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Criminological Explanation of Trafficking in Women and Children in India

Avanish Bhai Patel*

Department of Humanities and Social Sciences, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee

*Corresponding Author:
Avanish Bhai Patel
Research Scholar, Department of Humanities
and Social Sciences, Roorkee, India
E-mail: [email protected]

Received Date: July 27, 2015; Accepted Date: July 28, 2015; Published Date: December 05, 2015

Citation: Patel AB (2015) Criminological Explanation of Trafficking in Women and Children in India. Social Crimonol 3:e107. doi:10.4172/2375-4435.1000e107

Copyright: © 2015 Patel AB. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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Human trafficking is the illegal trade of human beings for the purposes of transfer, commercial sexual exploitation, forced labour and it is known as a modern-day form of slavery. Trafficking violates all known standards of human rights and dignity of human. It violates the right to health, right to liberty, right to equality and security of person. The findings indicate poverty, unemployment, illiteracy, urbanisation and weak legislation as factors behind human trafficking.


Poverty; Unemployment; Illiteracy; Urbanization; Trafficking


Criminology is the scientific study of crime and its treatment. It is related to those conducts of human behavior which are prohibited by criminal laws and social norms. There are three principles of criminology, namely, sociology of law, criminal etiology and penology [1]. Sociology of law is the study of crime as a social phenomenon and it is the scientific analysis of social conditions which are responsible for the criminal behavior. Criminology sees that human trafficking is the criminal behavior which violates human rights and breaks criminal law. No matter what the degree of immorality and indecency of an act, human trafficking is not a crime unless it is prohibited by the criminal law. Criminal etiology analyses the causes of crime including those conditions which lead to committing of crimes. Criminal etiology sees that poverty, deceit, distraction, unemployment, lure of job, migration, inequity and corruption are the major causes of human trafficking. Penology is the study of penal code and crime control and explores remedies which may help in the rehabilitation of victims.


Trafficking in human beings, especially women and children has become an issue of grave concern around the globe today including India PPI [2]. Human trafficking is a crime against humanity that affects sense of well being of human beings. It is the most serious organized crime of the world, transcending cultures, geography and time. Human trafficking is a gross commercialisation of innocent human beings by organised criminals. Human trafficking is the illegal trade of human beings for the purposes of reproductive slavery, commercial sexual exploitation, forced labour and it is known as a modern-day form of slavery. It has been estimated that out of the total number of persons affected by human trafficking in which 80% women and 50% children are affected by human trafficking in India. Annually, 20 billion rupees are turned over through human trafficking [3].

Trafficking in women and children is the most alarming issue around the globe today. We will have to review of literature to understand the trafficking in women and children has seen in her study that trafficked persons become either unpaid or poorly paid [4]. They are viewed as a commodity and they can be used again and again for accumulating profit. Traffickers cheat the migrants taking in faith that they will earn many times more money abroad than they are able to at home. Further, he claims that the global human trafficking is established due to increase of poverty level. Poor people are compelled into the arms of traffickers. Opportunity of transportation is given them by traffickers from one country to another country. Moreover, he has explained that human trafficking is composed of many crimes such as fraud, kidnapping, assault, rape, and sometimes murder. Similarly Sharma [5] has found in his study that poverty is the root cause of trafficking. Trafficking flourishes where poverty is itself a symptom of a structural problem. Here, a better life is not signaled by education and training but by the lure of a wage. Whereas children are more likely to emigrate to find work away from their parents. Further, she explains that a close relationship between poverty and trafficking. Poor parents sell their children to another country and blame their actions on poverty. Moreover Khan [6] has done her study in Maharashtra. She has examined in her study that trafficking of human beings clearly violates the fundamental rights. It also violates the right to health and health care, liberty and security of person, and the right to freedom from torture, violence, cruelty or degrading treatment. The trading and exploitation of human being is the most despicable violation of human rights by traffickers. The violation of human rights is not only within the countries but also across the borders, regions and continents. This study provides an analytical framework of various factors responsible for trafficking of women and children in India. Trafficking in women and children is being considered as an epidemic problem around the globe today.


From the preceding lines it is apparent that human trafficking is prevailing among the women and children in India and therefore, there is a dire need of scientific enquiry to analyse this issue from multiple perspectives and explore the factors which are responsible for trafficking among the women and children.


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