce recourses. Therefore, this research work contains mixed methods, approaches and techniques.

Percentage analysis

The reason for using percentages was to interpret questionnaires values and attributes which are quantitative in nature. Thus calls for using number of tables to conduct critical examination of the respondents’ responses to the questions asked in the questionnaire.

Test of hypotheses one and two

The hypotheses projected for the study were tested with various test statistics aided by computer through the application of Statistics Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). Specifically, hypotheses were tested with Pearson Chi-Square statistics and z-test statistics respectively. The study opts for Chi-Square and statistics to test for the significant relationship between two variables and allows degree of freedom and level of significance, while z-test statistics was applied purely to give level of sufficient validity to the tested hypotheses.

Hypotheses one

H01: There is no significant relationship between the existing enabling PPP laws and business performance of various public private partnerships and the economic growth in Bayelsa state.

H1: There is significant relationship between the existing enabling PPP laws and business performance of various public private partnerships and the economic growth in Bayelsa state.

Table 1 shows a cross tabulation statistics of counts and expected counts from the responses of all employees participated in the study across the three selected PPPs in Bayelsa State. After a careful scrutiny of the responses, majority of the respondents affirmed that the existing enabling PPPs laws have significant relationship between business performances of PPPs and the economic growth of Bayelsa state.

  Organization
  BPL BFL ORAMP TOTAL
There is no significant relationship between between the existing enabling PPP laws and business performance of various public private partnerships and the economic growth in Bayelsa state. Strongly Disagree Count 10 7 10 27
  12.3 9.8 4.9 27
Expected Count 10 15 11 36
Disagree Count 16.4 13 6.6 36
Expected Count 5 4 3 12
Undecided Count 5.5 4.3 2.2 12
Expected Count 20 20 10 50
Agree Count 22.8 18.1 9.1 50
Expected Count 90 61 20 171
Strongly Agree Count 78 61.8 31.2 171
Grand Total Expected Count 135 107 54 296
Expected Count 135 107 54 296

Table 1: Cross tabulation statistics of between the existing enabling ppp laws and business performance of various public private partnerships and the economic growth in Bayelsa state.

a) 3 cells (20%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 2.19. Thus 0.014 is highly significant

Table 2 reveals the output of computed Chi-Square values from the cross tabulation statistics table. The Pearson Chi-Square computed statistics value (X2cal = 19.127) is greater than the Chi-Square table value (X2tab = 15.15) with 8 degree of freedom (df) at (0.05) alpha level (X2cal = 19.127, P<.05). Thus, it implies that there is a significant relationship between the existing PPPs laws, business performances of PPPs and economic growth of Bayelsa state.

  Value Df Assymp.Sig/Probability Values (2-Sided)
Pearson Chi-Square 19.127 8 0.014
Likelihood Ratio 18.397 8 0.018
Linear-by-Linear 14.499 1 0
Association N of Valid Cases 296    

Table 2: Chi-square statistics on between the existing enabling ppp laws and business performance of various public private partnerships and the economic growth in Bayelsa state.

a. Not assuming the null hypothesis.

b. Using the asymptomatic standard error assuming the null hypothesis.

Chi-Square can only show the significant relationship between the two variables of the hypothesis without the nature or direction and the extent of the relationship [20]. Thus, Table 3 shows the symmetric measure of contingency coefficient (c) value of (0.246). This signifies that there is a significant relationship between the existing enabling PPPs laws has significant relationship between business performances of PPPs and the economic growth of Bayelsa state.

  Value Approx. Sig.
Nominal by Nominal Contingency Coefficient 0.246 0.14
N of Valid Cases 296  

Table 3: Symmetric on between the existing enabling ppp laws and business performance of various public private partnerships and the economic growth in Bayelsa state.

Decision rule

The decisions rule is to accept the null hypothesis if the Chi-Square computed is less than table value (critical value); otherwise the null hypothesis is rejected.

Decision

The Chi-Square computed X2cal = 19.127 which is greater than the Chi-Square tabulated X2tab = 15.15, thus, null hypothesis is rejected. In conclusion, there is a significant relationship between the existing enabling PPPs laws has significant relationship between business performances of PPPs and the economic growth of Bayelsa state.

Hypothesis two

H0: Commitment of both beneficiaries and benefactors do not have significant influence on the business performance of PPPs in Bayelsa state.

H2: Commitment of both beneficiaries and benefactors do have significant influence on the business performance of PPPs in Bayelsa state.

a. Test distribution is Normal.

b. Calculated from data.

The Z-test computed in Table 4 had the Z-test computed statistics value of (Zcal = 6.07) is greater than Z tabulated value of (Ztab = 1.645) with 295 degree of freedom (df) at 0.05 level of confidence for a one tail-test (Zcal = 6.07, P<0.05).

