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Effect of Acclimatization Temperature and Light Intensity on the Graft-Take of Cucumber Seedlings
ISSN: 2161-0525

Journal of Environmental & Analytical Toxicology
Open Access

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Effect of Acclimatization Temperature and Light Intensity on the Graft-Take of Cucumber Seedlings

El-Sayed G Khater*
Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Benha University, Egypt
*Corresponding Author: El-Sayed G Khater, Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Benha University, PO Box 13736, Egypt, Tel: +20132467034/+20132467786, Email: [email protected]

Received Date: Jul 29, 2017 / Accepted Date: Sep 03, 2017 / Published Date: Sep 07, 2017

Abstract

The main aim of this work is to optimize the environmental condition for best grafting by control the temperature and light of grafting conditions. To achieve that was study the effect of ambient temperatures (20, 23, 26 and 29°C), light intensity (0, 2500 and 5400 Lux) and type of tunnel (truss and flat) on stem diameter, shoot length, leaf area, shoot dry mass, grafted-take and energy consumption. The obtained results indicated that the average temperature was 20.45, 23.61, 27.01 and 29.71°C at 20, 23, 26 and 29°C ambient temperatures in truss tunnel, while, it was 20.61, 24.21, 27.53 and 30.09°C at 20, 23, 26 and 29°C ambient temperatures in flat tunnel. The stem diameter values were 4.626 and 4.476 mm in truss and flat tunnel under study with ambient temperature 20 to 29°C and light intensity 0 to 5400 Lux. The shoot length values were 8.254 and 8.131 cm in truss and flat tunnel under study with ambient temperature 20 to 29°C and light intensity 0 to 5400 Lux. The leaf area values were 56.074 and 53.214 cm2 in truss and flat tunnel under study with ambient temperature 20 to 29°C and light intensity 0 to 5400 Lux. The shoot dry mass values were 396.448 and 386.585 mg in truss and flat tunnel under study with ambient temperature 20 to 29°C and light intensity 0 to 5400 Lux. The grafted-take values were 84.525 and 78.460% in truss and flat tunnel under study with ambient temperature 20 to 29°C and light intensity 0 to 5400 Lux. The energy consumed decreased with increasing ambient temperature and decreasing light intensity.

Keywords: Grafting; Temperature; Light intensity; Tunnel; Grafttake; Cucumber

Introduction

Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) is one of the most popular vegetables in the world, and annually about 71.4 million tons are produced [1]. Cucumber is a favorite commodity exports for markets and local consumption and represents one of the most important and economic vegetables in Egypt. It is grown in Egypt in the open field from March to November and under plastic houses from September to May. The total cultivated area of cucumber in Egypt was about 62073 feddan (25863.8 ha). This area produced about 587612 Mg in 2015 according to [2]. Cucumber is also an important vegetable crop for greenhouse production in many countries. Continuous cultivation in greenhouses leads to some problems, including soil-borne diseases, soil nutrient imbalances, salty or alkaline soil conditions, spread of weeds, etc. To alleviate these problems, grafting is recommended. Grafting is an important technique for vegetable production in many countries where intensive and continuous cultivation is performed. Vegetable grafting has been used to improve yield, fruit quality and disease resistance in Solanaceae and Cucurbitaceae [3-6]. In recent years, grafting has been found effective in overcoming abiotic stresses.

