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ISSN: 2315-7844
Review of Public Administration and Management
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Effect of E-Government on Service Delivery in Federal University Ndufualike Ikwo, Ebodnyi State

Emma EO Chukwuemeka1*, Elom Ikechukwu Ubochi2 and Elizabeth U Okechukwu3

1Department of Public Administration, Nnamdi Azikiwe University Awka, Nigeria

2Public Relations Unit, Federal University Ndufu-Alike Ikwo, Abakaliki Ebonyi State, Nigeria

3Department of Business Administration, Enugu State University of Science and Technology, Enugu, Nigeria

*Corresponding Author:
Emma EO Chukwuemeka
Department of Public Administration
Nnamdi Azikiwe University Awka
Nigeria
Tel: +2349059208;
E-mail: ee.chukwuemeka@unizik.edu.ng

Received date: October 26, 2016; Accepted date: February 10, 2017; Published date: February 13, 2017

Citation: Chukwuemeka EE, Ubochi EI, Okechukwu EU (2017) Effect of E-Government on Service Delivery in Federal University Ndufu-alike Ikwo, Ebodnyi State. Review Pub Administration Manag 5: 203. doi:10.4172/2315-7844.1000203

Copyright: © 2017 Chukwuemeka EE, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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Abstract

The study examined the effect of e-government on service delivery in Federal University Ndufu-Alike Ikwo, Ebonyi State Nigeria. Descriptive research design was adopted to guide the study, two hypotheses were formulated and tested. Chisquare non-parametric statistics was used to test the hypotheses. The study revealed among other things that e-government has strong positive effect on service delivery by enhancing the performance of workers. This is because the use of ICT in work-relate activities reduces waste of time, delays and mistakes on the part of workers in the discharge of their duties. Based on this, recommendations were made major among them is that the Institution should improve on the current ICT infrastructure and strategy and continue to improve on the internet access and digital divide among staff in order to continue achieving their organizational goals

Keywords

E-Government; Digital divide; Service delivery; Internet access

Introduction

The internet has ushered enormous possibilities that have had a fundamental impact on human society. There has not been any other technology in the history of mankind that has touched so many lives in such a short period of time. Initial experimentation with the associated business models and democratization of the technology during the dotcom era provided a rich knowledge base on leveraging the internet for the greater good.

What followed was an evolved vision enabling a moderated approach tempered by ground realities. Most organisations have already adopted the internet not only to enhance productivity and efficiency but also to develop innovative models for conducting business.

E-government represents the introduction of a great wave of technological innovations as well as government reinvention. E-government’s importance in Public Administration stems from the fact that it is a way for governments to use the most innovative information and communication technologies, particularly webbased Internet applications, to provide citizens and businesses with more convenient access to government information and services, to improve the quality of the services and to provide greater opportunities to participate in democratic institutions and processes. This includes transactions between government and business, government and citizen, government and employee, and among different units and levels of government. E-government presents a tremendous impetus to move forward in the 21st century with higher quality, cost- effective, government services and a better relationship between citizens and government.

The government also exercises its decision making powers in certain matters such as appointments to senior civil service posts, exemptions from statutory provisions and rulings on clemency. Government servants are politically impartial officials who retain their posts, regardless of the political orientation of the government that is in power. The duties of the civil servants include drafting and preparing business for the government and assisting its ministers in the course of their work.

Statement of the Problem

The primary purpose of government is to improve quality of life of citizens, to do this, ministries, departments and agencies are established to provide services to the people. For the citizen, public institution like the university has a social obligation to render service and therefore have a legitimate expectation to LBE provided with good services without a commercial motive. Often because of the nature of service they are meant to provide, public institutions have no real competition and the citizen has no choice but to use government services. It is so with universities.

A cursory look at public organizations indicates that service delivery is optimally low. According to El-Rufai [1] this can be attributed to among other things the failure of public organizations to key into e-government with the attendant gains. This underscores why e-government has been proposed as a way to improve and increase efficiency of service in public organizations.

The universities should work hard irrespective of the high cost of building infrastructure about e-government and e-governance in order to improve their productivity and to give administrators in public organizations the skills needed to maximize their performance in an information age. This is underscored by the fact that most public organizations shy away from imbibing e-government because of the high cost of providing ICT infrastructure like computers, internet broadband, telecommunication mast, uninterrupted electricity supply and multimedia equipment in their organizations without which e-government cannot be implemented.

