University of the Punjab, Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan
Received Date: February 03, 2017; Accepted Date: May 04 2017; Published Date: May 10, 2017
Citation: Rana MF (2017) Comparative Relation with Russia: Pakistan and India an Approach to Peace and Position. J Pol Sci Pub Aff 5: 251. doi:10.4172/2332-0761.1000251
Copyright: © 2017 Rana MF. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Visit for more related articles at Journal of Political Sciences & Public Affairs
Pakistan has been a key player in Asian politics and also being Muslim state has faced many diversions to stand up to a diplomatic standard. Indian struggle to isolate Pakistan by solidifying its relations with Russia and USA as were in past few decades. This research focuses on past relations only on with India Pakistan and Russia as review and current political movement in Asian politics. The major issues that because trouble is Pakistan favored by Russian in Shanghai and military exercise between these two nations in 2016 made India and also Russians to rethink their policies to firm their relations. CPEC is another factor but little discussed as it effects Indian politics. Their trade and military trades are main focus and diplomatic agenda to gain a political position in the region. This article includes facts and figures from past decades information collected through research news and political relations report published by the nations based on true incidents.
Foreign policy; Independence; Trade; Information; Literature
Superpowers and conflicting powers
August 14th 1947 greatly discouraged the RSS followers an Hindu led extremist party in India a solid influential response met to the Gandhi’s assassination by one of his own guard on the issue he supported Pakistan to render her fair share. Indus treaty 1960 by the mediation of world bank sorted the circumstance to solace bilateral ties to a greater extent. 1962 Sino-Indian war between China and India where Pakistan supported Chinese influence to the better situation in region finally come to peace and aggressive response from Chinese army led India to back foot. The conditional war scolded when in 1964 China launched its first nuclear code but at the other hand apart from the Indian hypocrisy she preferred deterrence rather than attack stating no first use of nuclear weapon. Increasing struggle to gain nuclear weapon initiated by American strike at Hiroshima and Nagasaki created disturbance in world peace which cleared that no peace can be maintained unless there is one nuclear power compromising the security and freedom of states. Later Russia tied the power with her own nuclear launch and the battle began to develop more nuclear armaments using latest technologies for further balance. The relations between Russia Pakistan and American remained fluctuated during the 60s 70s the spring remained in Indian region in form of aid and support. However in the means of energy support Pakistan had friendliest relations with Afghanistan Iran Iraq Saudi Arabia and other Islamic countries that supported her in the mean condition. Around 65 Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto called meeting of Pakistan’s nuclear scientists and put forth the plan for first Islamic nuclear nation. 71 loss of Bangladesh abandoned Pakistan from western perspective and Pakistan had cold ties with American. Bhutto’s famous speech in United Nations and golden words ‘We will eat grass but make bomb” threaten the pagans and Christianity at stake in terms of truth within the books. At that time Iran supported Pakistan with great oil supply as gift. Abdul Qadeer khan in 1975 reached Pakistan in order to make the dream come true. 1979 where clashes between USSR American worsened Afghanistan was under attacked Pakistan with the aid of us aid trained many mujahidins to fight USSR during the long and crucial war lag American opened her heart for Pakistan who supported afghan as brethren and clear threat to Pakistan existence. Later the decade American’s cold eyed assuming the Pak army is developing nuclear weapon, very close to achievement. It was general Ziaul-haq who deceived American CIA claiming the usage in the furnace at low fire. Later it revealed that Pakistan had already nuclear bomb just behind assembling according to Dr. Qadeer khan. As long the assumptions became certainty the aid stopped. 1994 and 95 India faced internal political instability which hindered them from becoming nuclear power. Finally the collaborative party prime minister of India Atal Behari Bajpai took step to “yes” to nuclear code and they Pokhran II later General Musharaf commanded to state nuclear possession within two weeks. On 28 may 1998 they took five explosions. Both the nations deployed their nuclear weapons to targeted areas but stated no first use of nuclear .
