Development of Cabibi/Freshwater Clam (Batissa violacea) Sauce

ISSN: 2157-7110

Journal of Food Processing & Technology

  • Research Article   
  • J Food Process Technol 2018, Vol 9(4): 729
  • DOI: 10.4172/2157-7110.1000729

Development of Cabibi/Freshwater Clam (Batissa violacea) Sauce

Cortes CA*
College of Hospitality Industry Management, Cagayan State University-Aparri Maura, Cagayan-3515, Philippines
*Corresponding Author: Cortes CA, College of Hospitality Industry Management, Cagayan State University-Aparri Maura, Aparri, Cagayan-3515, Philippines, Tel: 09351891668, Email: [email protected]

Received Date: Mar 19, 2018 / Accepted Date: Apr 10, 2018 / Published Date: Apr 17, 2018

Abstract

The main objective of this study is to introduce a cabibi or freshwater clam (Batissa violacea) sauce as another option for any other type of condiments or sauce. It would provide a generally accepted condiment just like the oyster sauces of the world but makes use of a specie of a freshwater clam. The method on gathering data for the study started with the researcher’s presentation of coded samples of cabibi/freshwater clam sauce to 81 evaluators from differing age groups. The evaluators assessed the cabibi/ freshwater clam sauce formulations as to four quality attributes: color, odor, taste and general acceptability. From this methodology, it was found that the highly and generally accepted cabibi/freshwater clam sauce has the ratio of 500 ml cabibi/freshwater clam broth: 125 ml sugar: 125 ml soy sauce. On the basis of the study results, the formulation of 500 ml cabibi/freshwater clam broth: 125 ml sugar: 125 ml soy sauce was liked very much by panelists and consumers. The cabibi or freshwater clam sauce was also tested to be nutrient-packed and safe to consume based from the nutritive value and microbial tests conducted. From this, businesspersons should initially manufacture cabibi/freshwater clam sauce having a ratio of 500 ml cabibi/freshwater clam puree: 125 ml sugar: 125 ml soy sauce with a ratio. Thus, the researcher highly recommends to businesspersons to initially make use of this cabibi/freshwater clam sauce ratio and the product should be introduced in the market as it is highly profitable.

Keywords: Cabibi/freshwater clam (Batissa violacea); Cabibi/ freshwater clam (Batissa violace) sauce; Condiment; Sensory evaluation; General acceptability

Introduction

The cabibi (Freshwater clam) shellfish scientifically known as Batissa violacea is found only in Cagayan river along Lallo, Cagayan and through a research study by Layugan [1], species of this is now grown successfully in water tanks at the Cagayan State University- Aparri Campus.

The cabibi (Freshwater clam) is a popular bivalve consumed as food in Asia. Cabibi (Freshwater clam) can be found in lakes and rivers. The seasons to gather freshwater clams is said to be during the rainy and summer months. In this claim, the made cabibi (Freshwater clam) sauce is a savory product.

Cabibi (Freshwater clam) represents one of the Philippines’ most sustainable seafood resources. Natural production remains strong and exceeds demand, and farmed production is improving and expanding. Clams are a low fat, high protein seafood choice with an above average amount of healthful minerals such as selenium, zinc, iron, magnesium and B vitamins like niacin. The nutritional profile of clam products will be determined by the product form and any added ingredients [2]. It is the main objective of this study to develop a sauce comparable to oyster sauce from cabibi or freshwater clam (Batissa violacea). Specifically, the study sought to determine the optimum proportion of the main ingredients in the preparation; to determine the acceptability level of the developed cabibi or freshwater clam sauce; determine the nutritive value of the product; to determine the microbial safety of the product; and to determine the cost and return when the product is to be produced commercially [3].

Research Methodology

Preparation of cabibi/freshwater clam (Batissa violacea) sauce

Cabibi or freshwater clam (Batissa violacea) sauce is a condiment which makes use of cabibi or fresh water clam as its main material. Cabibi or freshwater clam is used as an alternative to oyster. The cabibi (Batissa violacea) sauce is a vicious, chocolate brown in color, sweet, salty and earthly flavored sauce that could be used in Philippine and Asian cuisines (Figure 1).

food-processing-technology-clam-sauce

Figure 1: The three cabibi/freshwater clam sauce concoctions and the existing oyster sauce.

