alexa Dry or Steam Rolling of Soft Grains: Dairy and Beef Bioprocessing
ISSN: 2155-9821
Journal of Bioprocessing & Biotechniques
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Dry or Steam Rolling of Soft Grains: Dairy and Beef Bioprocessing Perspectives

Akbar Nikkhah*
Chief Highly Distinguished Professor, Department of Animal Sciences, University of Zanjan, Iran
Corresponding Author : Akbar Nikkhah
Chief Highly Distinguished Professor
Department of Animal Sciences
Faculty of Agricultural Sciences
University of Zanjan, Zanjan
Iran, National Elite Foundation
Tehran, Iran
Tel: +98-24-350-328-01
Fax: +98-24-350-332-02
E-mail: nikkhah@znu.ac.ir
Received February 09, 2015; Accepted February 10, 2015; Published February 13, 2015
Citation: Nikkhah A (2015) Dry or Steam Rolling of Soft Grains: Dairy and Beef Bioprocessing Perspectives. J Bioprocess Biotech 5:e124. doi:10.4172/2155-9821.1000e124
Copyright: © 2015 Nikkhah A. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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Keywords
Dry-rolling; Steam-rolling; Cereal grain; Dairy; Beef; Industry
Introduction
The objective of this article was to provide pragmatic perspectives on dry and steam-rolling of soft cereal grains for dairy and beef enterprises. Grains bioprocessing efficiency and economics have been controversial in modern global ruminant industries. Despite extensive research, many puzzling questions remain to be answered under practical scenarios [1-3]. A main question has been the comparative effectiveness of dryrolling vs. steam-rolling for dairy vs. beef ruminants.
Dry-rolled grains are produced via passing whole barley and wheat kernels through dry rollers aiming to break kernels into only few large particles or to yield rather thick and dense unbroken flakes. However, steam-rolling is conducted typically using corrugated rollers that bioprocess the already steamed barley or wheat kernels to produce rather thin and light flakes. As a result, dry-rolling demands lower costs than steam-rolling. In other words, steam-rolling would be justified economically only when the biological advantages of healthier rumen environment and increased productivity could overshadow the extra cost of equipment and labour [4-7].
Accordingly, when the goal is to just facilitate microbial attachment and gradual fermentation of starch and nitrogen compounds and not indeed to overdegrade grains rapidly, coarse dry-rolling would be an optimum bioprocessing choice. This is usually the case in mid and lowproducing dairy diets and starting and growing beef diets where rations contain lower and moderated grain levels.
However, when the aim is to rather moderate the fermentation rate to avoid rapid accumulation of organic acids and minimize occurrence of Subacute Rumen Acidosis (SARA) and inflammation, steam-rolling could prove superior over dry-rolling. This is because steam application may enhance inter-molecule bonds and reduce risks of overfermentation and SARA while improving microbial mass production. This is the scenario that may be particularly encountered in high-producing high-consuming dairy cows and finishing beef cattle where diets contain considerably high portions of barley and wheat starch that must be controlled in degradation extent and rate [8].
Implications
Whether or when to dry-roll or steam-roll soft grains has been a question in modern ruminant farms. Dry-rolling is less expensive than steam-rolling and is thus justified taking advantage of when rations contain lower and moderated levels of barley and wheat grains, such as growing beef and lower-producing and dry-cow dairy diets. Steamrolling, despite the equipment and cost, could prove economical when rations have higher and challenging rates of grains. Thus, steam-rolling would be an optimum choice of bioprocessing in large ruminant enterprises where dry-rolling may not suffice managing rumen conditions for different groups of animals.
Acknowledgments
The Iran’s Ministry of Science Research and Technology, National Elite Foundation, and University of Zanjan are gratefully acknowledged for supporting the author’s global programs of optimizing science edification in the new millennium.
References

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