Despite the political national and international war of two nations and insurgent proxy situation still existed all the time that threaten the whole region. Indian claims that Pakistan has been sponsoring those terrorist attackers as she is the initiator of it during cold war end. And at the other hand she states the involvement of raw in Balochistan Gilgit and Kashmir.
American view changed for Pakistan after 9/11 in which al Qaeda found responsible for the incident and strike on Pantagon. Bin Ladens search led to coalition army operation in afghanistan once again Indian agenda was put down. 10 years of exhausted war deeply demoralized American’s until 2010 Usama was found in Pakistan the relation got swear and many aid and bills were halted. Yet except military in millions for the economy purpose the aid continued. Still us has strategic eye on Pakistan for her fight against terrorism in a very short time. But in his speech Prime Minister Yousaf Raza Gilani had clearly stated the world they know the difference between the good Taliban and bad Taliban. And under no influence they are going to attack them like Haqqanis and others.
India proclaim the Pakistan sole responsible for Bombay attack and attack on parliament in proceeding of which they hanged Ajmal Kasab on contradicted evidences, blamed Hafiz Saeed the man behind the Bombay attack and train attacks. Yet India has to discover whether he was literally involved in the scene or not. In argument Pakistan has put forth many petitions and proofs of Indian involvement in Pakistan’s Baloch Liberation Organization and Sindh disturbed conditions. Although some of the own Pakistan leaders and personals have been found working for raw.
Also Pakistan have found sources linking to mi 6 of Britian raising insurgency and supporting afghan Taliban to deteriorate stable constituency in Pakistan. CPEC is the one of the major target of these nations today as it not only develops and rehab the baloch to Pakistan but it also creates an economic hub might be the biggest in the world which will divert the power from westerner to east. Russian president Putin has given green signal to fully support cpec, to China next super power now Occidental responses to state and terror have silenced.
The game changing policy which contributes to the most benefit of nation at the cost of other nation falls in the term of diplomacy. In decades several shift of policies have been punching the two developed nation off shore to find another peace solution to bring it to normal ties as for as the aid and economic welfare, bank loan rant or sanctions military weaponization exchange and purchase are at no mean in favor of the nation when these fell to ground to united nations American or Russia. Albeit the diplomacy with central Asian region and Arab countries are far important than these two powers as far as energy resource supply are concerned not only this but whole world is at bow to them as per reality despite the fact that Russia and American have oil reserved which will serve them even if the supply is cut off. Mainly Pakistan and India depend on Russia and American to buy military weapons and other technological aid for achieving resourceful purposes. Russians surrounded Indian Ocean while Pakistan was busy at 1971 in support of India. In spite of great deal of war from both sides Britians submarine at Indian coast line and us fleets and spies taking care of the situation despite us Britians support for India and also Russians (then USSR) were then successful to keep China away from the northern Indian border. Since Sino-Indian conflict where Pakistan diplomatically supported China Russians took a step for the mediation and help support India. Not only have this ever since Indians have been engaged in many economic ties with Russia. India was the most arms importer from Russia, 1980 s while Pakistan was engaged in supplying afghan to fight Russian army Indian supported them. At the beginning of 1990s till 93s the appointment of Andrey Kozyrev who followed us line of nuclear no proliferation treaty and Kashmir which India have been successful to keep busy the world around with dual defying speeches and according to Indians on information the new arrival of Yevgenny Primakov the relations fluctuated for improvement for two reasons India found Russians during Nehrus government over USA if China strikes then he can use Russian full capable of war response world power can help handle that on other hand she was inclined too towards India, second China joins north west line to Russia which nearest to India and with this approach in 2000 under Putin’s both nations signed strategic partnership having bilateral annual summit, inter-governmental trade, ministries co-operation, economic, scientific, technological and cultural cooperation.2001 compelled both side form joint working group in December 2002 to fight terrorism in the region as both had threat from the Islamic terrorism. Putin also proposed Pakistan track down terrorist activities and take firm action to stop terrorism in the region. They also planned to curb narcotics supply. For the purpose both India and Russia signed a treaty where they agreed to exchange intel, tackle, terrorist financing, either. Deputy foreign minister Anatoly Safonov who also co-chaired JWP said Russia even willing to provide India satellite pictures of training and work going on working boundaries of line of control. Also urged Pakistan to stop going terrorist activities in Kashmir and across border, and afghan. In 2003 they signed Declaration on the global challenge and threat to world security and satellite, an affirmation that both will fight counter terrorism along with United Nations as the main security organization along with the desirability of the multipolar international order. She also supported India’s vision to become the permanent member of the UN and also in SCO shanghai cooperative organization. Albeit the bilateral coalition the trade level is very modest between two nations, Russian supplied India of 40 billion dollars of military material since 1960 to 2011, between 2011-2014 it went down to 3.7 billion dollar making Russia the second supplier after American .
