alexa Comparative Assessment of Changes Induced by Malting on the Proximate Composition and Amino Acid Profile of Three Classes of Sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] Grains.

ISSN 2472-0542

Journal of Experimental Food Chemistry

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Comparative Assessment of Changes Induced by Malting on the Proximate Composition and Amino Acid Profile of Three Classes of Sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] Grains.

Mohammed A Usman1 and Mathew K Bolade2*
1Department of Food Science and Technology, Modibbo Adama University of Technology, PMB 2076, Yola, Adamawa State, Nigeria
2Department of Food Science and Technology, Federal University of Technology, PMB 704, Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria
*Corresponding Author: Mathew K Bolade, Department of Food Science and Technology, Federal University of Technology, PMB 704, Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria, Tel: +234 8035019525, Email: [email protected]

Received Date: Sep 25, 2017 / Accepted Date: Oct 26, 2017 / Published Date: Oct 30, 2017

Abstract

The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of malting on the proximate composition and amino acid profile of locally available sorghum types (local, improved and hybrid). Each sorghum type was subjected to malting after which they were analyzed. The proximate composition of the samples revealed that malting gave rise to the enhancement of protein and crude fibre content while there were reduction in the concentration of fat, ash and carbohydrate. The highest value of protein content was found in the malted Hybrid-A and Hybrid-B with an equal value of 11.45 g/100 g sample while the highest crude fibre content was found in the malted pelipeli (local sorghum type) with a value of 2.54 g/100g sample. Virtually all the amino acids (essential and non-essential) increased in value as a result of the malting process. The total essential amino acids (TEAA) in the malted sorghum grains ranged between 335.5 and 348.1 mg/g protein which fell short of the minimum recommended 35% for the maintenance of optimum human health. The quantity of each amino acid in both unmalted and malted sorghum grains respectively from different classes of the cereal was, to a great extent, not significantly different (p<0.05). The amino acid profile therefore serves as an indicator of knowing the extent of complementarity with other protein-rich plant sources in case of using the malted sorghum grains in food formulation.

Keywords: Malting; Proximate composition; Amino acid; Sorghum; Cereal product

Introduction

Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L) Moench) is a widely grown cereal grain in arid and semi-arid regions of the world, and has been ranked as the fifth most important cereal after wheat, maize, rice and barley [1]. The consumption of sorghum is common among the poorest segment of the population in many countries where it serves as a major source of proteins and calories in the diets of people particularly in Africa [2]. Many traditional food products are obtainable from sorghum grains and these include ogi, eko, kunnu and tuwo [3], fermented beverages such as mahewu [4], couscous and dolo [5], injera, kisra and ugali [6], among others. The use of sorghum in the production of traditional weaning food product is an age-long practice in Africa. ‘Ogi’ is commonly being consumed by infants (as a weaning food) and adults after it has been gelatinized particularly in West Africa [7]. For a weaning food product to be appropriate for feeding a growing child, certain functional properties must be satisfied and these include gelation, water holding capacity, viscosity, pasting characteristics, energy and nutrient density [8,9].

One way of improving the quality of cereal-based weaning food products is through malting of the grains. This essentially serves to reduce the bulkiness of the weaning food and increase the energy and nutrient density [10]. In Africa and Asia, sorghum as a cereal crop has been undergoing series of genetic improvement particularly in the areas of disease resistance, high yielding capability, yield stability and nutrient enhancement, among others [11,12]. The use of newly developed sorghum types is very important so as to know the appropriateness of their utilization particularly in the areas of human and animal feeding.

Therefore, this study was aimed at evaluating the changes induced by malting of locally-available classes of sorghum grains (local, improved and hybrid) on the proximate composition and amino acid profile in the course of producing appropriate weaning food blends.

Materials and Methods

Sources of sorghum grains

Three classes of sorghum grains were used for this study: Local sorghum type (Pelipeli and Kwaya) obtained from Adamawa Agricultural Development Agency, Yola, Nigeria; Improved sorghum type (SAMSORG-14 and SAMSORG-17) obtained from the Institute of Agricultural Research (IAR), Samaru, Nigeria; and Hybrid sorghum type (Hybrid A and B) sourced from Lake Gerio Research Farm of the River Basin Development Authority (RBDA), Yola, Nigeria. All samples were respectively oven-dried to 8.9-10.2% moisture level at 50°C and then stored in different polyethylene bags at ambient temperature (30 ± 2°C) and 65% relative humidity until required.