Grafting is a horticultural technique whereby tissues from one plant are joined with another to obtain a combination of rootstock and scion genotypes that are more desirable than those contained in a single plant. Vegetable grafting is considered a sustainable pest and disease management practice that can improve fruit yields and quality as well as reduce environmental impacts with fewer chemical fumigants applied than in a non-grafted cropping system. Moreover, according to [4-7], grafted vegetables can exhibit excellent tolerance to both biotic stresses (e.g., soil-borne pathogens, foliar pathogens, arthropods and weeds) and abiotic stresses (e.g., low/high temperature, drought/flooding, heavy metal and nutrition). Even though grafting has been practiced in fruit trees for thousands of years, vegetable grafting has only recently been adopted on a commercial scale [8]. Interest in the use of grafted fruit vegetables has increased in Korea, Japan, and throughout Asia and Europe, under intensive cropping systems. The purpose of vegetable grafting is to improve resistance to soil-borne pests and pathogens, adaptation to abiotic stresses, and growth and yield by promoting the absorption of nutrients [9,10]. Almost all cucurbits such as cucumbers, melons, and watermelons for greenhouse cultivation are being grafted in Korea. There is also an increasing trend in the grafting of solanaceous crops such as eggplants, peppers, and tomatoes [9]. In Egypt, about 10% of watermelon seedlings are grafted into various rootstocks and about 3% of cucumber seedlings are grafted in 2013. The successful production of grafted transplants requires highly technical grafting skills and environmental control during healing and acclimatization period. Grafted transplants are produced by: 1) raising scions and rootstocks; 2) grafting; 3) healing and acclimatization; and 4) raising the grafted seedlings before transplanting. Healing and acclimatization are very important processes that are necessary for grafted plants to survive [9].

The use of grafting in fruit and vegetable production has been expanded in order to control pathogens and to enhance the plants’ tolerance against abiotic stresses [5-7]. Highly technical grafting skills and environmental controls during the healing and acclimatization period are required for the successful production of grafted plants. Grafted plants were usually healed and acclimatized in the past under specific environmental conditions such as high relative humidity (RH ≥ 95%) and low light intensity in order to produce a healthy plant that survived and grew [11]. However, several recent papers have reported that the photosynthesis, growth, and quality of grafted plants were improved by increasing the light intensity under highly controlled conditions during the healing and acclimatization periods [12,13].

After grafting, it is important to control the environments around grafted seedlings for the robust joining of a scion and rootstock. Usually the shading materials and plastic film are used to keep the high relative humidity and low light intensity around grafted seedlings in greenhouse or tunnel. It is quite difficult to optimally control the environment for healing and acclimation of grafted seedlings under natural light. Therefore the farmers or managers rely on their experience for the production of grafted seedlings with high quality [14]. For successful grafting, control of the nursery’s climatic conditions should be taken. A temperature of 25°C and 85-95% relative humidity should be provided within the growing conditions for good callus formation [15]. Several other environmental factors also affect the growth and development of the plants [16]. The most important of these factors are light, temperature, water (humidity) and nutrition. Light and temperature are two important parameters that affect the physiology of the grapevine. Plants need light and temperature for basic physiological processes such as photosynthesis, respiration, transpiration and carbohydrate assimilation [17,18]. Light is an essential factor for plant growth. Many studies have shown that both the light intensity and the light quality are important for the growth, development, pigmentation, and shape of plants [19,20]. Various types of artificial light have been used in plant production including fluorescent, metal halide, and high-pressure sodium lamps [21].

A non-grafted plant suffers a great deal of stresses from soil and foliar pathogens, weeds, low and high temperatures, drought and flooding, which in turn affect the growth and productivity. Grafting is the better solution to improve the resistance of plant to the stresses and also increase the plant tolerance for the inverse conditions as the grafting conditions is ensured. Therefore, the main aim of this work is to optimize the environmental conditions for best grafting by controlling the temperature and light of grafting conditions.

Materials and Methods

The experiment was carried out at SEKEM Company, Belbeies, El- Sharkia Governorate, Egypt during 2015 season to study the influence of environmental parameters such as temperature and light intensity on grafting efficiency of the grafted cucumber plants.

System description

Figure 1 illustrates the grafting system description. It shows the system which consists of germination room, acclimatization room, trolleys, seedling trays, air conditioners, air blowers and grafted plants trays .

environmental-analytical-toxicology-plan-grafting-location

Figure 1: A plan of grafting location and description.

Germination room: After sowing, the trays were immediately transferred to the germination room (3 days). The germination room is made of concrete which was used for seeds germination. Its area is 137 m2 and has dimensions of 12.0 m long and 11.4 m wide. The room was provided with trolleys to carry the seedling trays, two air conditioners (Model Carrier 53 QH-B-Range temperature 15-40°C-RPM 2800-Power 5 hp 380 V 50 Hz, Italy) for control air temperature and sprinklers for increasing relative humidity of air. The trolley was made of galvanized steel metal of 3 mm thickness. Dimensions of trolley were 1.5 m length, 1.0 m width and 2.0 m high. The seedling tray holds 209 plants (11 rows of 19 cells) each cell measures 2.5 cm by 2.5 cm by 7.4 cm deep.