India and Russia have several major joint military programs including:
• BrahMos cruise missile program
• 5th generation fighter jet program
• Sukhoi Su-30MKI program (230+to be built by Hindustan Aeronautics)
• Ilyushin/HAL Tactical Transport Aircraft
• Additionally, India has purchased/leased various military hardware from Russia
• S-400 Triumf 12.
• Kamov Ka-226 200 to be made in India under the Make in India initiative.
• T-90S Bhishma with over 1000 to be built in India
• Akula-II nuclear submarine (2 to be leased with an option to buy when the lease expires)
• INS Vikramaditya aircraft carrier program
• Tu-22M3 bombers (4 ordered)
• US$900 million upgrade of MiG-29
• Mil Mi-17 (80 ordered) more in Service.
• Ilyushin Il-76 Candid (6 ordered to fit Israeli Phalcon radar).
FGFF is a joint development program. Apart from this since 2003 INDRA joint military exercise is being taken between the navies. The exercise involves live firing drills, as well as air defense and antisubmarine operations. Additionally, counter-piracy, terrorism and drug smuggling operations are carried out.
Avia-Indra is annual military exercise conducted by the Air forces of India and Russia that is held in two parts. In 2014 the first part of the exercise was held in the Astrakhan region, close to the Caspian Sea in Russia and the second part was held in Halwara, Punjab in India. The objective of the exercise is to improve operational interoperability between the respective Air forces and training. Aircraft involved in the exercise included:
• Su-30SMs, MiG-21s;
• Mi-17 and Mi-35helicopters.
• Rosatom opens regional centre in Mumbai for India;
• Putin, Modi strengthen strategic partnership at Goa summit;
• Gazprom, Engineers India Ltd sign MoU on gas delivery routes;
• Gazpromneft-Aero and Hindustan Petroleum to fuel partner airlines);
• Ar the major projects indication of strategic and military importance bilaterally.
The relationship tie loosened after intergovernmental cruiser giving India when it had been converted to aircraft carrier for 800 million dollar to be provided later for changes and 1 billion dollar to equip MiG 29 aircraft. In 2008 Russian demanded cost overrun a further of 1.2 billion dollar unless threatened the deal The further shipment delivery date was put to 2013 later she demanded 2 billion dollar more. This buckled India to lament auditor general and inter government comptroller that they had paid 60% more to a second hand carrier than a new one without a final delivery date.
Indian commodities exports to Russia are pharmaceuticals, electronic equipment, machines, engines, pumps, iron, steel, clothing (not knit or crochet), coffee, tea and spices, tobacco, vehicles and other food preparation .
Russian commodities exports to India are gems, precious metals, coins, fertilizers, medical, technical equipment, oil, inorganic chemicals, salt, sulphur, stone, cement, etc.
India and Russia have very strong economic trade relationship. It amounted 9.5 billion dollar in 2014 where it stood at 1.2 billion dollar in 2002 now it keeps boosting, according to the two countries have agreed to boost level up to 30 billion dollar by 2025.