Malting of sorghum grains

Malting was done by using the modified method of Beta et al. [13]. One kilogramme of grains from each sorghum type was respectively steeped in water at 30 ± 2°C inside a plastic bowl for 20 h. The water in the bowl was being replaced with fresh one at 4-hourly interval to discourage fermentation. After steeping, the grains were immersed in 2% sodium hypochlorite solution for 10 min and then rinsed five times with excess water. The grains were finally spread on damped jute bags for germination at 30 ± 2°C, 95% RH, for five days in a germinating chamber. The germinated grains were eventually dried in a forced-air oven at 50°C for 24 h. The dried malt was cleaned and the roots and shoots were removed manually using a corrugated, rubber surface; and then kept in a plastic container for subsequent use.

Determination of proximate composition of dried malted sorghum grains

The proximate composition of dried malted grains from each sorghum type was determined by evaluating the moisture content through drying of the ground sample in an oven (Model No. DHG-910.1SA, Sanfa, China) at 130 ± 1°C to constant weight [14]. Protein content was determined by multiplying total nitrogen, estimated by micro-Kjeldahl method, by 6.25 factor [14]. Fat content was determined by ether extraction in a Soxhlet extraction tube. Ash content was measured by heating the sample in a muffle furnace at 55°C for 24 h [14]. Crude fibre was evaluated by subjecting the sample to an initial defatting, boiling of defatted sample under reflux, drying and final incineration in muffle furnace at 55°C for 2 h followed by cooling [14]. Carbohydrate content was calculated by difference.

Evaluation of amino acid profile of sorghum grains

Ground sorghum sample (malted or unmalted) to be analyzed for amino acid composition was hydrolyzed with 6 M HCI in vacuo at 110°C for 24 h. Thereafter, the sample was dried in a vacuum chamber with a NaOH trap. The dried samples were solubilized in pH 2.2 citrate buffer and injected into an automated Amino Acid Analyzer (Beckman 6300, CA) for analysis. Norleucine was used for the internal standard. Sulphur-containing amino acids, cystine and methionine were determined after a pre-hydrolysis oxidation with performic acids [15] while tryptophan content was determined after alkaline hydrolysis [16]. The contents of different amino acids recovered are presented as mg g-1 protein and are compared with the FAO/WHO reference pattern [17].

Statistical analysis

All data generated in this study were from triplicate determinations. In each determination, a mean value and standard deviation were calculated. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was also performed and separation of the mean values was by Duncan’s Multiple Range Test at p

Results and Discussion

Results and Discussion

Effect of malting on the proximate composition of sorghum grains

The proximate composition (dry weight basis) of malted sorghum grains of different classes is presented in Table 1. The moisture content of the unmalted grains was significantly (p<0.05) higher than the malted counterparts across all sorghum classes. The moisture content of the unmalted grains ranged between 9.01 and 10.17 g/100 g sample while that of the malted ranged between 8.91 and 9.97 g/100 g. The lower moisture content of the malted grains could be attributed to the subsequent drying operation carried out on the grains after germination so as to prevent microbial growth [18].