Acclimatization room: It is used to adapt the rootstock with scion. Its area is 276 m2 and has dimensions of 19.5 m long and 14 m wide. The room was provided with 35 trolleys to carry the grafted plants trays inner two types of tunnels (truss and flat tunnel), sex air conditioners for controlling air temperature and four air blowers (Model C.C.P. Parma-Flow Rate 1350 m3 h-1-RPM 2800-Power 2.5 hp 380 V 50 Hz, Italy) for moving air in the acclimatization room. The trolley was made of galvanized steel metal of 3 mm thickness. Dimensions of trolley are 3.0 m long, 1.5 m wide and 2.0 m high. Each trolley is provided with sex lamps (38 Watt) per shelf for lighting. The grafted plants tray holds 150 plants (10 rows of 15 cells) each cell dimensions of 4.0 × 4.0 × 6.2 cm. Figure 2 shows the dimensions of tunnels. Irrigation was carried out manually by hose. The amount of chemicals used in the irrigation system was as described by [22].

Cucumber and rootstock seeds

Cucumbers (Cucumis sativus L. cv. Joeun Baekdadaki) were used as scions while pumpkins (Cucurbita maxima D. × C. moshata D. cv. New Shintozwa) were used as rootstocks for producing grafted plants.

Treatments

The treatments include: ambient temperatures (20, 23, 26 and 29°C) nine temperature sensors were distributed in the tunnel as shown in Figure 3, light intensity were 0, 2500 and 5400 Lux, tunnel types were truss and flat types. Relative humidity was adjusted to be 92 ± 2% and soilless media is white peat+perlite (70:30) was used. The experimental design was a split-split plot. Each treatment was replicated three times.

environmental-analytical-toxicology-Schematic-diagrams-tunnels

Figure 2: Schematic diagrams of tunnels under study (a: truss tunnel and b: flat); Distribution of temperature sensors in tunnel.

Measurements

Temperature and relative humidity were recorded by using a HOBO Data Logger (Model HOBO U12 Temp/RH/Light-Range -20 to 70°C and 5 to 95% RH, USA) every hour. Ten cucumber seedlings representing each replicate on day 8 after grafting were taken as recommended by [13] to determine stem diameter, shoot length, number of leaves, root volume and shoot and root dry weight. Fresh shoots and roots of seedlings were weighed and placed in drying oven with circulating air at 65°C for 48 h then weighed for dry weight. Also graft-take (efficiency of grafting) was calculated as follows (equation 1):

equation(1)

Statistical analysis

The statistical analysis for the data obtained was done according to [23] and the treatments were compared using Least Significant Differences (LSD) test at 95% confidence level [24].

Results and Discussion

Temperature

Figure 3 shows the temperature distribution inside the flat and truss tunnels at different ambient temperature (20, 23, 26 and 29°C). For flat tunnel shape, it could be seen that the temperature distribution patterns appear as a concave shape where, the temperature increased toward the center of the flat tunnel which varies slightly from 20.291 to 21.053°C at 20°C ambient temperature, 23.526 to 25.761°C at 23°C ambient temperature, 26.893 to 29.517°C at 26°C ambient temperature and 29.149 to 33.729°C at 29°C ambient temperature. For truss shape tunnel, it could be seen that the temperature distribution patterns appears as a concave shape also where, the temperature increased toward the center of the tunnel which varies slightly from 20.259 to 20.909°C at 20°C ambient temperature, 23.271 to 24.300°C at 23°C ambient temperature, 26.699 to 27.811°C at 26°C ambient temperature and 29.372 to 30.818°C at 29°C ambient temperature. This could be due to the respiration heat produced by the plants.

environmental-analytical-toxicology-flat-truss-tunnels

Figure 3: Distribution of temperature in flat and truss tunnels at different ambient temperatures.

