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ISSN: 2165-7912
Journal of Mass Communication & Journalism
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Cultural Imperialism through Beverages Advertisements: A Case Study of Youth of Lahore

Tamkanat Rasool, Aniqa Nadeem and Kiran Karamat*

Department of Media Studies, Kinnaird College for Women, Pakistan

*Corresponding Author:
Kiran Karamat
Lecturer, Department of Media Studies
Kinnaird College for Women, Pakistan
Tel: +92 42 99203781
E-mail: [email protected]

Received Date: December 07, 2016; Accepted Date: December 16, 2016; Published Date: January 03, 2017

Citation: Rasool T, Nadeem A, Karamat K (2017) Cultural Imperialism through Beverages Advertisements: A Case Study of Youth of Lahore. J Mass Communicat Journalism 7: 325. doi: 10.4172/2165-7912.1000325

Copyright: © 2017 Rasool T, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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Abstract

The study explores the effects of beverages advertisements on youth of Lahore. The main objective was to find out that how beverages ads are promoting western culture and its relationship with the youngsters. Survey was used as a method of data collection. The study targeted youngsters from different educational institutions of Lahore. The data were analyzed through SPSS and statistical tool such as Chi-square test was used for data analysis. The results indicate that youth get influenced by such beverages advertisements in which western culture is shown. The study concludes that most of the youth is attracted towards western advertisements and they consider that consuming such advertisements will make them more modern and civilized; hence they are more inclined towards it. Western media also uses such tactics to engage third world countries with their products which help them to gain more revenue

Keywords

Effects; Beverages advertisements; Youth; Cultural imperialism; Survey; SPSS; Chi-square test; Western culture

Introduction

Imperialism has so many definitions and aspects, cultural imperialism is also referred to one of them. We observe class difference, social inequality at all stages of life, while considering it on global level, it becomes imperialism, cultural imperialism in fact. Those nations, having relatively more popular culture are considered superior and strong and they are always supported. It is the common practice, or we can say a fight we can see between developed and less developed countries. Highly developed countries try to impose themselves on the lesser countries which ultimately diminish their own identity, which is their main purpose. For conducting such propaganda, you need to be politically and industrially influential, which these countries are already awarded with. Marxism also explains how social class is defined and expected to work in a social system. Most of the aspects of cultural imperialism has also been observed in Marxism theory. Advertisement, being the tool for mass communication, can also become a better tool for global spread of cultural imperialism, which we are already observing through many advertisement strategies. The most simple and easiest explanation of cultural imperialism is ‘it is the act through which a stronger generation targets relatively smaller generations to affect their cultural identity. This concept was popularized after a revolution in Vietnam, 1960. Later on while considering and understanding its importance, it was also made a part of academia, because of some kind of traditional criticism faced by both communist and noncommunist groups. It is basically an act, through which smaller nations are somehow, pressurized or generalized to follow the practices of relatively higher generations. This statement clearly identifies, what is power, and what is the struggle of power. We already know who are the most influential and who are the most targeted countries and it is also evident by the most of the definitions transcribed by the intellectuals and scholars as it is clear that they are directly targeting west. Most of the scholars consider ‘west’ and ‘western media’ as the biggest culprit of cultural imperialism. Media, mass media has always been being considered the most common and simplest tool for cultural imperialism, as it is the only medium to reach to a huge, massive and heterogeneous audience. Through this huge chain, the smaller one is always on the top of target list and suffer a lost as result of their lost cultural individual identity. Capitalism, a wide studied phenomenon of sociology well explains how a capitalist society works and how it can lead us towards the most damaging fact, which includes diminishing of lower classes by eradicating their own identity. And as a result, the model of society that we face is called urbanization. It is all due to the sickening marketing and advertising strategies that we are shaming our identities and facing such circumstances. Poverty becomes a disease, when it is taking on your nerves and as a weaker nation you are vulnerable to poverty and western style advertisements can easily target to your mind. Many facts are behind it, out of which some includes, outstanding marketing strategy, poor exposure of your targeted audience, illiteracy and their personal experience with such product, goods or services. Countries and their ownership might also be accused of such situations because it is very rare case that developing countries hold acts and laws to protect the right and privacy of their customers. Without having such acts and laws, you are already welcoming foreign investments and their massive advertising strategies in your country and it is ultimately your loss, your economy will collapse and your consumers will get from some other place. Which is going to attract them and they are going to forget their own identity and will begin to feel proud in following others and it will a shame for them to follow their own traditions, values and culture. Countries who are afraid of such situations, and not successful in the applications of laws, they have limited foreign ad investment to 12% even. Here are few examples of some highly conscious countries who have applied limited strategy to foreign ad investment. Native America has the ration of 19%, India has the ration of 40%, and Peru has 100% [1]. Pakistan is also on the list of developing countries, thus situation here is not very different. In the past few years our media industry has faced a huge invasion in all forms of our media industry i.e., film drama and now even advertisement. So we had to limit our foreign ad investment to 10%. Due to Turkish and Indian soap operas, our values are no doubt, highly affected but our industry has also faced a collapse. Investors bought a low cost but heavy rating producer drama, which was a huge profit for them, but a huge loss for the Pakistani drama. So it made our industry owners more conscious towards foreign investors [2].

