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The objective of this paper was to determine the opportunities of improving milk productivity and altering the milk composition through nutritional interventions. The increase in the nutraceutical value of milk is expected through dietary modifications of the animal. Feeding high concentrate diets combined with dietary fat can be used to modify the FA profile of milk, without negative effect on milk yield and milk fat or protein contents. Their effects may be complementary, at least for trans fatty acids. The profile of trans isomers relative to total trans-C18:1 seems dependent on the source of dietary fat. Feeding oilseeds and/ or novel fat supplements to ruminants can be used to modify the lipid metabolism in the mammary gland in modulating the secretion of fat and the profile of milk fatty acids. Feeding novel fatty acid sources the nutritive value of milk can be enhanced by decreased atherogenic saturated FA in milk and increased t11-C18:1 (trans vaccenic acid), and c9,t11-C18:2 (geometric and positional isomer of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in milk, which are considered as positive for human health. Feeding bypass/ rumen protected sources of fatty acids and amino acids may help in meeting the need of higher milk production, and in modulating milk composition through increase availability of fatty acids and amino acids in circulation with synchronized extraction of desired nutrient by mammary gland for milk constituents synthesis. Milk may be used as
delivery system of anticarcenogens (CLA and polyphenols) for human health. Therefore, nutritional manipulations have several opportunities in improving milk production, modifications of milk composition and fatty acid profile. The improved milk productivity is desired in line with increased human population with minimum environment degradation thereby nutritional manipulations are directed to enhance milk production without increasing dairy animal populations with reduced greenhouse gasses emissions from ruminant agriculture.