  N Mean Standard Deviation
Political will and ambiance does not have significant influences business performance of public private partnerships in Bayelsa state 296 3.95 0.858
Valid N (Listwise) 296    

Table 4: Descriptive statistics on political will and ambiance do not have significant influences business performance of public private partnerships in Bayelsa state.

Decision rule

The decision rule is to accept the null hypothesis, if the computed Z-test value is less than table value; otherwise the null hypothesis is rejected.

Decision

Since the Z-test computed (Zcal = 6.07) is greater than the Z-test critical value/tabulated value (Ztab = 1.645), then reject the null hypothesis. For this reason, it suggests that both political will and ambiance significantly influences business performance of public private partnerships in Bayelsa state.

Discussion of Findings

Objective one

To examined the extent of relationship between the existing enabling PPP laws and business performance of various public private partnerships in order to transform economic growth in Bayelsa state.

The analysis of research question one, were done base on the respondent’s responses which reveals that both political will and ambiance significantly influences business performance of PPPs which may have direct impact of employment generation, enhances economic growth that increases mutual benefits between government, public/host communities and other financial agencies in Bayelsa States. However, majority of the respondents are dissatisfied with the current and slow pace of business performance of the public private partnership initiatives in Bayelsa state.

Therefore, null hypothesis one tested in Table 5 was rejected because there was no relationship between the existing enabling PPP laws and business performance of various public private partnerships that transforms economic growth in Bayelsa state (X2cal = 19.13, P<0.05).

  Political will and ambiance does not have significant influences business performance of public private partnerships in Bayelsa state
N   296
Normal Parametersa,b Mean 3.95
  Standard Deviation 0.858
Most Extreme Absolute 0.353
Difference Positive 0.235
Negative 0.353
Kolmogorov-sminov Z   6.07
Assymp. Sig (2-sided)   0

Table 5: Z-test statistics on commitment of both political will and ambiance.

Notwithstanding, the findings further corroborate the assertion of Pacific Economic Cooperation Council (2006) that PPPs are geared towards achieving proper developmental agenda of both authorities. In addition PPPs are “the relationship of shared risk between public and private sectors based on mutual wishes for the achievement of a desired result in public policy".

Objective two

To ascertain the extent to which both political will and climate influences business performance of public private partnerships in Bayelsa state.

The analysis given on research question two were down to the responses from respondents about questionnaire questions from 8-11 in reveals that lack of political will and ambiance from the part of government in initiating and influencing host/benefiting communities’ and donor agencies in the creation of PPP do have a huge bearing in the business performance of PPPs in Bayelsa.

Thus, the null hypothesis three in Table 5, it reveals that the -test computed (Zcal = 6.07) is greater than the Z-test tabulated or critical value (X2tab = 1.645), thus rejects null hypothesis two. In order words, both political will and ambiance does significantly influence business performance of PPPs in Bayelsa state (Zcal = 6.07, P<0.05).

Obviously, the political will and ambiance from the part of government to initiate and with purposeful influence to host/benefiting communities’ and donor agencies as to why and what type PPP program that needs to be imitated given the enormous political capital impact it carries in a democratic settings and electioneering campaign

Conclusions/Implications

No doubt public private partnerships (PPPs) has a global position or structure to finance and provide or support development and improvement of public utilities or goods and service in terms of roads, health, communication and also even agriculture etc. But for obvious reasons such is not the case in the Bayelsa public private partnerships (PPPs) and as such PPPs in most part has been relegated to the background. Evidently, the findings of this study reaffirms the role and magnitude played by public private partnerships (PPPs) towards influencing business and economic growth in Bayelsa State and indeed Nigeria at large. And this is not far from the position of recent studies of Raki?, and Ra?enovi? [21], which also reflects that public private partnerships emerged due to the incompetence nature accompanying the public sector to provide adequate social amenities to its citizens.

It is understandable from the findings of the study that there is need to advocate for PPPs that will represents a unique domain of inter-personal relations of all stakeholders with an improved financial and moral commitment with utmost level of transparent financial agreements in pursuant of quality business performance and service delivery of PPPs in Bayelsa in order to forestall total collapse of the tenets PPP. Moreover, the findings of the study serves as a departure for future studies of public PPPs as an initiative towards a greater understanding of mutual PPPs financial agreements, promote accountability and transparency in order to drive committed ownership and implementation of PPPs in Bayelsa State by all stakeholders. Although, from the findings, PPPs cannot miraculously overhaul the much anticipated development to Bayelsa State and it’s environ. Nonetheless, if government and its partners adhere to the recommendations given on this work, it will to an extent bring to end of the perceived lackluster and lukewarm approach, performance and implementations of PPP in Bayelsa State. In order words, citizenries will not further see PPP as a conduit pipe to enrich private pocket. But rather feel comfortable, partner and believed more in the laudable programs of PPP in the state and its environs.