At the same time, public organizations have to devote more time and resources to create and sustain an environment of learning in view of the quantum increases in knowledge and changes in information and communication technology. The inability and lack of will on the part of public organizations to create and sustain organizational goals to deal with the consequences of e-government in their business/ service environment is a strong militating factor. The lack of frequent training and retraining programs for employees in the area of ICT by public organizations hamper their efficiency and productivity. Without frequent ICT update in the ever-changing world of knowledge no worker would be able to function efficiently through e-government.

Objectives of the Study

a. To determine the effect of e-government on workers’ performance in Federal University Ndufu-Alike Ikwo?

b. To identify the factors militating against the use of e-government for service delivery in Federal University Ndufu-Alike Ikwo and to proffer solutions.

Hypotheses

a. E-government has no significant relationship with attainment of the organizational goals of Federal University Ndufu-Alike Ikwo.

b. E-government has no significant relationship with workers’ performance in Federal University Ndufu-Alike Ikwo.

Literature Review

Conceptual framework

E-Government: The Organization for European Cooperation and Development defines e-government as the use of information and computer technologies to ensure transparency of government actions, the accessibility of government services and information, and the responsiveness of government to new ideas, demands and rules.

The World Bank [2] sees e-government as the use by government agencies of information technologies that have the ability to transform relations with citizens, businesses, and other arms of government.

Ibidapo-Obe [3] sees e-government as the use of Web 2.0 technologies, both internally (intranet) and externally (internet), to increase collaboration and transparency and efficiency. Intranet means a computer network-based TCP/IP protocols belonging to an organization, usually a corporation, accessible only by the organization’s members, employees or others with authorization while internet is a global system of interconnected computer networks that use standard protocol suite (TCP/IP) to link several billions devices worldwide. Internet is a network that consists of millions of private, public, academic, business and government networks of local to global scope, linked by a broad array of electronic and optical networking technologies. In other to ensure proper implementation of e-government platform in an organization, both intranet and internet technologies are expected to be installed and properly managed in the environment. According to Cleverley [4] the implication of e-government stems from the ability of individuals and group to obtain government services through non-traditional electronic means, enabling access to government information and to completion of government transaction anywhere, in any time basis and in conformance with equal access requirement. This thus, offers potential to reshape the public sector and build relationships between citizens and the government.

Therefore, the underlying philosophy behind e-government is that government and Management of Nigerian Universities needs to accept e-government as a child of necessity in their drive to deliver efficient and cost-effective service, and also deploy IT technologies to ensure the implementation of e-government, and thus improve service delivery through innovation, inclusiveness and openness in administration.

Service delivery (Employee performance-output/productivity): Service delivery simply means the extent to which an individual, unit or department of an organization discharge their assigned or statutory responsibilities. It is also a means by which an organization evaluates an individual employee or unit input and output level especially in the area of attaining set goals or task assigned. In the view of Byars and Rue [5] service delivery is the degree to which an employee accomplished the tasks that made his or her job.

El-Rufai [1] summarizes service delivery as the degree of an organization and/or employee performance, output and productivity in the discharge of their responsibilities within the available time, money and other resources, towards the achievement of overall goals of the organization. The spate of service delivery is determined by the performance of employees in achieving organizational goals and satisfying the public.

However, for purpose of this study, the researcher views service delivery as the achievement of targets (performance/output/ productivity) of the tasks assigned to organizations or employees’ within particular period of time. It involves the execution of duties and responsibilities assigned by constituted authorities which one have promised to do, so as to achieve set goals of an organization.

Therefore, the degree to which an organization or employees performs its duties and functions towards achieving set goals determines the spate of service delivery-whether it is efficient or inefficient, effective or ineffective, economical or not economical, productive or not productive [6]. To ensure that the Nigerian Universities perform their cardinal functions of teaching, research and community service efficiently and cost-effectively, the e-government platform must not only be accepted but also implemented in their activities, and this could only be done through building the capacities of staff and students in the use of ICT and other e-government tools.

Conclusively, Richardo [7] contends that employee performance is the successful completion of tasks by a selected individual or individual, as set and measured by a supervisor or organization, to predefined acceptable standards while efficiently and effectively utilizing available resources within changing objectives. Thus, ensuring high employee job performance will lead to achieving organizational goals and objectives, which is organizational performance.