Parameter Classes of sorghum grain
Local type Improved sorghum type Hybrid sorghum type
Unmalted Pelipeli Malted Pelipeli Unmalted Kwaya Malted Kwaya Unmalted SAMSORG-17 Malted SAMSORG-17 Unmalted SAMSORG-41 Malted SAMSORG-41 Unmalted Hybrid-A Malted Hybrid-A Unmalted Hybrid-B Malted Hybrid-B
Moisture content 10.01 ± 0.08bc 9.96 ± 0.06c 10.17 ± 0.03a 9.97 ± 0.07c 9.21 ± 0.05ef 9.02 ± 0.06g 10.11 ± 0.05ab 9.71 ± 0.06d 9.01 ± 0.09g 8.91 ± 0.07h 9.11± 0.08f 8.92± 0.08h
Protein 8.85 ± 0.04j 9.55 ± 0.02g 9.23 ± 0.08i 9.39 ± 0.04h 9.53 ± 0.09g 9.91 ± 0.08f 10.23 ± 0.06e 10.44 ± 0.09d 11.32 ± 0.08bc 11.45 ± 0.06a 11.28 ± 0.06c 11.45 ± 0.06a
Fat 3.64 ± 0.09cd 3.57 ± 0.06d 3.91 ± 0.06a 3.83 ± 0.02b 3.05 ± 0.04e 2.98 ± 0.06f 2.65 ±0.05g 2.56 ± 0.08h 2.42 ± 0.03i 2.38 ± 0.04j 2.49 ± 0.09i 2.37 ± 0.05j
Crude fibre 2.48 ± 0.09a 2.54 ± 0.05a 2.31 ± 0.09b 2.51 ± 0.08a 0.41 ± 0.02i 0.53 ± 0.03h 0.92 ± 0.09g 1.18 ± 0.08f 1.63 ± 0.07d 1.76 ± 0.08c 1.33 ± 0.09e 1.44 ± 0.05e
Ash 2.45 ± 0.07cd 2.39 ± 0.05d 2.67 ± 0.03a 2.44 ± 0.04d 2.36 ± 0.09de 2.05 ± 0.06h 2.25 ± 0.04f 2.02 ± 0.07h 2.31 ± 0.05e 2.19 ± 0.09fg 2.56 ± 0.07ab 2.26 ± 0.04f
Carbohydrate 82.6 ± 1.3b 82.0 ± 0.8b 81.9 ± 1.1bc 81.8 ± 0.8bc 84.7 ± 1.1a 84.5 ± 1.3a 84.0 ± 0.8a 83.8 ± 1.2a 82.3 ± 0.7b 82.2 ± 1.1b 82.5 ± 0.8b 82.4 ± 0.6b
Results are mean values of triplicate determinations ± standard deviation. Mean value within the same row having the same letter are not significantly different at p<0.05.

Table 1: Proximate composition (dry weight basis) of malted sorghum grains of different classes (g/100 g sample).

The protein content of the malted sorghum grains was observed to be significantly higher than that of the unmalted sorghum grains. The protein content of the malted grains ranged between 9.39 and 11.45 g/100 g sample. The protein level of malted Hybrid-A was particularly the highest (11.45 g/100 g sample) among the samples though not significantly different (p<0.05) from that of malted Hybrid-B (11.42 g/100 g sample). The enhancement of protein concentration in the malted sorghum grains could be attributed to the metabolic processes occurring during grain germination which, most probably, had led to the mobilization of storage nitrogen of the grains to produce the nutritionally high quality protein needed by the developing radicle and plumule for their growth [19].

The fat content of the malted sorghum grains was significantly lower (p<0.05) than that of the unmalted grains. The malted grains had fat content that ranged between 2.32 and 3.78 g/100 g sample while that of the unmalted counterparts ranged between 2.42 and 3.91 g/100 g sample. The depletion in the fat content of the malted sorghum grains may be attributed to a possible hydrolysis of lipid and oxidation of fatty acids taking place during germination of the grains [20]. Similarly, the energy required for grain metabolic activities during germination and growth might have been supplied by fat and carbohydrate thereby leading to their depletion [21].

The crude fibre of the malted sorghum grains was significantly higher (p<0.05) than that of the unmalted counterparts ranging between 0.43 and 2.54 g/100 g sample. The crude fibre of pelipeli (local sorghum type) was particularly higher than that of others which may be attributed to differences in the genetic make-up of the grains [22]. Similarly the enhancement of crude fibre content in the grains through malting may be due to a possible build-up of dry matter in the grain during germination which might have led to crude fibre increase [21].

        The decrease in the ash content of malted sorghum grains were observed and it ranged between 2.02 and 2.39 g/100 g sample while that of the unmalted grains ranged between 2.25 and 2.67 g/100 g sample. The significant decrease in the ash content of the malted grains may be due to possible leaching of minerals during the initial steeping of grains thereby accounting for such reduction [23]. It had similarly been observed that a considerable loss of mineral could occur through leaching when food grains/seeds are soaked [24].

The carbohydrate content of malted sorghum grains was observed to be lower than that of the unmalted counterparts and it ranged between 81.8 and 84.5 g/100g sample while the carbohydrate content of the unmalted grains ranged between 81.9 and 84.7 g/100g. No significant differences (p<0.05) were observed in the values. The utilization of carbohydrate for energy and growth during germination may be implicated for lower carbohydrate level in the malted grains [23]. It had earlier been observed that during malting, the grains undergo an incomplete natural germination process which usually leads to enzymic degradation of endosperm cell wall, release of starch granules from the matrix of the endosperm in which they are embedded, and increased physiological activities thereby causing the utilization of food reserves for energy and growth [25]. However, the effectiveness of the degradation had been observed to be dependent on the prevailing temperature of malting and germinating duration [26,27].