Blame is not all alone on western society, from last few decades our world has gone through a huge technological shift and advances. Result of technological shift has always been globalization which means that you will have to agree the existence of cultural transmission. Most of the time, smaller nations are affected because of undefined cultural norms and values and just because they are not developed and strong enough to protect their cultures. However, we have come across the fact that there are two main results of technological shift which are leading our society towards modernization and that includes;

• Cultural imperialism

• Globalization

Imperialism is one of the most highly debated phenomenon, it is the study of identification of an ideology, politics, and how its transmission occurs to other territories. People are made more inclined towards such patterns that it is fine to adopt eating, dressing habits of others and they should be following it, else they will be lacing behind. As one of the most successful advertising strategy speaks, you are what you eat [3].

American corporate culture, is a great example of how other cultures are being disappeared, as their multinational companies are not only promoting their products but also a “lifestyle”, and according to their campaigns people should be following it to become a part of modernization and to be as modern as they are. They also justify their act through the concept of “unity”, that in order to sustain unity with other civilization, altering the message will not be a good option, so culture is very easy to replace. A very main concept of “imperialism” is that larger nations have an edge because they are the main exporter and they can export their products to smaller nations and can become a part of imperialism. So while you are the consumer of products, you can also consume their values, and it is not that bad. United states have spread their values all around the world. The concept that has been brought us is the result of effort s of America and West. Coca cola beverages international is the second most known popular corporation of America, Pepsi cola beverages also comes under the largest corporation of the world and these two beverages companies have a greater role in cultural imperialism. If lifestyle is defined by our eating and drinking habits, then beverages on regular basis have become a symbol of lifestyle, a modern lifestyle, in fact [4]. Coca cola is the most common around the world due to their strong advertising strategy and its effectiveness. They are continuously changing their images, from the date of its invention till now, stakeholders and investors have tremendously changed its logos and other designs in order to build up an image. They also keep on considering the facts due which it is presented to other cultures and traditions. There is expenditure of millions of dollars on the shaping the image of coke which is present today. Few years back, a video came over, in which stakeholders are convincing Africans to drink coke, if they want to adopt the pattern of a better “lifestyle”. Now African continent is that part of the world which coms under third world, most countries of this continent are not even under the banner of developing countries. Many people living here cannot even afford two times meal and our multinational corporations are offering them to such a necessity which is not even a ‘need’, it is a ‘want’. And they are being urged to drink coke, just to feel better! What does it prove? That coke is not merely a drink; it is a ‘lifestyle’. Especially for the natives, for them having particular necessities of life are very rare to attain. And they will feel better if they will adopt the lifestyle of higher generations. We are making them realize that consumption of such products will make them feel better, and afterwards they will definitely strive to get that “better feel”.