Organizational goal: Organizational goal constitutes the basic or overall vision of an organization, which is broken down into specific, measurable, achievable, realistic and time-bound (SMART) objectives for easy execution, evaluation and accomplishment. The aim, aspiration, end or pursuit of an organization is its goal [8]. Every organization strives to attain its goal in other to remain relevant in the political economy. For instance, the goal of a business organization is profit maximization or return on investment while that of a public organization like Universities is service maximization. Universities render three basic services; teaching, research and community service, all geared towards the benefit of the society and citizens at low or no cost.

Organizational goal is important because without it an organization will have no direction or reason to exist or needs to fulfill and problems to solve. And without goal, an organization has no reliable or realistic way to measure or evaluate its performance, output and productivity, and the efficiency of its methods, processes and structure. The goal of an organization tends to coordinate the behavior of people/ employees in that organization. In fact, Champoux [8] contends that organizational goals have strong effects on employees’ performance and productivity, and also asserts that organizations with specific and clear goals outperform those with less specific goals.

Thus, Fernandez and Rainey [9] argue that organizational goal assists executives in performing their leadership roles by providing a basis for uniting the efforts of workers in the business. The goal helps to identify the company and to give the company recognition and status. In addition, organizational goal motivates individuals and provide a basis for evaluating the total performance of the organization.

Ramsoedh and Mandrickx [10] summaries the importance of organizational goal, stating that it plays dual critical functions geared towards the survival of an organization, which include serving as a vital link in the planning process, and it is also an essential element in the process of control. Drucker [11] says that organizational goal is needed in every area where performance and results directly and vitally affect the survival or prosperity of the organization.

Thus, Olu-Adeyemi [12] summarizes that goals have strong effect on employee performance. Workers with specific and clear goals outperform those with less specific and clear goals.

Capacity building: Capacity building is a process of change, innovation and creativity, and the systematic management of transformation. It involves the transformation of people, organizational and society’s capacity [2]. In the words of Azikiwe [13], capacity building entails the process by which an individual, irrespective of sex, is equipped with skills and knowledge they need to perform effectively and efficiently in their different callings. Further, United Nations Development Programme [14] defined capacity building to cover human resources development and the strengthening of managerial systems, institutional development that involves community participation and creation of an enabling environment. According to Dibie and Dibie [15], capacity building implies a dynamic process which enables individuals and agencies to develop the critical social and technical capacities to identify and analyze problems as well as provide solutions to them. Therefore, Capacity building accordingly requires commitment, vision of leadership, viable institution and respective organizations, material, financial and skilled human resources [12]. For an effective implementation of e-government in the Nigerian Universities, both staff and students must be trained and proper equipped by building their capacities to use ICT.

Review of empirical literature: Harris [16] summarizes the role of e-government as not just about government web site and e-mail. It is not just only about service delivery over the Internet. It is not just about digital access to government information or electronic payments. It will change how citizens relate to governments as much as it changes how citizens relate to each other. It will bring forth new concepts of citizenship, both in terms of needs and responsibilities. E-government will allow citizens to communicate with government, participate in the governments’ policy-making and citizens to communicate each other and to participate in the democratic political process. This is in tandem with the work of who opined that e-government is the use of Web 2.0 technologies, both internally (intranet) and externally (internet), to increase collaboration and transparency, and efficiency in service delivery. Therefore, in broadest sense, e-government has great implications on public service delivery.

Atkinson [17] research on e-government and services delivery concludes that e-government refers to the use by government agencies of information technologies, such as web-based Networks, the Internet, and mobile computing, that have the ability to transform relations with citizens, businesses, and other arms of government. These technologies can serve a variety of different ends: better delivery of government services to citizens, improved interactions with business and industry, citizen empowerment through access to information, or more efficient government management. The resulting benefits can be less corruption, increased transparency and productivity, greater convenience, revenue growth, and/or cost reductions.

Buttressing this point, Fang [18] stated that e-government is the processes and structures that define the relationship between governments and citizens; the processes and structures that define the relationship between government service delivery and citizens’ needs. The import of this submission is that the essence of e-government is to meet the needs of the citizens by improving service delivery. Therefore, given the scale, scope, multi-portfolio nature, and transformational potential of e- government in delivering efficient, cost-effective and timely service, Roy advocates that it should be treated as a holistic system adjunct to the area of e-commerce in the E-society.