Amino acid profile of sorghum grains as influenced by malting

Tables 2A and 2B show the essential and non-essential amino acid profiles of sorghum grains respectively as influenced by malting. Virtually all the amino acids were observed to have higher concentration in the malted grains than the unmalted counterparts. This may be attributed to the increased metabolic activities in the grains during germination. Earlier observations had indicated that when sorghum grain underwent germination, increased activities of amylases and proteases were observed thereby leading to breakdown of carbohydrate and proteins respectively. As a result, malt samples contain free simple sugars and amino acids released during germination [27,28].

Amino acid Classes of sorghum grain FAO/ WHO (1991) require-ment pattern
Local type Improved sorghum type Hybrid sorghum type
Unmalted Pelipeli Malted Pelipeli Unmalted Kwaya Malted Kwaya Unmalted SAMSORG-17 Malted SAMSORG-17 Unmalted SAMSORG-41 Malted SAMSORG-41 Unmalted Hybrid-A Malted Hybrid-A Unmalted Hybrid-B Malted Hybrid-B
Threonine 31.2 ± 0.5e 33.3 ± 0.7a 32.6 ± 0.8abcd 33.5 ± 0.5a 31.6 ± 0.5de 32.1 ± 0.7bcde 33.1 ± 0.6ab 32.8 ± 0.3abc 32.7 ±0.6abcd 33.6 ± 0.7a 31.7 ± 0.8cde 32.9 ± 0.2ab 34
Valine 43.5 ± 0.7f 44.2 ± 0.8ef 45.2 ± 0.5cde 46.3 ± 0.7bc 47.1 ± 0.7b 48.9 ± 0.6a 44.6 ± 0.8def 46.2 ± 0.7bc 44.6 ± 0.7def 45.6 ± 0.6cd 45.5 ± 0.7cde 47.3 ± 0.9b 35
Methionine 21.3 ± 0.3d 22.4 ± 0.5cd 23.4 ± 0.6abc 24.7 ± 0.9a 22.6 ± 0.6c 24.2 ± 0.8ab 23.5 ± 0.9abc 24.5 ± 0.9a 22.4 ± 0.9cd 24.1 ± 0.9ab 23.1 ± 0.5bc 24.6 ± 0.3a 25
Leucine 124.2 ± 1.7d 126.3 ± 1.9cd 125.6 ± 1.5d 124.6 ± 2.2d 132.1 ± 1.5a 130.3 ± 2.1ab 126.4 ± 1.7cd 127.1 ± 2.3bcd 125.3 ± 1.8d 127.2 ± 2.1bcd 129.3 ± 1.8abc 130.2 ± 2.2ab 66
Isoleucine 34.4 ± 0.5g 35.7 ± 0.8ef 36.2 ± 0.8def 37.1 ± 0.4bcd 35.5 ± 0.7ef 37.4 ± 0.7abc 35.9 ± 0.7ef 38.1 ± 0.2ab 35.2 ± 0.3fg 36.6 ± 0.2cde 36.1 ± 0.9def 38.4 ± 0.7a 28
Phenylalanine 45.5 ± 0.5d 46.8 ± 0.4bc 44.3 ± 0.4e 47.4 ± 0.6ab 46.5 ± 0.4bc 47.4 ± 0.6ab 48.2 ± 0.8a 46.2 ± 0.4cd 46.9 ± 0.4bc 45.6 ± 0.4d 46.9 ± 0.3bc 48.1 ± 0.3a 63
Tryptophan 8.2 ± 0.3de 9.6 ± 0.4a 7.5 ± 0.3f 8.8 ± 0.2bcd 8.4 ± 0.4de 9.7 ± 0.7a 8.1 ± 0.4de 9.4 ± 0.2ab 8.5 ± 0.2cde 9.1 ± 0.2ab 7.9 ± 0.4ef 8.7 ± 0.4cd 11
Lysine 16.2 ± 0.7de 17.2 ± 0.3bcd 17.2 ± 0.7bcd 18.3 ± 0.8ab 18.1 ± 0.2ab 17.5 ± 0.8bc 17.2 ± 0.7bcd 18.9 ± 0.8a 15.6 ± 0.5e 17.2 ± 0.6bcd 16.4 ± 0.6cde 17.9 ± 0.6ab 58
Total essential amino acid (TEAA) 324.5 335.5 332 340.7 341.9 347.5 337 343.2 331.2 339 336.9 348.1  
Values are means ± standard deviations. Mean value within the same row having the same letter are not significantly different at p<0.05.
†Methionine+Cystine;
‡Phenylalanine+Tyrosine.

