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ISSN: 2155-9600
Journal of Nutrition & Food Sciences
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Cross-Testing between Four Varieties: HD 1220 (HIDHAB), ARZ, MAHON X DEMIAS and ANZA of Constantine Wheat

Letlout Hayet1* and Ouldjaoui Ahmed2

1Laboratory of Genetics, Biochemistry and Biotechnology, University of Constantine 1, Algeria

2Laboratory of Genetics and Molecular Biology, University of Constantine 3, Algeria

*Corresponding Author:
Letlout Hayet
Laboratory of Genetics
Biochemistry and Biotechnology
University of Constantine 1, Algeria
Tel: +213 780 65 94 10
E-mail: [email protected]

Received Date: March 18, 2017; Accepted Date: March 23, 2017; Published Date: March 30, 2017

Citation: Hayet L, Ahmed O (2017) Cross-Testing between Four Varieties: HD 1220 (HIDHAB), ARZ, MAHON X DEMIAS and ANZA of Constantine Wheat. J Nutr Food Sci 7:590. doi: 10.4172/2155-9600.1000590

Copyright: © 2017 Hayet L, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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Abstract

Inter-varietal crosses were made between 4 varieties: HD 1220 (HIDHAB), ARZ, MAHON X DEMIAS and ANZA of BREAD wheat with 2 repetitions while following their cycle of development. The principals components analysis: A.C.P. variety: HD 1220 (HIDHAB) shows that the number of grains per square meter (37.15%) contributed the most to the formation of the axis F1 while the number of spike per square meter (51.90%) as the most axis F2. That of the ARZ variety shows that the number of grains per square meter (43.41%) contributed the most to the formation of the F1 axis otherwise the number of grains per spike shape as the axis F2 (55.86%). Measuring the pH of our soil is estimated at 7.47. It is slightly alkaline and this is a heavy and highly calcareous is soil. It is also a mineral soil because the percentage of the organic material is 1.81.

Keywords

HD 1220; ARZ; MAHON X DEMIAS; ANZA; Intra varietal crosses; Soil analysis

Introduction

The contribution of cereals for ten thousand years to the nourishment of man has been crucial and has contributed greatly to the development of civilizations.

Around one billion tons of cereals are produced annually worldwide. Wheat and rice are the most important equally [1].

Among the cereals, wheat, and especially soft wheat, is by far the most important food in the human diet, either in the form of bread or in the form of biscuits or rusks [2].

However, four varieties of soft wheat: ARZ, ANZA, HD1220 (HIDHAB) were the subject of our study by successive inter-varietal crosses with analyzes of the field of experimentation.

Materials and Methods

The sowing plan consists of our 4 plots: HD 1220 (HIDHAB), ARZ, MAHON X DEMIAS and ANZA of soft wheat arranged in different ways each year to avoid the effect of borders with 2 blocks while following their cycle Development.

The castration is followed by pollination. The ears of the male parent will be introduced into the cut pouch which contains the female parent by gently rubbing on the ovary.

A.C.P.: Overall Principal Component Analysis on our data.

Hydrogen potential, limestone dosage and the percentage of organic matter in the soil are also part of our analysis.

Results and Discussion

Breeding patterns

During 12 years of testing, it was possible to carry out all intervarietal crosses knowing that they were difficult to carry out.

• The crosses are said to be: stranded if the sachets are empty.

• The crosses are said to be successful if the bags have ears of corn.

• It would be desirable to analyze the offspring: from F1 to F12 in order to establish their genetic variability.

The causes of obtaining the sachets of empty crossovers are:

• Pollination poorly done (Auto pollination).

• Castration badly done (Residues of some stamens).

• Unfavorable weather conditions (Sun, Rain, Wind ...) (Table 1).

Years Male Female Seeds Years Male Female Seeds
1999/2000 ANZA HD 10 2008/2009 HD ARZ 17
MD ARZ 8 MD HD 13
2000/2001 HD ARZ 16 ARZ ANZA 11
ARZ ANZA 14 ARZ MD 16
ANZA ARZ 10 HD ARZ 12
ARZ HD 15 MD ANZA 15
2001/2002 ANZA ARZ 14 ANZA ARZ 11
ARZ ANZA 12 2009/2010 MD ANZA 28
2002/2003 ARZ HD 10 HD MD 23
ANZA ARZ 9 HD ARZ 21
MD ANZA 12 ANZA HD 27
ANZA HD 8 MD ARZ 25
ARZ HD 13 ARZ MD 22
HD MD 10 MD HD 26
2003/2004 MD HD 16 HD ANZA 33
ARZ MD 7 ARZ HD 26
HD ANZA 8 ANZA MD 30
MD ANZA 9 ARZ ANZA 23
2004/2005 ARZ ANZA 12 ANZA ARZ 32
ARZ ANZA 13 2010/2011 ANZA HD 54
HD MD 9 ARZ ANZA 66
2005/2006 ANZA MD 7 MD ANZA 57
ARZ MD 16 ARZ HD 52
2006/2007 MD ANZA 12 ANZA MD 59
ANZA HD 16 ANZA ARZ 56
MD ARZ 11 HD ARZ 60
2007/2008 ARZ HD 14 HD MD 64
ANZA MD 13 ARZ ANZA 61
2008/2009 ANZA HD 15 HD ANZA 50
ARZ HD 12 MD HD 53
ANZA MD 14 MD ARZ 65
HD ANZA 18 ANZA MD 70
ARZ MD 10 ARZ MD 55

Table 1: Breeding pattern.

Experimental soil analysis

The measurement of the potential Hydrogen: pH of a soil makes it possible to define its state of acidity or of alkalinity (or acid-basic status). In general, the pH is measured on a scale of 1 to 14.

An agricultural soil has a pH of between 4 and 9 with exceptions and varies according to the nature of the soil.

The pH of our test was estimated to be 7.47; It is therefore weakly alkaline and it is also a heavy soil because its pH is between 6.80-7.50.

Our soil has a percentage of limestone estimated at 37%. It is a strongly calcareous soil because it is between 25 and 50%.

Soils are called mineral soils when the percentage of organic matter is less than 30.

• Organic matter covers very different fractions=fresh organic matter (roots, straw, green fertilizers buried ...), intermediate (stabilizing) or stable=humus (humic substances, amino acids, microbial biomass ...).

• Humus+Clay=Argilo-Humic Complex (C.A.H.).

• Conditioning soil structure and soil nutrient power [3].

• The soil of our experiment is mineral because its percentage of organic matter is estimated at 1.81.

Conclusion

The essential facts which commit some element of answer to the problem of our varieties: HD 1220, ARZ, MAHON X DEMIAS and ANZA of soft wheat:

It was possible to carry out all inter-varietal crosses knowing that they were difficult to carry out.

It would be desirable to analyze the offspring: from F1 to F2 in order to establish their genetic variability.

A.C.P.: Overall Principal Component Analysis shows that the variability for the F1 axis is 51.39% and it is 26.36% for the F2 axis. The cumulative percentage of variables is 77.75% on the F1 and F2 axes.

The number of grains per square meter (48.18%) contributes the most to the formation of the F1 axis while the height of the plant (66.44%) forms the most axis F2.

The graph of the observations shows that each variety has certain similarities of plants with respect to variables. Our test soil is heavy and it is weakly alkaline. It is also strongly limestone and mineral.

References

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