Yu and Norris [19,20] in their separate research on the relationship between e-government and service delivery carried out in Delhi and Uk argue that the quality or level of e-government determines the efficiency of service delivery, and this depends on the level of ICT tools and Internet access (digital divide) among citizens and employees of an organization. The implication of their finding on Federal University Ndufu-Alike Ikwo and other public organizations in Nigeria is that it should ensure consistent, functional and affordable internet access for its staff and students, by providing the needed ICT infrastructure on campus, in other to enhance the performance of its workforce and thereby improve service delivery for its publics.

Further in its study on the Imperativeness of e-government for Service Delivery, the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development [21], contends that the model offers the most effective way to improving service delivery in the public service. OECD suggests that e-government offers an adaptable framework that can be used to assess tangible and intangible output of government services. Additionally, the impact of new technology on public-sector service delivery and citizens’ attitudes about government has also been debated by political observers. The study by Okot-Uma [22] assessed the consequences of e-government for service delivery, democratic responsiveness, and public attitudes and whether it is taking advantage of the interactive features of the World Wide Web to improve service delivery, democratic responsiveness, and public outreach. Using both Web site content as well as public assessments, it argued that, in some respects, the e-government revolution has potential to transform service delivery and public trust in government. It does, also, have the possibility of enhancing employees’ responsiveness and boosting organizational performance.

In addition, a study by Eneh [23] on E-administration implementation in Nigerian Universities asserts that efficient and effective administration rests on the pillars of knowledge and recognition of this set of knowledge by the decision makers. Digitalization of this set of knowledge within a network which links every individual including the decision makers gives freedom to everyone to access and make use of this knowledge paving the way for digital governance. He concludes by stating that “E-administration is changing the power of equation based on access and control to information and knowledge [24-27]. A more informed administration is in a better position to understand and exercise its rights and e-administration will lead to reduction in knowledge gap. Digital administration will ensure that staff are no longer passive in the discharge of their duties instead would have a potential to play decisive role in deciding the kinds of services they want and structure which would best provide the same.” The evidence from the research suggests that the advent of Information and Communication Technology has provided a platform for effective and efficient service delivery electronically and many Nigerian Universities are now embracing it [28,29].

Methodology

Research design

This study used descriptive survey research as its design. Survey research involves the use of questionnaire to elicit relevant data from selected respondents and statistical models to analyze data and theories to espouse the study.

Methods of data collection

Questionnaire was the major instrument for collecting relevant data from the selected respondents of Federal University Ndufu-Alike Ikwo (FUNAI), Ebonyi state [30-35]. Consequently, two hundred and eight seven (287) copies of questionnaire were distributed to the selected respondents of the University and contained Likert-Type Scale of questions that comprised four levels, namely: Strongly Agree (SA), Agree (A), Disagree (DA) and Strongly Disagree (SD). Additionally, secondary data that are relevant to the study were also collected through books, journals, and Internet and newspapers sources [36,37].

Population of the study

The University has four faculties, namely; Basic Medical Sciences, Humanities and Social Sciences, Science and Technology, and Engineering, and seven major administrative departments; Registry, Bursary, Audit, Works and Physical Planning, ICT, Security and Medical Services [38,39].

The University as at September 2015 has a total population of One thousand and five (1005) staff, composed of teaching and non-teaching employees. The breakdown shows:

Sample size: To determine the sample size for this study, the Taro Yamane [40] mathematical model was adopted using 5% error margin, as represented below:

equation

Where

n=sample size

N= Population

e= Degree of error margin (5% error margin was used for this study)

1= Constant

Applying the formula, we have the following:

equation

equation

n = 287.1

equation

equation

n = 287

Method of Data Analysis

The study used simple % age and frequency tables as statistical method for analyzing and interpreting the responses from the questionnaire. Subsequently, Chi-square was used to test the formulated hypotheses for this study and to determine the effect of e-government on service delivery in Federal University Ndufu-Alike Ikwo, Ebonyi state [40-45].

Chi-square (X2) was adopted as the test model for this study because the data collected through the questionnaire were non-parametric data and Chi square is best suited for measuring such data.

Data presentation and analysis

Research question 1: To what extent does e-government help in the attainment of the goals of Federal University Ndufu-Alike Ikwo? (Table 1).

Responses Frequency Percentage (%)
SA 178 64.0
A 70 25.2
D 20 7.2
SD 10 3.6
Total 278 100

Table 1: Respondents’ opinion on importance of e-government on service delivery in an organization Source: Field survey (2015).