Table 2(a): Essential amino acid profiles of malted sorghum grains of different classes (mg/g protein).

Amino acid Classes of sorghum grain FAO/ WHO (1991) require-ment pattern
Local type Improved sorghum type Hybrid sorghum type
Unmalted Pelipeli Malted Pelipeli Unmalted Kwaya Malted Kwaya Unmalted SAMSORG -17 Malted SAMSORG -17 Unmalted SAMSORG -41 Malted SAMSORG -41 Unmalted Hybrid-A Malted Hybrid-A Unmalted Hybrid-B Malted Hybrid-B
Histidine 3.2 ± 0.3ef 4.2 ± 0.2bcde 4.5 ± 0.6abcd 5.5 ± 0.4a 3.6 ± 0.4cdef 4.8 ± 0.6ab 3.6 ± 0.7cdef 4.7 ± 0.9ab 3.5 ± 0.5def 4.8 ± 0.7ab 3.1 ± 0.2f 4.6 ± 0.5abc  
Arginine 37.4 ± 0.8f 38.2 ± 0.9def 39.1 ± 0.5abcd 40.2 ± 0.7a 38.5 ± 0.6cdef 39.6 ± 0.4abc 38.2 ± 0.4def 39.9 ± 0.8ab 37.6 ± 0.5f 38.9 ± 0.8bcde 37.8 ± 0.6ef 38.9 ± 0.5bcde  
Aspartate 68.1 ± 0.7g 70.1 ± 0.6cdef 69.2 ± 0.8efg 69.0 ± 0.2fg 71.3 ± 0.5b 73.1 ± 0.7a 69.2 ± 0.6efg 70.3 ± 0.7bcde 69.8 ± 0.7def 71.2 ± 0.9bc 69.2 ± 0.4efg 70.6 ± 0.2bcd  
Glutamate 198.2 ± 1.4c 202.6 ± 2.3ab 199.5 ± 2.4abc 201.7 ± 1.7abc 198.8 ± 1.7bc 200.5 ± 2.3abc 201.4 ± 1.9abc 203.3 ± 1.8a 198.1 ± 2.2c 199.6 ± 1.8abc 202.3 ± 2.3ab 201.6 ± 1.8abc  
Serine 44.2 ± 0.6d 45.7 ± 0.8abc 46.2 ± 0.7abc 46.0 ± 0.6abc 45.4 ± 0.7abcd 46.8 ± 0.8a 45.3 ± 0.9bcd 44.8 ± 0.5cd 45.9 ± 0.7abc 46.6 ± 0.9ab 44.8 ± 0.9cd 45.7 ± 0.9abc  
Proline 82.4 ± 0.7e 84.3 ± 0.7cd 83.6 ± 0.8de 85.9 ± 0.8b 84.2 ± 0.8cd 86.4 ± 0.9ab 83.4 ± 0.5de 85.6 ± 0.3b 85.6 ± 0.9b 87.2 ± 0.7a 83.7 ± 0.8d 85.1 ± 0.3bc  
Glycine 27.5 ± 0.4g 28.4 ± 0.9efg 29.2 ± 0.4bcde 29.0 ± 0.4cde 28.5 ± 0.4def 29.8 ± 0.7abc 29.4 ± 0.3bcde 30.1 ± 0.2ab 29.5 ± 0.5bcd 30.7 ± 0.5a 27.8 ± 0.6fg 29.3 ± 0.7bcde  
Alanine 86.2 ± 0.9d 88.1 ± 0.5ab 87.2 ± 0.7bc 88.9 ± 0.2a 88.3 ± 0.7ab 89.2 ± 0.9a 87.5 ± 0.9bc 88.8 ± 0.4a 86.5 ± 0.9cd 88.1 ± 0.4ab 87.4 ± 0.4bc 88.2 ± 0.4ab  
Tyrosine 35.1 ± 0.5ef 36.8 ± 0.4c 34.6 ± 0.9f 35.8 ± 0.5de 37.8 ± 0.4b 38.7 ± 0.5ab 36.7 ± 0.2c 38.5 ± 0.6ab 39.1 ± 0.2a 38.2 ± 0.6ab 36.2 ± 0.2cd 37.9 ± 0.6b  
Total  non-essential amino acid (TNAA) 582.3 598.4 593.1 602 596.4 608.9 594.7 606 595.6 605.3 592.3 601.9  
Total amino acid (TEAA+TNAA) 906.8 933.9 925.1 942.7 938.3 956.4 931.7 949.2 926.8 944.3 929.2 950  
Values are means ± standard deviations. Mean value within the same row having the same letter are not significantly different at p<0.05.