Pepsi cola international has launched their first ever global campaign in 2012, under the title of ‘live for now’, and its inauguration was held from United States. This campaign was the result of a huge and complete research which was being carried out from past few months, and in different markets of different countries. The basic purpose and its success were to bring globalization all over the world. They aimed to bring youth from all over the world into an interaction with the help of one platform, and for this purpose they made a webpage, so that users from different parts of world can come and share their experiences with each other which will help them to know each other and to interact with each other, and it will bring the following results:

• Globalization

• Interaction with other cultures

• Participants’ influence on others

Through all kinds of social and technological platforms technology have made us to enter into a new world, ‘globalization’, and our aim has now become to connect to the world and global management can better help us in this regard. New advertisement campaign of Pepsi cola is linking it to fun and entertainment, youth is having fun and partying all the time during summer holidays and roaming around the world. Both male and female are dancing and they are belonging form different cultures and ethnic backgrounds. Beverages have closely linked pop cultures in their advertisements and celebrity endorsement is also one of the very key factors of their advertising campaign. They have been so successful in this advertisement strategy that they have linked parties and beverage all together. Their success can also been seen through different Facebook and Twitter pages, and they have shared their live their ‘now’ moments with the “world”. And this is what “live for now” is all about. But we have different cultures, different nations and different languages, and multinationals are well aware of the fact that they can never use same language all over the world, but English is through an official language but still cannot be spoken and understood all over the world. So in their previous advertisements, Pepsi cola made an experiment of translating their English campaigns into the native language but different cultures have different types of social and ethnic backgrounds, so chances of misinterpretation are always there. For example “Come Alive”, was translated for advertisement campaign in china, and Chinese people believed that through this campaign, their ancestors will be brought alive, which was a huge disaster for this strategy. “Cultures are transmitted through different models of radio and television, which is a difficult part, but cultural imperialism is its simplest form [5]. Multinationals are the icon of what is American corporate culture. Americanization is being rapidly spread out all around the world, and their most common message, and the most easily to understand is, “Behaving like us will make you feeling like us”. So here arises a most important question, why will we like to feel like them, why do we like to be like them, are we continuously striving to become a part of America? Why Americanization and modernization are interlinked? Are such campaigns playing with our psyche, so that they can feel superior and we might feel inferior? So what comes in our mind for the answer, that is what it is exactly, whole world is striving to become like them, because they are obsessed with the American popular culture. Even if we have some doubts, such strategies are making us agreed, even if they are on any type of faults, they are the superior ones, even if their advertising strategy is a failure, they will be a trend setter. Our eating patterns and food defines our culture in its purest form, and takes cultures to a global level. “Before the introduction of corporate culture at overseas level, corporate culture was almost unknown”.

So, beverages were first who made such cravings introduced and took it to international level. We will have to admit this fact, because we have observed drastic change in our eating dressing and lifestyle patterns from the past few decades. If we take example from fast food, eating cow is a sin for Indians but main symbol of Macdonald’s has been its big mac that has been made from beef. So this is how cultural imperialism works, and this is how it becomes a driving force. Big corporations are never unaware, they are fully aware of the impacts, as each and every of their strategy holds a massive research. They think that such countries will feel better by such acts but the main question arises why Americans consider themselves as superior and why they think they have right to teach and educate world. The answer is “marketing”, strong and well defined marketing strategy. Whenever they advertise their products, they link modernization with it and our generation has started to believe that Americans are a symbol of modernization. They have made other realize that they should love their life and should have “better life style” of a “better civilization”. I’m loving it”, is our new strategy which will be connecting us to the other generations. This strategy will build up a potential to create an emotional bond, and it will be a successful strategy for our corporation. Corporations never know, what other cultures love about life, and they should never link ‘love’ with the other cultures. So this can be regarded as cultural imperialism, which can be done by the advertisement of corporation and brands [6].