The specific process of coming up with the cabibi (Freshwater clam) sauce includes: opening and removing the meat of cabibi (Freshwater clam) from its shell before boiling. This step is done to lessen food contamination and so that the cooking process will be uninterrupted. It will be made by slowly simmering the cabibi (Batissa violacea) meat in water until the puree caramelizes into a thick, brown, intensely, flavorful sauce. Cabibi sauce is made with a base of sugar and salt and thickened with cornstarch. After these steps, the sauce is let cool, stored in bottles and sealed. The by product is kept in refrigerator for longer shelf life [4,5].

Experimental formula

The three treatments for the making of cabibi/freshwater clam sauce were done separately. The product ratio of cabibi/freshwater clam puree, sugar and soy sauce used in each treatment are presented in Table 1.

Sample Codes Cabibi/freshwater clam puree (ml) Sugar (ml) Soy Sauce (ml)
Treatment 1 500 125 125
Treatment 2 300 225 225
Treatment 3 600 75 75
Treatment 4 (Control Treatment/Existing Oyster Sauce) -- -- --

The mentioned ingredients were used for all the ratios: 30 g cornstarch; 10 g salt; and 2.5 g monosodium glutamate.

Table 1: Ratio of cabibi/freshwater clam broth, sugar and soy sauce used.

Sensory evaluation of the product from the different treatments

The three experimental formulations of cabibi/freshwater clam sauce and one control treatment which is the existing oyster sauce were subjected to six trained panelists at the Food Innovation Center, Tuguegarao, Cagayan, Philippines for sensory evaluation. Score sheets were given to them. The panelists evaluated the treatments based on color, odor, taste, and general acceptability [4].

Consumer acceptability of the best formula

Eighty-one (81) consumer-respondents from different ages were chosen at random as panel members on the consumer acceptability measure of the cabibi/freshwater clam sauce.

Nutritive value determination and microbial safety assessment

The nutritive value measurement and microbial characteristics tests were requested from the Regional Standards and Testing Laboratory of the Regional Office of the Department of Science and Technology located at Tuguegarao city, Cagayan Valley, Philippines [1].

Profitability of producing a cabibi/freshwater clam (Batissa violacea) sauce

The profitability ratio on producing the cabibi/freshwater clam sauce was also computed making use of the formula on Cost and Return Analysis which is:

equation

Statistical tools used

The statistical tools used in the study is the f-test or Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). This was used to gauge the difference on the sensory evaluation done on the three cabibi/freshwater clam sauce treatments and one control treatment which is the existing oyster sauce. Mean, frequency and percentages were used in evaluating sensory characteristics and consumer acceptability of the cabibi/freshwater clam sauce.

Results and Discussion

Six trained panelists from the Food Innovation Center at Tuguegarao city, Philippines evaluated the sensorial characteristics of the cabibi/freshwater clam sauce treatments. The panelists evaluated the four treatments for three times.

Sensory evaluation on the Cabibi/freshwater clam sauce

Assessment on color: The result of the sensory evaluation on the color of the four treatments of the cabibi/freshwater clam sauce is shown in Table 2. Based on Table 2, the highest sensory score in terms of color was T1 (500 ml cabibi/freshwater clam puree: 125 ml sugar: 125 ml soy sauce) with a mean score of 4.61 followed by T3 (600 ml cabibi/ freshwater clam puree: 75 ml sugar: 75 ml soy sauce) with a mean score of 1.61; T4 (existing oyster sauce) gained 1.54 sensory mean score in terms of color; and T2 (300 ml cabibi/freshwater clam puree: 225 ml sugar: 225 ml soy sauce) gained a mean score of 1.51. Based on the scores in terms of color, the first treatment was described as liked very much; the second, third and the control treatments were disliked very much.

Panelists Treatment 1 Treatment 2 Treatment 3 Control Treatment
1 4.83 1.10 1.81 1.80
2 4.50 1.70 2.00 1.50
3 4.80 1.55 1.55 1.25
4 4.80 1.65 1.50 1.55
5 4.40 1.30 1.25 1.80
6 4.30 1.75 1.55 1.35
Mean 4.61 1.51 1.61 1.54

Scale: 4.32-5.00: Liked very much; 3.49-4.31: Liked much; 2.66-3.48: Neither like nor dislike; 1.83-2.65: Disliked much; 1.00-1.82: Disliked very much

Table 2: Sensory mean score on color of the cabibi/freshwater clam sauce.