Table 2(b): Non-essential amino acid profiles of malted sorghum grains of different classes (mg/g protein).

The total essential amino acid (TEAA) values of the malted sorghum grains ranged between 335.5 and 348.1 mg/g protein (Table 2A). These values are close to the 35% recommendation for the maintenance of optimum human health [29]. The implication of this value is that the malted sorghum may serve as a good source of essential amino acids to maintain optimum health condition. Specifically, the ranges of values of the essential amino acids in the malted sorghum grains include threonine (32.1-33.6 mg/g protein), methionine (22.4-24.7 mg/g protein), phenylalanine (45.6-48.1 mg/g protein), lysine (17.2-18.9 mg/g protein), and tryptophan (8.7-9.7 mg/g protein). All these values, however, fell short of the recommended FAO/WHO requirement pattern [17] of 34, 25, 63, 58 and 11 mg/g protein for threonine, methionine phenylalanine, lysine and tryptophan respectively. The essential amino acids in the malted sorghum grains that satisfied the recommended FAO/WHO requirement pattern are valine (44.2-48.9 mg/g protein), leucine (124.6-130.3 mg/g protein) and isoleucine (35.7-38.4 mg/g protein). The extent of amino acids production during the germination stage had been observed to be dependent on the type and variety of cereal grain involved [30]. It was also observed that the quantity of each amino acid in both unmalted and malted sorghum grains respectively from different classes of the cereal was, to a great extent, not significantly different (p<0.05).

From nutritional point of view, the presence and adequacy of amino acids in human diets play significant roles in the health status of such individual [31]. Adequate methionine in human diet has been implicated to be a major donour in the methyl group to affect deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and protein methylation in cells [32]. Similarly, leucine has been identified to be an activator of mammalian target of rapamycin which is designed towards the stimulation of protein synthesis and inhibition of intracellular proteolysis [33]. High arginine level is significant because of its beneficial influence on cardiovascular health, attributed to hypocholesterolemic effects of arginine-containing diets [34]. The combination of some nutritionally non-essential amino acids (arginine, glutamate, glycine and proline) has been implicated to play important roles in animal system and these include the regulation of gene expression [35], transportation of nutrients and metabolism of animal cells [36] and stimulation of anti-oxidative responses [37], among others. Similarly, the regulation of neurological development and function has been attributed to a collective role of tryptophan, tyrosine, alanine and serine [38,39].

Therefore, the presence of all these amino acids in the malted sorghum grains investigated in this study, though not in adequate quantity, will serve as a pointer to what extent the malt could be supplemented with other protein-rich plant sources such as legumes.

Conclusion

The conclusion that can be drawn from this study is that subjecting sorghum grains of different types to malting would lead to variations in the induced changes to both the proximate composition and amino acid profile. The malting process led to the enhancement of protein and crude fibre content while reduction was observed in fat, ash and carbohydrate content. The effect of malting on the amino acid profile was such that virtually all amino acids were enhanced by the process though some were produced at higher concentration that others. The recommended FAO/WHO requirement pattern for most of the essential amino acids was not met by the malted sorghum grains investigated.

Acknowledgement

The authors wish to express their gratitude to the Institute of Agricultural Research (IAR), Samaru-Zaria, Nigeria; the management of Adamawa Agricultural Development Agency, Yola, Nigeria; and Lake Gerio Research Farm of the River Basin Development Authority (RBDA), Yola, Nigeria; for the supply of experimental samples.

References

Citation: Usman MA, Bolade MK (2017) Comparative Assessment of Changes Induced by Malting on the Proximate Composition and Amino Acid Profile of Three Classes of Sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] Grains. J Exp Food Chem 3:132. DOI: 10.4172/2472-0542.1000132

Copyright: © 2017 Usman MA, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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