There is similar kind of cooperation in nuclear power production. Russia built Kundakulam nuclear power project in south India , the first reactor became commercially operational in 2014 the second will in 16-17 and agreements on 3 and 4 units have also been signed.
Indian Russian joined operation in project GLONASS during 14, in past Aryabhatta is an Indian satellite which was launched by Russia in 1975, now chandraayan-2 is the second combined space project a joint lunar exploration mission to be launched in 2017 by Indian space research organization and Russian federal space agency at the cost of 90 million dollar.
The North-South Transport Corridor is the ship, rail, and road route for moving freight between India, Russia, Iran, Europe and Central Asia. The route primarily involves moving freight from India, Iran, Azerbaijan and Russia via ship, rail and road. The objective of the corridor is to increase trade connectivity between major cities such as Mumbai, Moscow, Tehran, Baku, Bandar Abbas, Astrakhan, Bandar Anzali etc. Dry runs of two routes were conducted in 2014. Along with these cultural values are also transported through border, like films, and cultural exercise and days are celebrated across lands.
The new military and economic projects in recent 2016 are the result of Pakistan and Russia’s on going military exercises in Pakistan which slammed India as Narendra Modi’s statement to Russia of military exercise with Pakistan are not a good sign to them let him to rethink its policies with Russian to reestablish cordial relations by increasing bilateral trade and signed military projects as 16 key points on goal summit in 2016.
Liaqat Ali Khans first visit to USA as the premier of an independent land being unresponsive by USSR ministry brought a tie to the bilateral relations in the inter Asiatic countries so the USSR moved towards the Indian. Later Russian signed few projects with Pakistan including Pakistan steel mill and energy sectors but gain the issues were dwindling as Pakistan supported Sino-Indian war, China at hostile like relation with user at the time further weak diplomacy by Pakistan dictatorship hold them back. Since 1971 when Russian put their nuclear war ship near Pakistan boundaries and had pressured from USA’s involvement in support. And India’s offensive strike to destabilize the region with counter insurgency in the region now overtly announced by the premier Narindar Modi.
Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto put some efforts to bring circumstances to normal by distancing from USA but the cold war broke into a regional fight when soviet invaded afghan and Pakistan to protect its own sovereignty induced proxy war in Afghanistan helping push back the soviet forces successfully. The tie tightened during the 1990s although the new office achievers took a glance on the foreign policy to gain Pakistan on their side but vein. Since 9/11 the relations have seem to improve. Both nations took a state response to terrorism in the region and narcotic bulk smuggling across the border. It was the tie when Russian president Putin invited Pervez Musharaf on visit to Russia although the meetings were less futile but the individual meetings of high official to Russian oil and gas consortium and trade marketers improved trade from 100 million $ to 320$ since 2002 to 2005 also Shaukat Aziz the premier Pakistan tried to establish bilateral relation aside from trade links. Pakistan took textile market and gas and oil projects to S Bridge to the linkage. It was also the result that Russia took a look at OIC (organization of islamic countries) and Pakistan was offered to sit in SCO in 2005-2006. This began the new era of stabilization. Although at the counter Indian diplomats have been successful at the regional influence but Pakistan strategy to put the region under peace ad efforts to fight terrorism and other peace link works halting smuggling and base pair to establish more friendly cord. Although even the suspicious nature exists but the stance re moving towards normal with a hard try. MOUs have been signed by the two nations in 2005 and 2011 by Russian petroleum ministry and Pakistan. Russia sees Pakistan as key player to fight terrorism and anti us war and also seeks well engineering base Pakistan needs its energy sector.