Statement of problem

Due to the modern means of communication, the world has become a “global village”, as it has the capability to bring homogenous countries into one similar form. Even if it is ‘best’ or ‘worst’. What we think about world depends upon our television watching patterns, but somehow it brings about the impacts of modern imperialism. But to what extent it is successful, these factors are still needed to be explored. Globalization is the impact of modern imperialism and one day it will diminish individualism and cultural identity of smaller nations. “Thus, this research article is titled as “Cultural imperialism through western beverages advertisements and its impact on youth of Lahore, Pakistan.” Cultural imperialism is a worldwide recognized phenomenon and multinationals have their customers all around the world but they specifically target youth for their success. We can observe its impacts and consequences on our youth as well. Our youth has also started to follow the life style and beverages culture as shown by their advertisements in order to show themselves as modernized and civilized. In this study we have figured out either these strategies are leading us to a bright future or fading our identity as a “nation”. This study has particularly focused on to what extent they have succeeded in altering the attitudes, beliefs and life style of our youth [7].

Objectives

For this particular study, we have specially found out the effects of ‘globalization’ on our youth and what is the shape of its effects on the minds of people. Some main objectives of this research were

• To illustrate the main core of media globalization.

• To illustrate the main core of media globalization.

• To discover what are viewer’s consumption of such cable television channels.

• To understand effects of such advertisements in terms of their demographics.

• To explore viewers preferences towards such advertisements.

• To explore viewers preferences towards fast food and beverages culture.

• To explore general perception about Pakistani channels that to what extent they are promoting such products and brands.

Research questions

1. Is cultural imperialism just another product of globalization?

2. How western media became successful in proving themselves modernized and civilized?

3. What kinds of impact such advertisement have on the youth?

4. Are youth inclined towards modernism, or it’s just these kinds of advertisements which are compelling them towards such life style?

5. If beverages are promoting western culture, why are we so much obsessed with western culture?

Hypothesis

The greater the exposure of western beverages advertisements, the greater the effect of foreign culture on our youth.

Rationale

Pakistan comes on the list of those countries which are continuously being affected by cultural imperialism, not just because of high viewership but because our very own television and cable channels are also promoting multinational brands and corporations. The most important reason is the ‘lack of research’ in this field. In this study we have tried to find out the main impacts of such advertisements, and why are they becoming a threat to our domestic life style, cultural identity and our nation. We have particularly focused on youth, as they are more inclined towards change and always ready to adopt modernization.

Literature Review

Literature review can be used as the secondary source of your research and you cannot fully rely on it, you need to perform this act vigilantly. For literature review you have to build a new comparison regarding ideologies, methodologies and other techniques that have been used by the previous authors. You can never relate literature review with the book review. For literature review, it can only help you to develop a better understanding for your area of interest. Literature review demands full dedication, no matter at what level you are carrying out your research. You can find it in journals and it is completely separate from books. It can help you direct your study in a manner and can also guides you towards new directions and patterns. A possible threat to Individualism by the invasion of popular culture was identified by MacBride commission. In this study such factors have been identified that why these are leading world towards a new era of modernization and why world is continuously being affected by it. In this research they have found out that ultimately it will diminish ancient cultures and will become heir for that. Since having a unique culture beautify the world and no one can deny this fact. Algiers concluded that his work is not only limited to cultural regions and imperialism are most specifically exceeding the political boundaries as well. Also they are passing by social and cultural domains. Foreign culture is being imposed by higher generations to the lesser countries. Schiller conducted a research on “mass communication and its contribution towards popular culture” and he first coined the term “imperialism”. In his research work he has completely described role and power of developed countries towards orientalism and imperialism and how they are affecting lesser or under developing countries. Schiller was being considered as one of the biggest supporter of “imperialism” theory. According to his interpretation western media has a key role in this respect because they have budget to carry out this process, third world countries due to lack of investors prefer to buy production of developed countries because it is cheaper for them rather than producing their own. Barret argued that in the field of mass media, you need money and foreign investors who are helping you throughout the process. If you are not capable of having more investors, you need to rely on the products of others and hence you will have to agree to the transmission of cultural invasion which will ultimately be damaging your own identity. Kraidy argues in his research that American popular culture is targeting developing countries, most of the time with the help of technology and it is because they specifically target youth and youth of such countries, more inclined towards modern life style which includes wearing Nike, drinking coca cola and rock music etc. Umogency conducted a research on “cultural dependency” and he argued that why a culture thinks other one as superior and depends upon them. It is because of many factors i.e., economy and political factors. The key factors are technology, education and means. We find other as superior to us because we consider that they are superior in all these three matters. Cultural dependency and impacts of cultural imperialism are the main focus of our research for this study. And above mentioned literature review is mainly focusing on these factors. So these by the research and analysis will be supporting our stance for this particular study [8].

