Received Date: March 18, 2017; Accepted Date: March 23, 2017; Published Date: March 30, 2017
Citation: Hayet L, Ahmed O (2017) Cross-Testing between Four Varieties: HD 1220 (HIDHAB), ARZ, MAHON X DEMIAS and ANZA of Constantine Wheat. J Nutr Food Sci 7:590. doi: 10.4172/2155-9600.1000590
Copyright: © 2017 Hayet L, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
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Inter-varietal crosses were made between 4 varieties: HD 1220 (HIDHAB), ARZ, MAHON X DEMIAS and ANZA of BREAD wheat with 2 repetitions while following their cycle of development. The principals components analysis: A.C.P. variety: HD 1220 (HIDHAB) shows that the number of grains per square meter (37.15%) contributed the most to the formation of the axis F1 while the number of spike per square meter (51.90%) as the most axis F2. That of the ARZ variety shows that the number of grains per square meter (43.41%) contributed the most to the formation of the F1 axis otherwise the number of grains per spike shape as the axis F2 (55.86%). Measuring the pH of our soil is estimated at 7.47. It is slightly alkaline and this is a heavy and highly calcareous is soil. It is also a mineral soil because the percentage of the organic material is 1.81.
HD 1220; ARZ; MAHON X DEMIAS; ANZA; Intra varietal crosses; Soil analysis
The contribution of cereals for ten thousand years to the nourishment of man has been crucial and has contributed greatly to the development of civilizations.
However, four varieties of soft wheat: ARZ, ANZA, HD1220 (HIDHAB) were the subject of our study by successive inter-varietal crosses with analyzes of the field of experimentation.
The sowing plan consists of our 4 plots: HD 1220 (HIDHAB), ARZ, MAHON X DEMIAS and ANZA of soft wheat arranged in different ways each year to avoid the effect of borders with 2 blocks while following their cycle Development.
The castration is followed by pollination. The ears of the male parent will be introduced into the cut pouch which contains the female parent by gently rubbing on the ovary.
A.C.P.: Overall Principal Component Analysis on our data.
Hydrogen potential, limestone dosage and the percentage of organic matter in the soil are also part of our analysis.
During 12 years of testing, it was possible to carry out all intervarietal crosses knowing that they were difficult to carry out.
• The crosses are said to be: stranded if the sachets are empty.
• The crosses are said to be successful if the bags have ears of corn.
• It would be desirable to analyze the offspring: from F1 to F12 in order to establish their genetic variability.
The causes of obtaining the sachets of empty crossovers are:
• Pollination poorly done (Auto pollination).
• Castration badly done (Residues of some stamens).
• Unfavorable weather conditions (Sun, Rain, Wind ...) (Table 1).
Table 1: Breeding pattern.
Experimental soil analysis
The measurement of the potential Hydrogen: pH of a soil makes it possible to define its state of acidity or of alkalinity (or acid-basic status). In general, the pH is measured on a scale of 1 to 14.
An agricultural soil has a pH of between 4 and 9 with exceptions and varies according to the nature of the soil.
The pH of our test was estimated to be 7.47; It is therefore weakly alkaline and it is also a heavy soil because its pH is between 6.80-7.50.
Our soil has a percentage of limestone estimated at 37%. It is a strongly calcareous soil because it is between 25 and 50%.
Soils are called mineral soils when the percentage of organic matter is less than 30.
• Organic matter covers very different fractions=fresh organic matter (roots, straw, green fertilizers buried ...), intermediate (stabilizing) or stable=humus (humic substances, amino acids, microbial biomass ...).
• Humus+Clay=Argilo-Humic Complex (C.A.H.).
• Conditioning soil structure and soil nutrient power .
• The soil of our experiment is mineral because its percentage of organic matter is estimated at 1.81.
The essential facts which commit some element of answer to the problem of our varieties: HD 1220, ARZ, MAHON X DEMIAS and ANZA of soft wheat:
It was possible to carry out all inter-varietal crosses knowing that they were difficult to carry out.
It would be desirable to analyze the offspring: from F1 to F2 in order to establish their genetic variability.
A.C.P.: Overall Principal Component Analysis shows that the variability for the F1 axis is 51.39% and it is 26.36% for the F2 axis. The cumulative percentage of variables is 77.75% on the F1 and F2 axes.
The number of grains per square meter (48.18%) contributes the most to the formation of the F1 axis while the height of the plant (66.44%) forms the most axis F2.
The graph of the observations shows that each variety has certain similarities of plants with respect to variables. Our test soil is heavy and it is weakly alkaline. It is also strongly limestone and mineral.