Seedling parameters

Stem diameter: Table 1 and Figures 4-6 show the stem diameter of the grafted cucumber seedlings grown under two types of tunnels (truss and flat) as affected by ambient temperatures from 20 to 29°C and light intensities from 0 to 5400 Lux. Regarding of the effect room temperature, it could be seen that the average values of stem diameter were 4.404, 4.599, 4.735 and 4.466 mm for the grafted cucumber seedlings grown at 20, 23, 26 and 29°C ambient temperature, respectively depending on the light intensities and type of tunnel. The highest value of the stem diameter of the grafted cucumber seedlings (4.735 mm) was obtained at ambient temperature of 26°C. The results revealed that the seedling stem diameter increased with increasing the ambient temperature from 20 to 26°C. Grafting at 26°C room temperature gave the best results in terms of stem diameter for all light intensities and types of tunnel with significant differences. These results were in agreement with those obtained by [25,26]. Concerning the effect of light intensity on the stem growth, the results indicate that the average stem diameter of the grafted cucumber seedling grown under the truss was higher than that grown under flat tunnel, where, it recorded 4.381, 4.553 and 4.719 mm at 0, 2500 and 5400 Lux light intensity, respectively. The results showed that increasing of light intensity during acclimatization to improve the growth and quality of grafted cucumber seedlings. These results agreed with those obtained by [12,13] in which the stem diameter of grafted cucumber seedlings was enhanced by light during acclimatization. The results also indicate that the stem diameter ranged from 4.636 and 4.476 mm in truss and flat tunnel, respectively. The statistical analysis showed that the differences between the obtained data of stem diameter of cucumber seedlings due to the effect of ambient temperature, light intensity and type of tunnel were significant. The analysis showed also that the interaction between both AB, AC, BC and ABC were nonsignificant.

environmental-analytical-toxicology-light-intensity-stem-diameter

Figure 4: Effect of light intensity and type of tunnel on stem diameter of the grafted cucumber seedlings.

environmental-analytical-toxicology-ambient-temperature

Figure 5: Effect of ambient temperature and type of tunnel on stem diameter of the grafted cucumber seedlings.

environmental-analytical-toxicology-stem-diameter

Figure 6: Effect of ambient temperature and light intensity on stem diameter of the grafted cucumber seedlings.

Type of Tunnel Light Intensity, Lux Ambient Temperature, °C Mean
20 23 26 29
stem diameter, mm
Truss 0 4.309 4.507 4.521 4.41 4.437
2500 4.411 4.696 4.871 4.483 4.615
5400 4.746 4.802 4.982 4.771 4.825
Mean 4.489 4.668 4.791 4.555  
Flat 0 4.214 4.333 4.503 4.247 4.324
2500 4.253 4.659 4.68 4.371 4.491
5400 4.491 4.597 4.854 4.512 4.614
Mean 4.319 4.530 4.679 4.377  
Mean of ambient temperature (A) 4.404a 4.599b 4.735c 4.466a
Mean of light intensity (B) 4.381a 4.553b 4.719c
Mean of type of tunnel (C) 4.626b 4.476a
LSD0.05 A B C AB AC BC ABC
0.074 0.071 0.068 N.S N.S N.S N.S

Table 1: Effect of ambient temperature, light intensity and type of tunnel on stem diameter of the grafted cucumber seedlings.

