alexa
Reach Us +44-1764-910199
Current Challenges in Bone Biology | OMICS International
ISSN: 2379-1764
Advanced Techniques in Biology & Medicine
Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700+ peer reviewed, Open Access Journals that operates with the help of 50,000+ Editorial Board Members and esteemed reviewers and 1000+ Scientific associations in Medical, Clinical, Pharmaceutical, Engineering, Technology and Management Fields.
Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our 3000+ Global Conferenceseries Events with over 600+ Conferences, 1200+ Symposiums and 1200+ Workshops on
Medical, Pharma, Engineering, Science, Technology and Business

Current Challenges in Bone Biology

Hemanth Akkiraju and Anja Nohe*
University of Delaware, Newark, 19716, Delaware
Corresponding Author : Anja Nohe
Director, The Laboratory of Cellular Signaling and Dynamics
Department of Biological Sciences, 321 Wolf Hall
University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716
Tel: 302-831-2959
Fax: 302-831-2281
E-mail: [email protected]
Received July 30, 2015; Accepted September 02, 2015; Published September 09, 2015
Citation: Akkiraju H, Nohe A (2015) Current Challenges in Bone Biology. Adv Tech Biol Med 3:132. doi: 10.4172/2379-1764.1000132
Copyright: © 2015 Akkiraju H, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Related article at Pubmed, Scholar Google

Visit for more related articles at Advanced Techniques in Biology & Medicine

The bone is a very important organ that supports is one of the many bodily functions. It has very diverse functions from the general support of the human body to energy regulation and balance [1]. Bones are formed during the development either through intramembranous (flat bones) ossification or endochondral ossification (long bones) [2-4]. The human body is composed of over 270 bones at birth and fuse to become 206 in totals at adulthood that all hold crucial functions. Bones consisting of mineralized bone tissue also consists of bone marrow, nerves and blood vessels and the communication between cells in the tissues is tightly regulated by the bone environment. Bone is an active tissue that is maintained by bone cells such as osteoblasts that form bone and osteoclasts that resorb bone [5]. Additionally, within the collagen and mineral matrix osteocytes are also embedded and respond to the bone environment [6,7]. The balance between these cells is necessary to maintain bone function. Bone research is considerably a challenging field due to the intricately dense structural composition of the bone morphology. While other tissues can be easily processed and prepared for experiments, working with bone is difficult [8,9]. Due to its composition of collagen fibers and minerals, bone creates a very dense structure, in which the bone cells are embedded [10]. Therefore, studying intracellular dynamics of the bone cells embedded within the mineralized tissue has proven to be challenging a task.
Tissues embedded within the bone itself such as the bone marrow niche and blood vessels are easier to analyze. For example real time imaging of the bone marrow niche within bone was recently achieved [14,15]. Similarly, fluorescent imaging of cells within the bone marrow niche was also achieved [16]. However, determining the localization of cell types and protein expression dynamics of single cells within the bone is still very difficult. Recent advancements in imaging techniques allows for the identification of osteocytes embedded in the bone matrix [17]. However, more research is needed to identify intracellular protein activities of the cell bodies embedded within mineralized matrix.
Alternatively, researchers study cell dynamics in ex vivo models. Several ex vivo models of bone are developed to study cellular dynamics of bone [18-21]. These novels ex vivo bone cultures are proposed for studying inflammatory responses, cancer metastasis, and also Zetos bone bioreactor used to study bone growth utilizing mechanosensitive loading are a few good examples [19,22,23]. These ex vivo models can overcome many ethical and clinical issues that are otherwise not permissive for animal or human trials. Such model systems also allow for the imaging of bone cells more feasible [24]. One model for example uses trabecular bone samples and replaces the cells in the 3D architecture with live cells. This allows for a controlled environment within the ex vivo model structure to study bone cell function [25]. Other researchers try to recreate specific bone environments for cells by using hydrogels or porous microspheres to support 3D growth of cells [26,27]. As these data show the cells in a 3D environment show often completely different cellular dynamics as compared to their 2D cultures [28]. Although mimicking the tissue environment through ex vivo model systems makes a significant breakthrough in testing cellular responses but it is still hard to replicate the exact environmental processes.
To better understand bone function we desperately need the development of new protocols and methods to drive bone research. This is especially important to address the cause of bone diseases and their possible treatment options. Bone diseases such as osteoporosis tremendously impact on the quality of life of individuals. Musculoskeletal diseases affect one out of every two people in the United States age 18 and over, and nearly three out of four age 65 and over [29]. However, in order to develop treatments one needs to understand the basic cellular mechanisms first.
Acknowledgement
We thank NIH/NIAMS for funding 5RO1AR06424302.
References

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

 
Select your language of interest to view the total content in your interested language
Post your comment

Share This Article

Relevant Topics

Article Usage

  • Total views: 12339
  • [From(publication date):
    September-2015 - Dec 10, 2018]
  • Breakdown by view type
  • HTML page views : 8446
  • PDF downloads : 3893
 

Post your comment

captcha   Reload  Can't read the image? click here to refresh

Peer Reviewed Journals
 
Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700 + peer reviewed, Open Access Journals
International Conferences 2018-19
 
Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our 3000+ Global Annual Meetings

Contact Us

Agri and Aquaculture Journals

Dr. Krish

[email protected]

+1-702-714-7001Extn: 9040

Biochemistry Journals

Datta A

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9037

Business & Management Journals

Ronald

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Chemistry Journals

Gabriel Shaw

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9040

Clinical Journals

Datta A

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9037

Engineering Journals

James Franklin

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Food & Nutrition Journals

Katie Wilson

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

General Science

Andrea Jason

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9043

Genetics & Molecular Biology Journals

Anna Melissa

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9006

Immunology & Microbiology Journals

David Gorantl

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9014

Materials Science Journals

Rachle Green

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Nursing & Health Care Journals

Stephanie Skinner

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Medical Journals

Nimmi Anna

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9038

Neuroscience & Psychology Journals

Nathan T

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9041

Pharmaceutical Sciences Journals

Ann Jose

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9007

Social & Political Science Journals

Steve Harry

streamtajm

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

 
© 2008- 2018 OMICS International - Open Access Publisher. Best viewed in Mozilla Firefox | Google Chrome | Above IE 7.0 version