An inter-governmental commission has been formed between the two nations which on instant period discuss issues to further enhance the trade economic energy and military ties to promote greater bond in 2011 the president’s visit focused on several projects like rehabilitation of power stations, designing and construction of hydro, thermal, coal based power generation projects. In 2014 Russian hosted the meeting of central Asian anti-drug quarter including Afghanistan, Pakistan, Russia and Tajikistan. Russia also participated in joint consultative group of strategically stability and several other cooperation’s forming pragmatically.
During Zardari’s visit in 2013 MOUs were signed to further expand and modernize Pakistan steel mill which laid foundation during 1970 to 1972 .
In energy sector Russia is likely to supply LNG to Pakistan in the year 2016 work is on progress of 1.7 billion dollor deal from Karachi to Lahore supply line covering distance of 1100 km. It may also find handing casa-1000 project by Tajikistan and Kargyzystan to provide electricity to Pakistan and Afghanistan.
The trade figure includes five certain items in 2015 he citrus varieties, dairy products, tobacco, rice and potato at present Pakistan exports are fruit and woven cotton fabrics, synthetic fabric, rice, apparel other than textile material, vegetables, medical and surgical instruments.
The TADA is encouraging Pakistani companies to trade relation with Russia. Also there have been efforts to open bank links in both nations by opening banks in respective countries.
The recent Russian Pakistan military exercise took place in Pakistan. That shows a warm air striking the region of collaboration. Russia is agreed to sell Pakistan MI-35 combat helicopter and Sukhoi su-35 fighter jets, the fourth generation multi role combat aircraft. Russian air force chief visit to Pakistan in 2013 and as a symbol first Pakistani naval ship took port in Russia PNS Aslat in 2013. General Raheel Shareef visit o Russian military expo shows very clear vision of the nation’s interest in each other.
In SCO Russian support to Pakistan is another signature of the turn of air current towards Pakistan strategy and struggle to its efforts in almost all aspects to peace to further create of better results a cultural and language transfer measures are being taking place in the countries that will show a harmony to tighten the bond.
India proclaim to have been big responsible for the 1971 Bangla separation and the resources says that there confined the presence of Russian nuclear submarine at near sea boundary line of Pakistan it is also said that China move towards Pakistan after Pakistan’s role in Sino-Indian conflict and the 1970 Pakistan’s efforts to set a warm secret meeting for Henry Kissinger and China that tuned Russian over to India more it always close to the incident and the rest foe took place in 19080s the Pak role in afghan USSS war. India claim to abandon Pakistan turn to be very rational and hyper responsive since they are openly stating that they do not accept Pakistan as independent state particularly the Muslim mainland. It was the same concept at the time of independence Gandhi and other Nehru and congress men overt and covertly set meetings to British viceroy to India to set not a petition let it be free as it is but Muslim hold majority and had a firm stance under leadership of Quaid-e-azam still owe a great debt to him. After the fall of Moghul empire the fork tuned to Muslim suppression those were abandoned from education although it was sir Syed who stood in crucial circumstances to put both Hindu and Muslim under one agenda of separate land and provided them basic foundation the knowledge the education and true literature. But unfortunately it ended up Hindi Urdu conflict the first major conflict that made him think of a separate bi nation agenda. Which was further taken by Muslim league? Very theoretically saying Hindu’s have been undergone very depressed conditions in past being ruled by outsiders due to poor ruling class and incompetence to put people under one rule the divided religion and creed division is the main reason so they tend to rule by suppression. The main reason with India and Pakistan is not the strategic division but they want to rule Muslim as per RSS perspective and Hindu Shuddhi Sanghtan movements in past. Other part that plays Pakistan holds a very peculiar strategic position which include border with China an emerging economy, Russia through afghan border o China border and the cpec and Karachi ports that can break India’s efforts on Chahbahar and also break Iran’s economic port. Through Pakistan cpec corridor these nations face a less expensive route to reach almost the entire hub of connected counties across the continents and well established and secure route to bring trade into and out of the country.