Shoot length: Table 2 and Figures 7-9 show the shoot length of the grafted cucumber seedlings grown under two types of tunnel (truss and flat) as affected by the ambient temperatures from 20 to 29°C and light intensities from 0 to 5400 Lux. Regarding of the effect ambient temperature, it could be seen that the average values of shoot length were 8.025, 8.252, 8.320 and 8.174 cm for the grafted cucumber seedlings grown at 20, 23, 26 and 29°C ambient temperature, respectively depending on the light intensities and type of tunnel. The results showed that the seedling shoot length increased with increasing the ambient temperature 20 to 26°C, where, grafting at 26°C ambient temperature gave the best results in terms of shoot length for all light intensity and type of tunnel with significant differences. Concerning the effect of light intensity on the shoot length, the results indicate that the average shoot length of the grafted cucumber seedling grown under the truss and flat tunnel shape decreases with increasing the light intensity. It indicates that when the light intensity increased from 0 to 5400 Lux, the average shoot length of the grafted cucumber seedling significantly decreased from 8.326 to 8.101 cm. These results agreed with those obtained by [13] in which the shoot length of grafted cucumber seedlings was decreased by light during acclimatization. The results also indicate that the shoot length ranged from 8.254 and 8.131 cm at truss and flat tunnel, respectively. The statistical analysis showed that there were non-significant differences between the temperature treatments, while the differences between the obtained data of shoot length due to the effect of light intensity and type of tunnel shape were significant. The analysis showed also that the interaction between both AB and ABC were non-significant. On the other hand, the interaction between the effect of both AC and BC on the data were significant.

environmental-analytical-toxicology-light-intensity-tunnel-shoot-length

Figure 7: Effect of light intensity and type of tunnel on shoot length of the grafted cucumber seedlings.

environmental-analytical-toxicology-tunnel-shoot-length

Figure 8: Effect of ambient temperature and type of tunnel on shoot length of the grafted cucumber seedlings.

environmental-analytical-toxicology-shoot-length-grafted-cucumber-seedlings

Figure 9: Effect of ambient temperature and light intensity on shoot length of the grafted cucumber seedlings.

Type of Tunnel Light Intensity, Lux Ambient Temperature, °C         Mean
20 23 26 29    
stem diameter, mm          
Truss 0 4.309 4.507 4.521 4.41   4.437
2500 4.411 4.696 4.871 4.483   4.615
5400 4.746 4.802 4.982 4.771   4.825
Mean 4.489 4.668 4.791 4.555    
Flat 0 4.214 4.333 4.503 4.247   4.324
2500 4.253 4.659 4.68 4.371   4.491
5400 4.491 4.597 4.854 4.512   4.614
Mean 4.319 4.530 4.679 4.377    
Mean of ambient temperature (A)   4.404a 4.599b 4.735c 4.466a    
Mean of light intensity (B)   4.381a 4.553b 4.719c
Mean of type of tunnel (C)   4.626b     4.476a
LSD0.05 A B C AB AC BC ABC
0.074 0.071 0.068 N.S N.S N.S N.S

Table 2: Effect of ambient temperature, light intensity and type of tunnel on stem diameter of the grafted cucumber seedlings.

Leaf area: Table 3 and Figures 10-12 show the leaf area of the grafted cucumber seedlings grown under two types of tunnel (truss and flat) as affected by the ambient temperatures from 20 to 29°C and light intensities from 0 to 5400 Lux. It could be seen that the average values of leaf area were 51.098, 55.399, 58.286 and 53.793 cm2 for the grafted cucumber seedlings grown at 20, 23, 26 and 29°C ambient temperatures, respectively depending on the light intensities and type of tunnel. The results showed that the seedling leaf area increased with increasing the ambient temperature 20 to 26°C, where, grafting at 26°C ambient temperature gave the best results in terms of leaf area for all light intensities and types of tunnel with significant differences. These results were in agreement with those obtained by [25,26]. Concerning the effect of light intensity on the leaf area, the results indicate that the average leaf area of the grafted cucumber seedling grown under the truss and flat tunnel shape increases with increasing the light intensity. It indicates that when the light intensity increased from 0 to 5400 Lux, the average leaf area of the grafted cucumber seedling significantly increased from 50.682 to 59.150 cm2. Plants grown under high light intensity condition have higher photosynthetic capacity, greater leaf area, and more chloroplasts in mesophyll cells. The amount of chloroplasts increased with increasing light intensity during acclimatization compared with that of dark condition. These results agreed with those obtained by [13,27] in which the leaf area of grafted cucumber seedlings was increased by light during acclimatization. The results also indicate that the leaf area ranged from 56.074 and 53.214 cm2 at truss and flat tunnel, respectively. The statistical analysis showed that there were significant differences between the temperature treatments, light intensity and type of tunnel shape. The analysis showed also that the interaction between both ABC were non-significant. On the other hand, the interaction between the effect of both AB, AC and BC on the data were significant.

