Received Date: January 18, 2017; Accepted Date: March 09, 2017; Published Date: March 15, 2017
Citation: Banoo J, Vaida N, Nadeem NA (2017) Comparative Study of Differently Abled Adolescents on Visual Impairment and Physical Deformity on the basis of their Home, Social, School and Emotional Adjustment. Arts Social Sci J 8: 256. doi: 10.4172/2151-6200.1000256
Copyright: © 2017 Banoo J, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
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Adjustment is the individual’s meeting of his psychological demands and accepting himself. Positive self-regard is important for successful functioning in everyday life. The self-evaluation of members of minority groups such as deaf people, however, is challenged by prejudice toward them on the part of the majority society. Adjustment is the individual’s ability to fulfill his psychological needs and his self-acceptance as well as enjoying life without any types of conflicts and accepting social activities and participation in social activities.
Visual impairment; Physical deformity; Social; School; Emotional adjustment
The word adolescence comes from the Latin verb adolescere, which means “to grow up” or “to grow to maturity”. Adolescence is a period of growth beginning with puberty and ending at the beginning of adulthood; it is a transitional stage between childhood and adulthood. The period has been likened to a bridge between childhood and adulthood over which individuals must pass before they can take their places as grown adults. Hall the founder of child-Study movement in North America first described adolescence as a period of great „Storm and Stress?. Hall said the causes of this Storm and Stress in adolescents are biological, resulting from changes at Puberty. Anna Freud daughter of Sigmund Freud also characterized adolescence as a period of psychic disequilibrium, emotional conflict, and erratic behavior. On the one hand, adolescents are egoistic and self- centered, and they believe that everyone’s attention is focused on them. On the other hand they are capable of forgetting themselves while they focus on the needs of others and engage in charitable projects.
The ear and eyes are the gates of learning for mankind. The ability of communication is a crucial factor to thriving, working ability and emotional well-being. Man is highly dependent on senses from these he builds his world, learns to conceptualize and to reason. The five basic sense organs plays an important role in personality of an individual of all the five senses, audition is perhaps the most important sense organ since it is primary means by which we monitor or interact with linguistic environment. There are more than 600 million people with disabilities in the world today.
Blindness is defined as absence or loss of visual ability or perception of visual stimulus. Legal Blindness defined by the Social Security Administration, means either that vision cannot be corrected to better than 20/200 in better eye or that the visual field is 20 degrees or less even with a corrective lens. Many people who meet the legal definition of blindness still have some sight and may be able to read large print and get around without support. The Legal definition of Blindness is based on Visual acuity and field of vision. Visual acuity-the ability to clearly discriminate details at a specified distance is measured by reading lines of letters, numbers and other symbols from the snellen chart. Vision Loss may be classified according to anatomical site of problem. Anatomical disorders include impairment of refractive structures of eyes, muscle anomalies in the visual system, and problems of receptive structures of the refractive problems are the most common type of visual loss and occur when the refractive structures of eye fail to focus light rays properly or nearsightedness; astigmation or blurred vision and cataracts.
The visually impaired children are an integral part of our society. They are very much neglected in our society, their need and problems should be understood well and measures should be taken in order to make their lives more easy and motivational .
Physical Deformity can affect person’s ability to move about, to use arms and legs effectively, to swallow food, and to breathe independently. They may also affect other primary functions, such as vision, cognition, speech, language, hearing and bowel control. The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) use the term orthopedic impairment to describe students with physical disabilities and the term other health impaired to describe students with health disorders. It is neuromuscular disorder caused by damage or more specific areas of brain, usually occurring during fetal development, before, during, or shortly following birth, or during infancy. Cerebral palsy classified by location includes a description of what extremities/ limbs are involved. This study was conducted keeping in mind the following objectives:
• To assess the Adjustment visually impaired and physically deformed adolescents in the age group of 14-18 yrs.
• To compare visually impaired and physically deformed adolescents on adjustment.
Methodology constitutes the basic and an important component of every research project. It refers to a plan or strategy used to seek answers to research questions. This includes sorting of variables independent and dependent, tools to be used for their measurement followed by the decision about the locale and sampling procedure. This chapter provides detail on the design of the study that includes selection of locale, sampling procedure, methodology of data collection and its analysis. It also includes procedures adopted for the execution of the present investigation with the aim to find “Adjustment of differently Abled Adolescents (14-18 yrs) in Jammu Province.” The data was collected from two sources. The primary data was obtained by collecting information by using HOSOCES Adjustment Inventory. The secondary data was collected from journals, books and from websites. A detailed account of methodology applied in the present study is given as follows:
Locale: The locale for the study was Jammu province. Out of ten districts of Jammu Province Jammu district was selected. The data was collected from various schools of Jammu. Institutions were selected from areas of Gujjar Nagar, Roop Nagar and Udheywala Talab Tillo of Jammu Province. 14-18 yrs of Adolescents were enrolled in these Institutions.
Sample group: The sample for the study was divided into three groups.