The sensory score on color was subjected to statistical analysis using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) or F-test to determine if there existed significant difference among the treatments and the result is shown in Table 3. The computed value of f is 7.15. This is greater than the tabulated value of Ft at 0.05 level of significance which is 5.41. Therefore, there existed a significant difference among treatments. Duncan’s Multiple Range Test (DMRT) was done and showed that treatment 1 is significantly different to treatments 2, 3 and 4; however, treatments 2, 3 and 4 are not different from each other in terms of color.

Source of Variance Df Sum of Squares Mean Square F-computed Ft.05
Treatment 3 0.17 8.39 7.15* 5.41
Panelists 5 41.94 0.06 --   --
Error 16 3.28 0.21  --  --
Total 23 45.39  --  --  --

*Significant at 0.05 level

Table 3: ANOVA table on color of the cabibi/freshwater clam sauce.

Assessment on odor: The result of the sensory evaluation on the odor of the four treatments of the cabibi/freshwater clam sauce is shown in Table 4. Based on Table 4, the highest sensory score in terms of odor was T1 (500 ml cabibi/freshwater clam puree: 125 ml sugar: 125 ml soy sauce) with a mean score of 4.62 followed by T4 (existing oyster sauce) with a mean score of 1.61; T3 (600 ml cabibi/freshwater clam puree: 75 ml sugar: 75 ml soy sauce) gained 1.54 sensory mean score in terms of odor; and T2 (300 ml cabibi/freshwater clam puree: 225 ml sugar: 225 ml soy sauce) gained a mean score of 1.43. Based on the scores in terms of odor, the first treatment was described as liked very much; the second, third and the control treatments were disliked very much.

Panelists Treatment 1 Treatment 2 Treatment 3 Control Treatment
1 4.67 1.47 1.33 1.97
2 4.67 1.35 1.67 1.53
3 4.47 1.10 1.47 1.40
4 4.97 1.03 1.97 1.27
5 4.33 1.83 1.33 1.53
6 4.61 1.80 1.53 1.93
Mean 4.62 1.43 1.55 1.61

Scale: 4.32-5.00: Liked very much; 3.49-4.31: Liked much; 2.66-3.48: Neither like nor dislike; 1.83-2.65: Disliked much; 1.00-1.82: Disliked very much

Table 4: Sensory mean score on odor of the cabibi/freshwater clam sauce.

The sensory score on odor was subjected to statistical analysis using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) or F-test to determine if there existed significant difference among the treatments and the result is shown in Table 5. The computed value of f is 9.78. This is greater than the tabulated value of Ft at 0.05 level of significance which is 5.41. Therefore, there existed a significant difference among treatments. Duncan’s Multiple Range Test (DMRT) was done and showed that treatment 1 is highly and significantly different to treatments 2, 3 and 4; however, treatments 2, 3 and 4 are not different from each other in terms of odor.

Source of Variance Df Sum of Squares Mean Square F-computed Ft.05
Treatment 3 0.28 8.62 9.78** 5.41
Panelists 5 43.11 0.09 --   --
Error 16 1.22 0.08 --   --
Total 23 44.61 --   --  --

*Highly significant at 0.05 level

Table 5: ANOVA table on odor of the cabibi/freshwater clam sauce.

Assessment on taste: The result of the sensory evaluation on the taste of the four treatments of the cabibi/freshwater clam sauce is presented in Table 6. Based on Table 6, the highest sensory score in terms of odor was T1 (500 ml cabibi/freshwater clam puree: 125 ml sugar: 125 ml soy sauce) with a mean score of 4.47 followed by T2 (300 ml cabibi/freshwater clam puree: 225 ml sugar: 225 ml soy sauce) with a mean score of 1.65; T3 (600 ml cabibi/freshwater clam puree: 75 ml sugar: 75 ml soy sauce) gained 1.64 sensory mean score in terms of taste; T4 (existing oyster sauce) and gained a mean score of 1.49. Based on the scores in terms of taste, the first treatment was described as liked very much; the second, third and the control treatments were disliked very much.