environmental-analytical-toxicology-light-intensity-tunnel-leaf-area

Figure 10: Effect of light intensity and type of tunnel on leaf area of the grafted cucumber seedlings.

environmental-analytical-toxicology-ambient-temperature-tunnel-leaf-area

Figure 11: Effect of ambient temperature and type of tunnel on leaf area of the grafted cucumber seedlings.

environmental-analytical-toxicology-light-intensity-leaf-area

Figure 12: Effect of ambient temperature and light intensity on leaf area of the grafted cucumber seedlings.

Type of Tunnel Light Intensity, Lux Ambient Temperature, °C Mean
20 23 26 29
Leaf Area, cm2
Truss 0 48.651 52.226 55.327 51.659 51.966a
2500 51.550 56.515 59.642 55.048 55.689c
5400 57.294 61.591 64.384 59.003 60.568cd
Mean 52.498a 56.777b 59.784bc 55.237b  
Flat 0 46.029 50.367 52.181 49.018 49.399a
2500 48.069 53.358 56.611 52.006 52.511ab
5400 54.994 58.338 61.573 56.023 57.732c
Mean 49.697a 54.021ab 56.788b 52.349a  
Mean of ambient temperature (A) 51.098a 55.399b 58.286c 53.793b
Mean of light intensity (B) 50.682a 54.100b 59.150c
Mean of type of tunnel (C) 56.074b 53.214a
LSD0.05 A B C AB AC BC ABC
2.591 2.927 2.044 3.063 3.810 2.918 N.S

Table 3: Effect of ambient temperature, light intensity and type of tunnel on leaf area of the grafted cucumber seedlings.

Shoot dry mass: Table 4 and Figures 13-15 show the shoot dry mass of the grafted cucumber seedlings grown under two types of tunnel (truss and flat) as affected by the ambient temperatures from 20 to 29°C and light intensities from 0 to 5400 Lux. It could be seen that the average values of shoot dry mass were 379.522, 393.247, 402.247 and 390.601 mg for the grafted cucumber seedlings grown at 20, 23, 26 and 29°C ambient temperature, respectively depending on the light intensities and type of tunnel. The results showed that the seedling shoot dry mass increased with increasing the ambient temperature 20 to 26°C, where, grafting at 26°C ambient temperature gave the best results in terms of shoot dry mass for all light intensity and type of tunnel with significant differences. Concerning the effect of light intensity on the shoot dry mass, the results indicate that the average shoot dry mass of the grafted cucumber seedling grown under the truss and flat tunnel shape increases with increasing the light intensity. It indicates that when the light intensity increased from 0 to 5400 Lux, the average shoot dry mass of the grafted cucumber seedling significantly increased from 378.286 to 408.228 mg. The results also indicate that the shoot dry mass ranged from 396.448 and 388.585 mg in truss and flat tunnels, respectively. The statistical analysis showed that there were significant differences between the temperature, light intensity and type of tunnel shape treatments. The analysis showed also that the interaction between both AB and ABC were non-significant. On the other hand, the interaction between the effect of both AC and BC on the data were significant.

environmental-analytical-toxicology-grafted-cucumber-seedlings

Figure 13: Effect of light intensity and type of tunnel on shoot dry mass of the grafted cucumber seedlings.

environmental-analytical-toxicology-tunnel-shoot-dry-mass

Figure 14: Effect of ambient temperature and type of tunnel on shoot dry mass of the grafted cucumber seedlings.

environmental-analytical-toxicology-shoot-dry-mass

Figure 15: Effect of ambient temperature and light intensity on shoot dry mass of the grafted cucumber seedlings.