Russian military exercise under such hyper behavior of India towards Pakistan and Kashmir conflict being raised in indisposing Indian brutality in Kashmir had put India in coma like state they called the meeting with media and economists and the Russian representatives to talk about review India and Russian policy as despite their struggle to avoid Russia move towards Pakistan they failed although they were successful in convincing Putin to visit India as annual bilateral meeting on trade before it could send a delegation to Pakistan. Also Pakistan is going to buy mi-35 and sukhoi su jets for its military expansion. This closer look indicates the Russian China visits and Pakistan being crucial center of the triangle the three major powered came close at a very close regional distance is interestingly a threatening for India excluding Russia before India American deal have foe like relations. Indeed India got us attention and agreed upon using bi surface and Israel like 1999 Kargil and 2002 supporting India for its action on Pakistan did push her a little high but it responded very over that the states image is compromised. India nuclear security is also compromised while some of the terrorist were caught attempting to smuggle and India engineers were caught such smuggling scandals pushed India back to NSG member ship despite American support for it and China having trade link yet disposed India. The situation enticed the cross border skirmishes did appreciate nationalism despite Indian diplomacy they are failed to accomplish what they seem to desire when Russian became the major factor to bring Pakistan into membership of SCO. General Rahil’s response to India’s aggressive speeches tamed them to set back and hold vision internally rather across border .
The two nations theory have been constantly disturbing the regional peace somehow the perspective to attain the significant hail is different one prompting to create in impact of superiors in the region despite the fact it has strong economy but less than China and Russia the other is at supportive role in fighting terrorism along its region and outside gaining world intuition towards their side which failed both to some extent passed. Russia has backened after ukrain dilemma and focused on Asian superpowers blog she has very influential position in the region since it does not need to put effort to forge a stand she is continuously gaining role from China India and Pakistan respectively. India collaboration with USA at strategic use of land has farther Putin on the stand now world face a relatively firm group of Russia China and Pakistan as the political diplomat in Asia excluding trade and economic linkages which still exist very low showing fluctuation as mentioned above.
The major issue in the region is terrorism for which Pakistan have been playing crucial role which matches Russian agenda in the region so it appeared the two nations role in providing facilities in fight against terrorism also china supports their position.
Second is the drug trafficking that is deteriorating regional youth very badly. The cross border movements are strictly checked by Afghanistan Pakistan Russia and China through check and barrier.
Third is cross border skirmishes between Pakistan and India at constant gradual bases have threatened regional politics as it seem that at any instant the war could start between two nuclear powers. Their China support the peace stand along with Russia in doing so a desolute political move is made like water barrage or river flooding intelligence agencies involvement to calm down the pace as well as their involvement to disturb the peace between two nations somehow RAW has been found involved with Afghan influencing Pakistan.
The cpec is the main agenda to the politics of Balochistan and China Pakistan border of peace where established road and trade could heavily affect economy and also Indian economy in Chahbahar. Attack on Police training camp Balochistan and Peshawar hospital attack and the Peshawar army public school attack, Raw agents working in Indian embassy based in Pakistan, Kalbhushan yadave in Baloch working on Baloch freedom are some recent events that not only hinders peace in the region but also shows the India narrative on peace. Therefore Russian support for fight in terrorism China also support that and in that narrative US denied Pakistan as the India aspect rather gives hand to further illuminate that issue .
Russia not directly involved but support cpec China is linked Pak politics does have belief that may Russia join them on cpec along with other military and economic vision.
Since the politics is more reluctant to economic and trade advancement it is no longer the fight for state except Kashmir which very much collapsed the peace movement in Asia. In order to gain as much attention by Russia an effort is made to further relational ties. So long the nations have common agenda inside while peaceful outside. In economic barrier cpec is the major issue it benefits the region not just two of the fundamentals but it also cost India. But to major their attention towards More powerful state of the region and enhance their battle capabilities the fight is on the go including trade and military assistance. It should be concluded that no nation can stand strike of un-peaceful desire rather economic evaluation and relational betterment are more influential in regional politics for peace.