The study posed this question in recognition of the fact that one major challenge to e-government in the public sector is disagreement among management team as whether to adopt it as a means of delivery effective service or not. The above table shows that 178 (64%) of the respondents strongly agreed and 70 (25.2%) agreed that there is need for e-government in an organization to enhance service delivery while 20 (7.2%) and 10 (3.6%) of the respondents disagreed and strongly disagreed respectively. Thus, with the preponderance of 64% and 25.2% who strongly agreed and agreed respectively, we can therefore; conclude that respondents were aware of the importance of e-government in the attainment of organizational goals (Table 2).

Responses Frequency Percentage (%)
SA 220 79.1
A 50 18
D 8 2.9
SD 0 0
Total 278 100

Table 2: Respondents’ views on whether ICT helps them perform their duties speedily in Federal University Ndufu-Alike IkwoSource: Field survey (2015).

An analysis of the above table reveals that 220 (79.1%) of the respondents strongly agreed that ICT helps them perform their duties speedily while 50 (18%) agreed and 8 (2.9%) of them disagreed. Thus, with overwhelming majority 79.1% who strongly agreed, we can conclude that workers of the Federal University Ndufu-Alike Ikwo perform their duties more speedily because of the availability of ICT and thereby achieve the goals of the University (Table 3).

Responses Frequency Percentage (%)
SA 168 58.5
A 86 30
D 25 8.7
SD 8 2.8
Total 278 100

Table 3: Respondents’ views on the benefits and availability of Internet access to the staff of Federal University Ndufu-Alike Ikwo. Source: Field survey (2015).

An analysis of the above frequency table reveals that 168 (58.5%) and 86 (30%) of the respondents strongly agreed and agreed respectively while 25(8.7%) disagreed and 8(2.8%) strongly disagreed with the statement. This goes to conclude that Federal University Ndufu-Alike Ikwo understands the benefits of Internet access in implementing e-government and provides it for the staff to enable them carry out their duties towards goal attainment (Table 4).

Responses Frequency Percentage (%)
SA 207 72.1
A 55 19.2
D 18 6.3
SD 7 2.4
Total 278 100

Table 4: Respondents’ views on whether e-government is capable of producing an effective and productive workforce in Federal University Ndufu-Alike Ikwo.

A critical analysis of the above table indicates that 207 (72.1%) and 55 (19.2%) of the respondents strongly agreed and agreed respectively that e-government is capable of producing an effective workforce to achieve the goals of Federal University Ndufu-Alike Ikwo while 18 (6.3%) and 7 (2.4%) disagreed and strongly disagreed respectively. Thus, with majority 72.1% who strongly agreed with the proposition, we conclude that e-government is capable of producing an effective workforce to achieve the goals of Federal University Ndufu-Alike Ikwo (Table 5).

Responses Frequency Percentage (%)
SA 198 71.2
A 68 23.7
D 14 4.9
SD 7 2.4
Total 278 100

Table 5: Respondents’ views on whether e-government has positive effect on the attainment the of organizational goals of Federal University Ndufu-Alike Ikwo. Source: Field survey (2015)

The study poses this question to ascertain whether e-government has positive effect on the attainment of organizational goals of Federal University Ndufu-Alike Ikwo. It is also to validate or invalidate the first research hypothesis. A cursory look at the above table indicates that 198 (71.2%) of the respondents strongly agreed that there is a significant relationship between e-government and organizational performance achieved through efficient service delivery in Federal University Ndufu-Alike Ikwo while 68 (23.7%) agreed; 14 (4.9%) disagreed and 7 (2.4%) strongly disagreed with the proposition. Thus, with the majority 71.2% who strongly agreed and 23.7% that agreed with the proposition, we can therefore conclude that e-government has positive effect on organizational performance through efficient service delivery, which in turn helps in attaining the goals of an organization. This result invalidates the first null hypothesis of the study (Table 6).

Responses Frequency Percentage (%)
SA 229 79.8
A 48 16.2
D 10 3.5
SD 0 0
Total 278 100

Table 6: Respondents’ views on whether Federal University Ndufu-Alike Ikwo is achieving its strategic goals through the use of e-government. Source: Field survey (2015)

An analysis of the above table shows that 229 (79.8%) of the respondents strongly agreed that Federal University Ndufu-Alike Ikwo is achieving its strategic goals through the use of e-government while 48 (16.2%) agreed; and 10 (3.5%) had a contrary view. Thus, with majority 79.8% who strongly agreed on the question, we conclude that Federal University Ndufu-Alike Ikwo is achieving their strategic goals through the use of e-government.