Panelists Treatment 1 Treatment 2 Treatment 3 Control Treatment
1 4.53 1.77 1.75 1.5
2 4.53 1.63 1.81 1.38
3 4.4 1.56 1.63 1.56
4 4.27 1.56 1.5 1.5
5 4.68 1.63 1.56 1.38
6 4.38 1.75 1.56 1.63
MEAN 4.47 1.65 1.64 1.49

Scale: 4.32-5.00: Liked very much; 3.49-4.31: Liked much; 2.66-3.48: Neither like nor dislike; 1.83-2.65: Disliked much; 1.00-1.82: Disliked very much

Table 6: Sensory mean score on taste of the cabibi/freshwater clam sauce.

The sensory score on taste was subjected to statistical analysis using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) or F-test to determine if there existed significant difference among the treatments and the result is shown in Table 7. The computed value of f is 9.48. This is greater than the tabulated value of Ft at 0.05 level of significance which is 5.41. Therefore, there existed a significant difference among treatments. Duncan’s Multiple Range Test (DMRT) was done and showed that treatment 1 is highly and significantly different to treatments 2, 3 and 4; however, treatments 2, 3 and 4 are not different from each other in terms of taste.

Source of Variance Df Sum of Squares Mean Square F-computed Ft.05
Treatment 3 0.08 7.45 9.48** 5.41
Panelists 5 37.23 0.03 --  -- 
Error 16 2.24 0.14 -- -- 
Total 23 35.07  -- --   --

*Highly significant at 0.05 level

Table 7:ANOVA table on taste of the cabibi/freshwater clam sauce.

Assessment on general acceptability

The result on the general acceptability measure of the four treatments of the cabibi/freshwater clam sauce is presented in Table 8. Based on Table 8, having the highest general acceptability score was T1 (500 ml cabibi/freshwater clam puree: 125 ml sugar: 125 ml soy sauce) with a mean score of 4.37 followed by T2 (300 ml cabibi/freshwater clam puree: 225 ml sugar: 225 ml soy sauce) with a mean score of 1.72; T3 (600 ml cabibi/freshwater clam puree: 75 ml sugar: 75 ml soy sauce) gained 1.66 sensory mean score in terms of taste; T4 (existing oyster sauce) and gained a mean score of 1.53. Based on the scores in terms of taste, the first treatment was described as liked very much; the second, third and the control treatments were disliked very much. The sensory score on general acceptability was subjected to statistical analysis using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) or F-test to determine if there existed significant difference among the treatments and the result is shown in the Table 9.

Panelists Treatment 1 Treatment 2 Treatment 3 Control Treatment
1 4.17 1.98 1.75 1.95
2 4.83 1.82 2.09 1.70
3 3.88 1.21 1.36 1.39
4 4.52 1.61 1.40 1.47
5 4.34 1.63 1.63 1.39
6 4.45 2.06 1.71 1.28
Mean 4.37 1.72 1.66 1.53

Scale: 4.32-5.00: Liked very much; 3.49-4.31: Liked much; 2.66-3.48: Neither like nor dislike; 1.83-2.65: Disliked much; 1.00-1.82: Disliked very much

Table 8: Sensory mean score on general acceptability of the cabibi/freshwater clam sauce.

Source of Variance Df Sum of Squares Mean Square F-computed Ft.05
Treatment 3 0.99 6.73 20.39** 5.41
Panelists 5 33.65 0.33  -- -- 
Error 16 0.31 0.19  --  --
Total 23 34.95 --   --  --

*Highly significant at 0.05 level

Table 9: ANOVA table on general acceptability of the cabibi/freshwater clam sauce.

The computed value of f is 20.39. This is greater than the tabulated value of Ft at 0.05 level of significance which is 5.41. Therefore, there existed a significant difference among treatments. Duncan’s Multiple Range Test (DMRT) was done and showed that treatment 1 is highly and significantly different to treatments 2, 3 and 4; however, treatments 2, 3 and 4 are not different from each other in terms of general acceptability.

Hence, from the results in the sensory evaluation of the four treatments of the cabibi/freshwater clam sauce, T1 (500 ml cabibi/ freshwater clam puree: 125 ml sugar: 125 ml soy sauce) was found to be the best cabibi/freshwater clam sauce formulation.