Theoretical Framework

Theory is formulated after a complete wide research on human behaviors and conduct. They are based on research by experts and scholars. You need to have a theory in any kind of research, so that you have a properly designed pattern and frame of work in front of you. And you can easily refer to it.

Application of theory

For this particular theory, we have used two basic theories i.e., cultural imperialism and media dependency.

Cultural Imperialism

Michael Foucault and Edward Said laid the theoretical foundations for this theory. This theory discusses the cultural aspects of cultural imperialism; it focuses on difference of civilization, and also favors the most superior generations. So it focuses on how a more powerful culture imposed on the others. So in other words it explains the cultural hegemony of industrialized and capitalized nations. Main focus of the importance of research in this theory is cultural, media and technological superiority between the nations, and they all describe the most basic notions of cultural imperialism. Cultural imperialism can also be extended to the development of political, government and economic systems. Mainly focuses on media, and its different forms i.e., film, radio and television. So this concept is known as media imperialism where interest of one country is imposed on others. Tis can be occurred without interchange. Which means that the affected countries cannot export their values to others and they will have to accept the values of superior countries as they exist. Critiques point out that human is conscious enough and they know what should be their free will. They know what to absorb through media and how they will be interpreting it.

Agenda setting

This theory discusses the ability of news media to influence the mind set of their audience with their targeted and public agenda. If they will be continuously giving coverage to a news, then it will be considered as the most important issue by the people and they will be thinking on it. It was formally developed by Max MaCobms and Donald Shaw, on the study related to American presidential elections. By the continuous coverage people began to think it as an important issue, and even if they didn’t have any interest in the elections they began to debate who is going to win next American elections [9].

This theory refers to the highlight of salient issues by the media. And its most basic assumptions are as follows:

• Reality, that is depicted by media is not reality, it is shaped and filtered.

• Media concentration on few issues make audience aware of those issues that these are more important and others are less important.

Its most critical work is time frame. That’s why different media outlets have different potential for news setting. Agenda setting has three types’ i.e., public agenda, media agenda and political agenda. McCombs and Shaw has focused on media agenda setting, which is studied by political scientists. Its importance is not only limited to policy matters but it is also focused on social circles.

Research Methodology

“Methodology” is the collection of tools you are going to carry out in your research. It will help you to recognize your data and will ultimately affect your findings as well. In order to examine the effects of westernization and modernization through beverages advertisements a survey will be conducted. Which will help us to find out the mindset of our youth that to which extent our youth is satisfied and to which extent they have started to consider westernization as the norm of society.

Survey research

In order to analyze, its effects on individuals, we will be conducting a survey, of which results are as follows.

Universe For this research our universe is youth of Pakistan.

Population

Our population would be youth of Lahore.

Sample

Our sample size will be 90 and those people who will be respondents for our questionnaire.

1. Selecting a sample

Our target audience included youth from different countries, which includes KE, BNU and UET. Those who have internet and cable facilities at home. According to United Nations youth is the people ranging from the range of 15-25, and we will be targeting people from the age of 18-25. This is the age when one realizes to learn and analyze cultural values and norms of society, also one learns how to secure and preserve them.

To select particular sample, stratified sampling method is used. As characteristics of our sub sample included the variable of age, education and their gender etc., a total sample of 90 respondents was selected including 50% male and 50% female students of the said universities of Lahore.

We have selected this population and sample size because our research is mainly focused on the impacts of cultural imperialism on our youth. So studying its impacts on youth only is more beneficial.