Strong public sector capacity with genuine political ambiance to identifying, structuring and implementation of PPPs is very much needed at this point in time in the state. The responsibility of providing public infrastructure and services is entrusted primarily to the government as it were. With the emergence of a strong and vibrant private sector over the past two decades, there is a need for a strategic shift in the role of the government in implementing PPP projects. Instead of being driven by financial constraints, the government should position itself as a partner as well as an overseer of the activities being undertaken. For such a role, the government needs to strengthen its governance capabilities which include accurate identification, proper structuring and vigilant monitoring of the projects.

Recommendation

In view of the findings emerging from this study and in order to have a successful partnership and implementation of PPP projects in Bayelsa state and other environs in Niger Delta, the study recommends the following:

• Government and its private investors of public private partnership (PPP) should conduct a proper consultation or do need assessments of the host community, state or nation within the enabling PPP laws before delving into the project proper. That way Bayelsa state government, host communities, state or nation and other stakeholders will be more committed to the project. This will further increase accountability, transparency, trust and appropriate allocation of resources and responsibility in completing such project. Undoubtedly, public, private sectors and host communities will build strong private consortium and ties that can guarantee realistic cost/benefit assessment of stable and sound PPP projects in the state and its environs. Given the PPP enabling laws in no doubt if properly followed have huge bearing and benefits to the overall business performance of PPPs.

• Thus government and its private investors of public private partnership (PPP) should ensure that the intending PPP project meets the need of the host community as well as the general acceptability before venturing into it. This will in a way eliminate or avoid unnecessary hiccups due to host community negative behavioural dispositions and subsequent abandonment of project but foster collective readiness and completion of the project.

• Government and its private investors of public private partnership (PPP) after carrying out such feasibility or need assessment should realistically ask or double check if the intending project matches their financial muscles. This also takes care of abandonment of project and lack of willingness to meet up with current challenges.

• Again the study recommends that government should create and implement PPPs in Bayelsa State within the ambit of enabling laws. This corroborates Bhirud, and Vasant [22,23] that “agencies should develop viable and robust legal and regulatory framework for PPP implementation as well as government undertaking sufficient public awareness campaign on need”. Thus, give both benefiting communities and benefactors to protect and guide PPP infrastructural projects. Clearly, there is need to have dedicated PPP units at government levels and other agencies in order to move Bayelsa State PPP projects into maturity model for infrastructure provision to its citizenries.

In view of capturing a sustainable business performance of PPPs in accelerating economic growth in Bayelsa State and its environs, it suggest the need for various governments and other captains of the private sector to be more sensitive in weeding out ambiguity in their agreements, unaccountability and uncommitted attitudes of both government and host communities.

Thus, in using PPPs as a signpost of economic growth in Bayelsa State, it is expected for current and future PPPs schemes to review or have collective, workable legal frameworks to address all issues raised and findings by this study. Indeed, from the foregoing, there is a room for significant improvement of PPPs in Bayelsa state to perform in order to bring sanity, trust of government and other stakeholders to redirect policies of PPPs as an innovative policy vehicle for economic drive geared towards mitigating the lack of efficient and enthusiasm plaguing the public sector.

References

Select your language of interest to view the total content in your interested language
Post your comment

Share This Article

Relevant Topics

Article Usage

  • Total views: 566
  • [From(publication date):
    August-2017 - Sep 21, 2018]
  • Breakdown by view type
  • HTML page views : 515
  • PDF downloads : 51
 

Post your comment

captcha   Reload  Can't read the image? click here to refresh

Peer Reviewed Journals
 
Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700 + peer reviewed, Open Access Journals
International Conferences 2018-19
 
Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our 3000+ Global Annual Meetings

Contact Us

bornova escort

Datta A

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9037

Business & Management Journals

Ronald

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Chemistry Journals

Gabriel Shaw

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9040

Clinical Journals

Datta A

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9037

Engineering Journals

James Franklin

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Food & Nutrition Journals

Katie Wilson

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

General Science

Andrea Jason

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9043

Genetics & Molecular Biology Journals

Anna Melissa

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9006

Immunology & Microbiology Journals

David Gorantl

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9014

Materials Science Journals

Rachle Green

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Nursing & Health Care Journals

Stephanie Skinner

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Medical Journals

Nimmi Anna

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9038

Neuroscience & Psychology Journals

Nathan T

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9041

Pharmaceutical Sciences Journals

Ann Jose

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9007

Social & Political Science Journals

Steve Harry

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

 
© 2008- 2018 OMICS International - Open Access Publisher. Best viewed in Mozilla Firefox | Google Chrome | Above IE 7.0 version