Group 1: Consisted of visually impaired adolescents: These visually impaired adolescents were taken from two blind schools situated at Roop Nagar Jammu meant for boys and girls. Sample was taken in the age group of 14-18 yrs. School was up to 10th standard.
Group 2: Consisted of physically deformed adolescents: These Physically deformed Adolescents were taken from Institute for Physically Handicapped located at Udheywalla in Jammu. The school was meant for both boys and girls.
Sample size: From Group 1 a total of 60 visually impaired adolescents were taken. Sample taken was 37 miles from boy’s school and 23 females from girl’s school.
From Group 2 from physically deformed Institutions a total sample of 60 physically deformed adolescents were taken which comprised as 30 male and 30 female adolescents.
Sampling technique: Purposive Sampling Technique was used to select various schools from Jammu, for selecting the differently abled adolescents from schools of Jammu Purposive sampling technique was used.
Criteria for sample selection: For selecting the sample the criteria set was:
• Differently Abled Adolescents in the age group of 14-18 years.
• Differently Abled Adolescents from visually impaired and physically deformed schools of Jammu.
Tool for the study: The tool used for collecting the data was:
HOSOCES Adjustment Inventory
The data was analyzed with the help of percentage statistics and ‘t’ test.
Procedure: Tools prepared for data collection were administered on sample groups through personal contact after establishing rapport. In order to elicit information from adolescent the principles of desired schools were approached. They were informed about the nature and purpose of the study. To gather information by using scales school visits were conducted because information was needed from adolescents of desired schools. Statements in scales were asked by investigator in English, Urdu as the situation demanded.
Data analysis: The collected data was classified and tabulated depending on the kind of information required keeping in view the objectives of study. The data processing included editing, scoring, classification and tabulation so that they were available to analysis. The computation of certain measures along with searching for patterns of relationships that exists among the data group was done with the help of statistical methods. Statistical methods used were percentage statistic and t test.
Comparison between visually impaired and physically deformed adolescents on Home adjustment, Social Adjustment, Emotional Adjustment and School Adjustment.
The data presented in Table 1 show that mean ± sd in case of visually impaired was 12.38 ± 2.24 and in case of physically deformed 8.78 ± 3.39. Further, statistical difference between visually impaired and physically deformed was highly significant (<0.01) on the basis of Home Adjustment. Physically deformed were more adjusted than visually impaired adolescents (Table 1).
at 0.01 level
Table 1: Comparison between visually impaired and physically deformed adolescents on home adjustment.
The data presented in Table 2 shows that mean +sd in case of visually impaired was 8.4 ± 3.38 and in case of physically deformed 8.8 ± 3.39. Further, statistical difference between visually impaired and physically deformed was not- significant (>0.05) on the basis of Social Adjustment (Table 2).
Table 2: Comparison between visually impaired and physically deformed on social adjustment.
The data presented in Table 3 shows that Mean ± sd in case of visually impaired was 9.43 ± 1.57 and in case of physically deformed 8.9 ± 2.09. However, statistical difference between visually impaired and physically deformed was non-significant (>0.05) on the basis of Emotional Adjustment (Table 3).
Table 3: Comparison between visually impaired and physically deformed adolescents on emotional adjustment.
The data presented in Table 4 shows that mean ± sd in case of visually impaired was 4.1 ± 2.03 and in case of physically deformed 4.4 ± 2.30. Further, statistical difference between visually impaired and physically deformed was not-significant (>0.05) on the basis of School Adjustment (Table 4).
|Visually Impaired||60||4.1||2.03||0.712||>0.05 Not-significant|
Table 4: Comparison between visually impaired and physically deformed adolescents on school adjustment.
The study further highlighted that 25 percent of visually impaired adolescents were poorly adjusted and rest 75% were extremely maladjusted, none of the respondent was found to be well adjusted. These findings are similar to the findings by Schloss  who report that visually impaired were poorly adjusted in emotional, social and educational adjustment same condition prevailed as regards their total adjustment. Verma also found that blind adolescents were mal adjusted and frustrated in comparison to other adolescents.
However interestingly study by Puthuraj and Yashoda  reveal that visually impaired have good adjustment at school and possess good relations with co-students. These findings are supported by Pinquart and Pfeiffer  who also report that students with vision impairment were well adjusted but a minority might benefit from psychological interventions. In case of physically deformed adolescents the study revealed that half of the respondents were poorly adjusted while as another 35 percent were extremely maladjusted and only 15 percent were well adjusted. CPA, also reports that physical deformity has serious effects on the social and psychological functioning of students and there are wide varieties of factors that can contribute to either positive or negative adjustment. However study by Elizabeth, et al.  reveal that adolescents with physical disability report good self-esteem, strong family relationships and good school adjustment. Another study by Meissner, et al.  also found no main effects of reported obviousness or impact of disability [7-9].
The present study depicts that physically deformed were more adjusted than visually impaired on the basis of Home Adjustment, however with respect to social adjustment physically deformed were more adjusted than visually impaired. Emotionally physically deformed depicted better adjustment than visually impaired. Physically deformed were more adjusted at School.