Tool of data collection

Tool of data collection was questionnaire. We formulated a questionnaire which was spread out amongst our respondents respectively, which helped to analyze their interpretations and their response towards such advertisements.

• Questions considered their television watching pattern per day, i.e., how many hours a day they use to spend on television. It will help us to analyze their exposure to such advertisements.

• Questions focused on their preferences, i.e., what types of television channels they prefer to watch i.e., entertainment, information or just for time pass.

• Questions focused on their interest i.e., drama, film sports or news.

• Questions focused on why they tend to adopt westernization i.e., to look modern, to attract others, social pressure or any other reason.

• Questions focused about their acceptance towards modernism i.e., to what extent they agree that such advertisements lead towards modernism and westernization.

• Questions were composed of Likert scale. It asked some questions who will try to analyze to what extent respondents agree that such kinds of advertisements and fast food cultures have affected their own cultural identity.

Statistical analysis

Statistical analysis was composed of data analysis. We collected and scrutinized data manually, as our sample size was not be that big for which we needed sample size.

Pre testing

Pre testing is very important as it will show you what is going to work on particular audience. For example, such advertisements which are showing people partying would not affect an old person or a sixth grader as much as it will be affecting a university going student.

• Selecting appropriate message concepts i.e., styles, appeals and formats etc.

• Creative work guidelines.

• What kinds of visual images are going to have ultimate effect?

• Revisions before spending time and money on the practical work.

Variables

Our hypothesis “The greater the exposure of western beverages advertisements, the greater the effect of foreign culture on our youth”, considers two variable i.e., independent and dependent.

Out of which advertisements was independent variable as they are not going to be effected by anyone while youth was dependent because such advertisements are effecting them either in one way or the other?

Conceptualization

“It is a process in which research clarifies their aim of study in an accurate manner”.

In this research we strictly focused on “cultural imperialism” with respect to American corporate culture and their advertisements, what kinds of effect they are having on our youth and how are they affecting our cultural values and cultural individualities.

Operationalization

“Dimension and deliberations are known as operationalization”.

If we are defining a simple term, its measurement should also be debated. The process through which we will be regulated towards the concept that are going to interest us. Considering the concept of imperialism, we cannot directly find out or ask people are they really affected by it. We can only make subsidiary measurements i.e., by asking questions or by witnessing their life and attitude patterns. So we can consider that someone is affected by cultural imperialism if they are continuously adopting western style in their dressing and eating styles.

Conceptual definitions

According to oxford dictionary ‘advertisement’ is

“An action through which a public announcement is made in order to sell your product, service or for the advancement of any event and to publicize any kind of job related vacancy or activity”.

According to united nation, ‘youth’ is well-defined, which is as follows: Those persons of the world who are between ages 15 and 24, is considered as youth without any kind of prejudice.

General Findings

Section 1 of our questionnaire consisted of ordinal scale i.e., multiple choice questions in which we figured out the interests and time span of television watching patterns towards television. In first question we asked, for how long they spend watching television every day, most of the respondents replied that they spend less than one hour watching television. Most of our respondents were inclined towards entertainment channels. Mostly audience was interested in celebrity endorsement advertisements. Mostly users are attracted towards internet medium. Most of our respondents believed that they can adopt many things by consuming western products i.e., personality, attitude and behavioral changing. Most of the users agreed that teenagers at their home prefers soft/carbonated drinks. User also agreed that consumption of soft drinks increases with junk food. Most of the respondents were inclined towards soft drink as a refreshment drink. They said that they consume beverage because of the strong advertising strategy. They agreed that brand image influences their choice of soda. They believed that most of the beverages advertisements are trendy and controversial as well.

Section 2 was consisted of Likert scale, in which we asked our users different questions, for which they responded to the scale of higher agreement to the lesser disagreement. Most of our respondents agreed that they are influenced by the culture portrayed by the television beverages advertisements. They agree that advertisements have long lasting positive effects. Regular beverages advertisements motivate you to consume them. Beverages advertisements during sports target youth. They believe that western advertisements are better Pakistani advertisements. Respondents believed that western culture is being promoted by the advertisements and they are urging their users to buy such products and to adopt a unique life style. They believe that such advertisements are making them more open minded towards relationship with the opposite gender (Tables 1-11 and Figures 1-11).

    Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Strongly Agree 26 28.9 28.9 28.9
  Agree 37 41.1 41.1 70
  Neutral 13 14.4 14.4 84.4
  Disagree 11 12.2 12.2 96.7
  Strongly Disagree 3 3.3 3.3 100
  Total 90 100 100  

Table 1: Do you adopt culture portrayed by television beverages Advertisements?

    Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Strongly Agree 18 20 20 20
  Agree 47 52.2 52.2 72.2
  Neutral 18 20 20 92.2
  Disagree 5 5.6 5.6 97.8
  Strongly Disagree 2 2.2 2.2 100
  Total 90 100 100  

Table 2: Advertisements have long lasting positive effects.

    Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Strongly Agree 18 20 20 20
  Agree 34 37.8 37.8 57.8
  Neutral 24 26.7 26.7 84.4
  Disagree 11 12.2 12.2 96.7
  Strongly Disagree 3 3.3 3.3 100
  Total 90 100 100  

Table 3: Regular Beverages advertisements motivate you to consume them.

    Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Strongly Agree 11 12.2 12.2 12.2
  Agree 39 43.3 43.3 55.6
  Neutral 29 32.2 32.2 87.8
  Disagree 9 10 10 97.8
  Strongly Disagree 2 2.2 2.2 100
  Total 90 100 100  

Table 4: Beverages advertisement during sports target 'youth'.

    Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Strongly Agree 20 22.2 22.2 22.2
  Agree 32 35.6 35.6 57.8
  Neutral 20 22.2 22.2 80
  Disagree 13 14.4 14.4 94.4
  Strongly Disagree 5 5.6 5.6 100
  Total 90 100 100  

Table 5: Western beverages advertisements are better than Pakistani advertisements.

    Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Strongly Agree 18 20 20 20
  Agree 40 44.4 44.4 64.4
  Neutral 14 15.6 15.6 80
  Disagree 14 15.6 15.6 95.6
  Strongly Disagree 4 4.4 4.4 100
  Total 90 100 100  

Table 6: Beverage Companies are promoting western cultures through their advertisements.

    Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Strongly Agree 20 22.2 22.2 22.2
  Agree 26 28.9 28.9 51.1
  Neutral 20 22.2 22.2 73.3
  Disagree 14 15.6 15.6 88.9
  Strongly Disagree 10 11.1 11.1 100
  Total 90 100 100  

Table 7: Advertisements urge you to buy a drink of brand.

    Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Strongly Agree 26 28.9 28.9 28.9
  Agree 38 42.2 42.2 71.1
  Neutral 16 17.8 17.8 88.9
  Disagree 8 8.9 8.9 97.8
  Strongly Disagree 2 2.2 2.2 100
  Total 90 100 100  

Table 8: Celebrity endorsement urge you to buy a product.

    Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Strongly Agree 19 21.1 21.1 21.1
  Agree 44 48.8 48.8 70
  Neutral 18 20 20 90
  Disagree 8 8.9 8.9 98.9
  Strongly Disagree 1 1.1 1.1 100
  Total 90 100 100  

Table 9: To which extent do you agree that advertisements are beneficial to consumers because it provides important information about goods and services?

    Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Strongly Agree 16 17.8 17.8 17.8
  Agree 46 51.1 51.1 68.9
  Neutral 14 15.6 15.6 84.4
  Disagree 11 12.2 12.2 96.7
  Strongly Disagree 3 3.3 3.3 100
  Total 90 100 100  

Table 10: Western beverages advertisements have influenced you to be more open minded towards relationship with the opposite gender.

    Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Strongly Agree 18 20 20 20
  Agree 27 30 30 50
  Neutral 29 32.2 32.2 82.2
  Disagree 10 11.1 11.1 93.3
  Strongly Disagree 6 6.7 6.7 100
  Total 90 100 100  

Table 11: Watching beverages advertisements with family leads to embarrassment at times.

mass-communication-journalism-portrayed

Figure 1: Do you adopt culture portrayed by television beverages advertisements?

mass-communication-journalism-positive

Figure 2: Advertisements have long lasting positive effects.

mass-communication-journalism-consume

Figure 3: Regular Beverages advertisements motivate you to consume them.