Research question 11: To what extent does e-government affect workers’ performance in Federal University Ndufu-Alike Ikwo? (Table 7).

Responses Frequency Percentage (%)
SA 210 75.5
A 58 20.9
D 6 2.6
SD 4 1.4
Total 278 100

Table 7: Respondents’ views on whether e-government enhances employees’ efficiency and effectiveness. Source: Field Survey (2015)

The computation above indicates that 210 (75.5%) and 58 (20.9%) of the respondents strongly agreed and agreed respectively that e-government enhances organizational efficiency and effectiveness while 6 (2.6%) and 4 (1.4) of them disagreed and strongly disagreed respectively. With overwhelming majority 75.5% who agreed with the proposition, we can therefore, conclude that e-government enhances employees’ efficiency and effectiveness in service delivery (Table 8).

Responses Frequency Percentage (%)
SA 250 89.9
A 20 7.2
D 8 2.9
SD 0 0
Total 278 100

Table 8: Respondents’ views on whether e-government helps in fostering workers service delivery. Source: Field survey (2015)

The researcher posed this question to determine the nexus between e-government and service delivery. The computation in the above table shows that overwhelming majority of 250 (89.9%) of the respondents strongly agreed that e-government helps in fostering workers service delivery while 20 (7.2%) merely agreed and 8 (2.9%) disagreed. Thus, we conclude that e-government helps in energizing workers service delivery (Table 9).

Responses Frequency Percentage (%)
SA 200 71.9
A 40 14.4
D 25 9
SD 13 4.7
Total 278 100

Table 9: Recognizing the importance of training and development of employees in the use of ICT, the study further seek to know if present training and development method in Federal University Ndufu-Alike Ikwo is capable of producing an effective workforce. Source: Field survey (2015)

A look at the above table reveals that majority of the respondents 200 (71.9%) were of the opinion that the training and development method in the Federal University Ndufu-Alike Ikwo is capable of producing an effective workforce while only 25 (9%) and 13 (4.7%) disagreed and strongly disagreed respectively. With majority 71.9% who strongly agreed we conclude that the training and development method in the Federal University Ndufu-Alike Ikwo is capable of producing an effective workforce (Table 10).

Responses Frequency Percentage (%)
1-2 times 160 57.5
3-5 times 83 29.9
6 times and above 20 7.2
None 15 5.4
Total 278 100

Table 10: Respondents’ views on the number of trainings attended in the area of ICT since joining Federal University Ndufu-Alike Ikwo as staff. Source: Field survey (2015)

We asked this a follow up question bearing in mind that training and development in the Nigerian University system is one of the packages to build the capacities of workers. An analysis of the above table shows that 160 (57.6%) had training between one and twice, three or five times attracted 83 (29.9%) while six times and above attracted 20 (7.2%). However, 15 (5.4%) were of the opinion that they have never attended any training and development programme since joining the University. Thus, we conclude that overwhelming majority 94.6% of the respondents have attended one form of training and development programme or other. This result has positive implication on the performance, efficiency and effectiveness and service delivery of Federal University Ndufu-Alike Ikwo (Table 11).

Responses Frequency Percentage (%)
SA 188 67.6
A 70 25.2
D 20 7.2
SD 0 0
Total 278 100

Table 11: Respondents’ views on whether e-government helps workers in Federal University Ndufu-Alike Ikwo to perform with transparency and openness. Source: Field survey (2015)

A cursory look at the above table reveals that majority of the respondents 188 (67.6%) and 70 (25.2%) strongly agreed and agreed that e-government helps workers of the Federal University Ndufu- Alike Ikwo to perform their duties with transparency and openness while only 20 (7.2%) were contrary in their views. With majority 67.6% and 25.2% who strongly agreed and agreed respectively we conclude that e-government helps workers of the Federal University Ndufu- Alike Ikwo perform their duties with transparency and openness (Table 12).