Type of Tunnel Light Intensity, Lux Ambient Temperature, °C Mean
20 23 26 29
Shoot Dry Mass, mg
Truss 0 375.991 382.162 389.001 380.076 381.808a
2500 382.416 397.738 406.335 394.561 395.263b
5400 399.515 415.883 421.687 412.006 412.273bc
Mean 385.974 398.594 405.674 395.548  
Flat 0 360.439 376.244 388.338 374.037 374.765a
2500 369.741 382.109 392.037 379.344 380.808a
5400 389.029 408.037 416.081 403.584 404.183b
Mean 373.070 388.797 398.819 385.655  
Mean of ambient temperature (A) 379.522a 393.696ab 402.247b 390.601a
Mean of light intensity (B) 378.286a 388.035b 408.228c
Mean of type of tunnel (C) 396.448b 386.585a
LSD0.05 A B C AB AC BC ABC
11.262 9.337 7.694 N.S 10.935 13.001 N.S

Table 4: Effect of ambient temperature, light intensity and type of tunnel on shoot dry mass of the grafted cucumber seedlings.

Grafted-take

Table 5 and Figures 16-18 show the grafted-take (efficiency of grafting) of the grafted cucumber seedlings grown under two types of tunnel (truss and flat) as affected by the ambient temperatures from 20 to 29°C and light intensities from 0 to 5400 Lux. Regarding of the effect ambient temperature, it could be seen that the average values of grafted-take were 77.998, 82.107, 84.973 and 80.892% for the grafted cucumber seedlings grown at 20, 23, 26 and 29°C ambient temperature, respectively depending on the light intensities and types of tunnel. The results showed that the seedling grafted-take increased with increasing the ambient temperature 20 to 26°C, where, grafting at 26°C ambient temperature gave the best results in terms of grafted-take for all light intensity and type of tunnel with significant differences. The grafted-take increased by 5.39%, when the ambient temperature increased from 20 to 29°C in truss tunnel, where, it increased by 1.60%, when the ambient temperature increased from 20 to 29°C in flat tunnel. Meanwhile the light intensity has diverse effect on the grafted-take, where it was 88.651 decreased to 80.069%, when the light intensity increased from 0 to 5400 Lux in truss tunnel, where, it decreased from 82.235 to 74.844%, when the light intensity increased from 0 to 5400 Lux in flat tunnel. Darkness pushes the plant to the vegetative growth, this in turn affect the healing of seedlings during grafting process. These results were in agreement with those obtained by [26]. The statistical analysis showed that there were significant differences between the temperature, light intensity and type of tunnel shape treatments. The analysis showed also that the interaction between ABC were non-significant. On the other hand, the interaction between the effect of both AB, AC and BC on the data were significant.

environmental-analytical-toxicology-Effect-light-intensity

Figure 16: Effect of light intensity and type of tunnel on grafted-take of the grafted cucumber seedlings.

environmental-analytical-toxicology-tunnel-grafted

Figure 17: Effect of ambient temperature and type of tunnel on grafted-take of the grafted cucumber seedlings.

environmental-analytical-toxicology-light-intensity

Figure 18: Effect of ambient temperature and light intensity on grafted-take of the grafted cucumber seedlings.

Type of Tunnel Light Intensity, Lux Ambient Temperature, °C Mean
20 23 26 29
Grafted-Take, %
Truss 0 82.261 90.103 93.272 88.968 88.651f
2500 79.696 85.207 89.568 84.944 84.854e
5400 77.331 80.871 83.055 79.02 80.069c
Mean 79.763b 85.394d 88.632e 84.311c  
Flat 0 79.699 83.203 85.671 80.367 82.235d
2500 75.662 78.267 81.279 77.999 78.302b
5400 73.336 74.992 76.991 74.056 74.844a
mean 76.232a 78.821ab 81.314 77.474a  
Mean of ambient temperature (A) 77.998a 82.107c 84.973d 80.892b
Mean of light intensity (B) 85.443c 81.578b 77.457a
Mean of type of tunnel (C) 84.525b 78.460a
LSD0.05 A B C AB AC BC ABC
1.238 1.071 1.022 1.415 1.399 1.241 N.S

Table 5: Neurophysiological severity grading scale of CTS by recording responses from the median nerve according to our findings.