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Figure 4: Beverages advertisement during sports target 'youth'.

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Figure 5: Western beverages advertisements are better than Pakistani advertisements.

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Figure 6: Beverage Companies are promoting western cultures through their advertisements.

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Figure 7: Beverage Companies are promoting western cultures through their advertisements.

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Figure 8: Celebrity endorsement urge you to buy a product.

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Figure 9: To which extent do you agree that advertisements are beneficial to consumers because it provides important information about goods and services?

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Figure 10: Western beverages advertisements have influenced you to be more open minded towards relationship with the opposite gender.

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Figure 11: Watching beverages advertisements with family leads to embarrassment at times.

Section 3 of our questionnaire consisted of nominal scale i.e., we have asked our respondents leading questions and they can only reply with ‘yes’ or ‘no’. 90% of the users agreed that spending money on western beverages worth it. Half of the respondents agreed that consumption of such beverages make us feel superior. 80% of the respondents agreed that most specifically youth is affected by the party culture portrayed in western beverages advertisements.

Chi Square test of Association

This test is applied to analyze relationship between two variables i.e., dependent and independent. So as our hypothesis states “The greater the exposure of western beverages advertisements, the greater the youth will be affected”. So now it is showing that some kind of relationship exists between dependent and independent variable as ‘exposure of western beverages advertisement’ is affecting ‘youth’ in one way or the other and there is relationship of association between these two. A large value of chi square test of association shows, small probability, which means greater association. From the top row of the first table, chi square statistics χ2=0.001 i.e. A very small probability of the observed data under the hypothesis of relationship between two variables. It means that our hypothesis is valid and our p value also justifies it, so our research is valid. If this value is higher than 0.00, even then our hypothesis will be null hypothesis but our research cannot be rejected and it will be valid as well (Table 12).

Chi-square DF P-value Conclusion
11.378a 1 0.001 Significant
7.511a 1 0.006 Non-significant
Total     90

Table 12: Hypothesis testing/statistical analysis.

Discussion and Analysis

According to our hypothesis, the more exposure will be towards western advertisements, the more it will have an effect on our youth. And through literature review it is being evident that western media has always been trying to put an effect on the audience of third world people and by the help of depiction of such advertisements they are making our youth more inclined towards such attitudes and beliefs and long lasting exposure also makes you immune to such behavior. When you consider someone else superior, you want to adopt their lifestyle and by such exposure you begin to feel if you will adopt such party culture and will be practicing their value, you will be more inclined towards it and you will be end up following them and ultimately your own identity will be diminished. We can observe its impacts and consequences on our youth as well. Our youth has also started to follow the life style and beverages culture as shown by their advertisements in order to show themselves as modernized and civilized. In this study we have figured out either these strategies are leading us to a bright future or fading our identity as a “nation”. They also justify their act through the concept of “unity”, that in order to sustain unity with other civilization, altering the message will not be a good option, so culture is very easy to replace. A very main concept of “imperialism” is, that larger nations have an edge because they are the main exporter and they can export their products to smaller nations and can become a part of imperialism. So while you are the consumer of products, you can also consume their values.

Recommendations

• A sample size can be increased in order to have more accurate results.

• Effects of western beverages advertisements can also be studied on youth.

• Effects on the youth of overall country can also be studied.

• Difference of advertising strategy between local and international brands can also be studied.

• Why our youth always consider west as style icon, is also a research area.

• Why youth is always the most targeted audience for western corporations.

• Content analysis is also most important factor which can be studied.

• More multinational corporations can also be studied, apart from beverages.

Limitations

• Lack of resources.

• Sample size is very small due to lack of time and resources.

• Research specifically depends upon questionnaire and survey.

• Random sampling is also a big limitation.

• Lack of interest from the respondents as well.

References

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