Responses Frequency Percentage (%)
SA 251 90.3
A 21 7.5
D 6 2.2
SD 0 0
Total 278 100

Table 12: Respondents’ views on whether e-government positively affects the performance of workers in Federal University Ndufu-Alike Ikwo. Source: Field survey (2015)

The study poses this question to ascertain whether e-government has positive or negative effect on the performance of workers in Federal University Ndufu-Alike Ikwo. It is also to validate or invalidate the second research hypothesis. From the table above, overwhelming majority 251 or 90.3% of the respondents shared the view that e-government positive effect on workers’ performance. However, only 6 (2.2%) of the respondents disagreed. Thus, we can therefore conclude that e-government affects workers’ performance positively in Federal University Ndufu-Alike Ikwo. This result invalidates the second null hypothesis.

Test of Hypotheses

Hypothesis one

E-government has no significant relationship with attainment of the organizational goals of Federal University Ndufu-Alike Ikwo (Table 13).

Variable N SUM r-cal  P-value Df r-task value Decision
E-government and Service Delivery in the Federal University Ndufu-Alike Ikwo (X) 4 X:400
X2:40744
XY:41692
0.8427 0.05 3 0.878
Attainment of Organizational Goals in Federal University Ndufu-Alike Ikwo (Y) 4 Y:400
Y2:45418
 
  Rejected

Table 13: E-government and service delivery (attainment of Organizational Goals).

Result: Ho is rejected. This implies that the E-government has positive significant relationship with the attainment of the organizational goals of Federal University Ndufu-Alike Ikwo

Decision: From the above test of hypothesis, it can be deduced that there is strong positive relationship between e-government and service delivery as it concerns the attainment of the organizational goals of Federal University Ndufu-Alike Ikwo (FUNAI), Ebomyi State.

Hypothesis Two

E-government has no significant relationship with workers’ performance in Federal University Ndufu-Alike Ikwo (Table 14).

Variable N SUM r-cal  P-value Df r-task value Decision
E-government and Service Delivery in the Federal University Ndufu-Alike Ikwo (X) 4 X:400
X2:42648
XY:43598
0.8597 0.05 3 0.878
Workers’ Performance in Federal University Ndufu-Alike Ikwo (Y) 4 Y:400
Y2:46614
 
  Rejected

Table 14: E-government and service delivery (Workers’ Performance).

Result: Ho is rejected. This implies that E-government has significant relationship with workers’ performance in Federal University Ndufu- Alike Ikwo.

Decision: From the above test of hypothesis it can be deduced that there is strong positive relationship between e-government and service delivery as it concerns workers’ performance in Federal University Ndufu-Alike Ikwo (FUNAI), Ebonyi state.

Summary of Findings

The summary of findings aptly captures the results of the research as derived from the analyses of the research questions and test hypotheses; and the evidence indicates that:

1. E-government has strong positive effect on service delivery by fostering the achievement of organizational goals. Through the implementation of e-government, work-related activities are conducted with speed and dispatch, and this engenders organizational success.

2. E-government also has strong positive effect on service delivery by enhancing the performance of workers. This is because the use of ICT in work-related activities reduces waste of time, delays and mistakes on the part workers in the discharge of their duties.

3. E-government can increase process-based interactions and employees’ responsiveness, and thereby enhancing job performance and service delivery.

Conclusion

Government as a concept is different from the traditional model of the government. E-government or government online is supposed to provide information services or products through electronic means, by and from governmental agencies like the university at any given moment and place, offering an extra value for all participating players. This model of the government provides serious entities the facility of accessing the systems online in order to improve the efficiency of the system [46-49].

Recommendations

This study has gone some way towards enhancing our understanding of the effect of e-government on service delivery in Federal University Ndufu-Alike Ikwo, and in view of findings of this study, it is clear that the University have made a some progress in using e-government to enhance service delivery [50-52].

However, in order to sustain and improve on the successes already achieved and for greater public service delivery, the following recommendations are made:

1. Though, the study reveals that Federal University Ndufu-Alike Ikwo has done well in the use e-government in achieving organizational goals, it should improve on the current ICT infrastructure and strategy, and continue to improve on its Internet access and digital divide among staff in order to continue achieving their organizational goals which will engender sustainability.

2. Given the strategic role of ICT in the 21st century administration, Federal University Ndufu-Alike Ikwo should continue to expand windows of opportunities that ICT provides in its drive to further enhance employees’ performance (by acquiring new skills, knowledge and abilities) that will invariably improve workers’ performance and organizational success.

3. The University should ensure that there is a well-coordinated ICT training and development methods for all staff and students of the University, because this is the only way it could have a pool of competent employees’ to drive and implement its vision, goals and objectives by producing graduates for 21st century economy that are ICT savvy.

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