Consumer acceptability

Using the ratio of T1 (500 ml cabibi/freshwater clam puree: 125 ml sugar: 125 ml soy sauce) which was evaluated by the panelists as “liked very much”, the researcher conducted a consumer acceptability tests to 81 consumer panelists from three age groups: children, teenagers and adults with 27 representatives each age group.

The result of the consumer acceptability test is shown in Table 10. Table 10 shows that from the 81 consumer-panelists, 35 or 43.21 percent liked the product very much; 31 or 38.27 percent liked the product much and 15 or 18.52 percent neither like nor dislike the product. The result shows that majority of the consumer-panelists highly generally accepted the product.

Respondents Level of Consumer Acceptability
5
(Liked very much)
4
(Liked much)
3
(Neither like nor Dislike)
f % f % f %
Children 27 8 29.63 15 55.56 4 14.81
Teenager 27 11 40.74 9 33.33 7 25.93
Adult 27 16 59.26 7 25.93 4 14.81
Total 81 35 43.21 31 38.27 15 18.52

Table 10: Consumer acceptability test of the product.

Nutritive value of the product

Based from the proximate analysis on the nutritional content from the FNRI Service Laboratory on the cabibi sauce sample from a ratio of 500 ml cabibi puree: 125 ml sugar: 125 ml soy sauce was found to be nutrition packed as it contains 45 percent total solids, 30 percent sodium chloride and 14 percent protein with three percent calcium. This passed the minimum nutritional requirements of a sauce or condiment which should contain at a minimum of 40% solids; 12.5% protein; and 25% sodium chloride (Figure 2).

food-processing-technology-nutrition

Figure 2: Information about the nutrition value of the product.

Microbial safety

Table 11 reveals the microbial characteristics of the cabibi/ freshwater clam sauce. The tests requested to be done were to evaluate the total coliform count, yeast and molds count, aerobic plate count, Staphylococcus aureus count and to detect the presence of Salmonella.

Microorganism Tests Reference Criteria Results
Total Coliform Count 1000 MPN/g 3 MPN/g
Yeast and Molds Count 100 CFU/g 1930 CFU/g
E. Coli Count 50,000 CFU/g None
Staphylococcus aureus count 50,000 CFU/g 70 CFU/g
Salmonella Detection Absent at 25 g Absent at 25 g

Table 11: Microbial test results of the cabibi/freshwater clam sauce.

Based from Table 11, the best treatment of aramang-dragon fruit flavored ice cream which is treatment 1 with 125 g: 375 g or 1:3 ratio was tested to possess 3 Most Probable Number (MPN) per gram of coliform; 1930 Colony Forming Unit (CFU) per gram of Yeast and Molds; 70 CFU per gram of Staphylococcus aureus; and absence of E. coli in the product was proven. Also, from the microbial test specifically on Salmonella detection, no Salmonella was found at the aramangdragon fruit flavored ice cream.

Reference criteria are also presented on the Table which presents that although there is presence of microbial organisms on the product, still they are on minimal number. Thus, the product is safe for consumption.

Profitability measure of the product

The profitability measure of the product made use of the Return of Investment Formula. The computation is shown below:

The reference volume is four pieces of 750 ml cabibi/freshwater clam sauce

equation

equation

ROI =79.99%

The computed percentage of profit is 79.99 from the 260.00 total sales and labor including other things needed in producing less the cost of the product divided by the cost of production. Thus, the product, cabibi/freshwater clam sauce would be highly profitable if ventured in into a business.

Conclusion and Recommendations

Based on the study results, the formulation of 500 ml cabibi/ freshwater clam puree: 125 ml sugar: 125 ml soy sauce was liked very much by consumers. In terms of nutritive determination, the product is nutrient-packed and safe to consume. From this, businesspersons should initially manufacture cabibi/freshwater clam sauce having a ratio of 500 ml cabibi/freshwater clam puree: 125 ml sugar: 125 ml soy sauce.

References

Citation: Cortes CA (2018) Development of Cabibi/Freshwater Clam (Batissa violacea) Sauce. J Food Process Technol 9: 729. Doi: 10.4172/2157-7110.1000729

Copyright: © 2018 Cortes CA. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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