Regression analysis was carried out to find a relation between the grafted-take and both ambient temperatures and light intensities. Equations (2, 3 and 4) show the most appropriate form for the relationship between the grafted-take and ambient temperatures at different light intensities.

For 0 Lux light intensity:

GT = 68.877 +14.484AT − 2.619AT2 R2 = 0.97 (2)

For 2500 Lux light intensity:

GT = 68.426 + 8.174AT −1.521AT2 R2 = 0.89 (3)

For 5400 Lux light intensity:

GT = 68.426 + 8.174AT −1.521AT2 R2 = 0.89 (4)

where, GT is the grafted-take of grafted cucumber seedlings, %; AT is the ambient temperature, °C.

Energy consumption

Figure 19 shows the effect of room temperature and light intensity on the energy consumption. It is clear that the energy consumed in production grafted cucumber seedlings decreased with increasing ambient temperature from 20 to 29°C and decreased light intensity from 5400 to 0 Lux. It could be seen that the energy consumed decreased from 44.052 to 32.532, 50.356 to 38.836 and 56.660 to 45.140 kW per 1000 seedlings at 0, 2500 and 5400 Lux light intensities, respectively, when the ambient temperature increasing from 20 to 29°C. Meanwhile the energy consumed increased from 44.052 to 56.660, 40.212 to 52.820, 36.372 to 48.980 and 32.532 to 45.140 kW per 1000 seedlings at 20, 23, 26 and 29°C ambient temperatures, respectively, when the light intensity increasing 0 to 5400 Lux.

environmental-analytical-toxicology-Energy-consumed-production-grafted

Figure 19: Energy consumed in production grafted cucumber seedlings.

Conclusion

The experiment was carried out to optimize the environmental condition for best grafting by control the temperature and light of grafting conditions. To achieve that was study the effect of ambient temperatures (20, 23, 26 and 29°C), light intensity (0, 2500 and 5400 Lux) and type of tunnel (truss and flat) on stem diameter, shoot length, leaf area, shoot dry mass and grafted-take. The obtained results can be summarized as follows:

- The temperature distribution patterns appear as a concave shape where, the temperature increased toward the center of the flat tunnel which varies slightly from 20.291 to 21.053, 23.526 to 25.761, 26.893 to 29.517 and 29.149 to 33.729°C at 20, 23, 26 and 29°C ambient temperature, respectively and it increased from 20.259 to 20.909, 23.271 to 24.300, 27.811°C at 26 and 29.372 to 30.818°C at 20, 23, 26 and 29°C ambient temperature, respectively in truss tunnel.

- The highest value of the stem diameter of the grafted cucumber seedlings (4.735 mm) was obtained at ambient temperature of 26°C. While the highest value of the stem diameter of the grafted cucumber seedlings (4.719 mm) was found at light intensity 5400 Lux.

- The seedling shoot length increased with increasing the ambient temperature 20 to 26°C, where, grafting at 26°C ambient temperature gave the best results in terms of shoot length for all light intensity and type of tunnel with significant differences. The shoot length ranged from 8.254 and 8.131 cm at truss and flat tunnel, respectively.

- The leaf area and shoot dry mass ranged from 56.074 and 53.214 cm2 and 396.448 and 388.585 mg at truss and flat tunnel, respectively.

- The grafted-take increased by 5.39 and 1.6%, when the ambient temperature increased from 20 to 29°C in truss and flat tunnels. Meanwhile the light intensity has diverse effect on the graftedtake, where it was decreased from 88.651 to 80.069 and 82.235 to 74.844%, when the light intensity increased from 0 to 5400 Lux in truss and flat tunnels.

The energy consumed decreased from 44.052 to 32.532, 50.356 to 38.836 and 56.660 to 45.140 kW per 1000 seedlings at 0, 2500 and 5400 Lux light intensities, respectively, when the ambient temperature increasing from 20 to 29°C.

References

Citation: Khater ESG (2017) Effect of Acclimatization Temperature and Light Intensity on the Graft-Take of Cucumber Seedlings. J Environ Anal Toxicol 7: 502 DOI: 10.4172/2161-0525.1000502

Copyright: © 2017 Khater ESG. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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