alexa Effect of Smoking on the Oxidation Parameters and the Total Phenolic Compounds of Two Freshwater Fishes: Clarias Gariepinus and Cyprinus Carpio

ISSN: 2157-7110

Journal of Food Processing & Technology

Effect of Smoking on the Oxidation Parameters and the Total Phenolic Compounds of Two Freshwater Fishes: Clarias Gariepinus and Cyprinus Carpio

Tiwo TC1,2,3*, Womeni HM2, Tchoumbougnang F, Chandra MV1,4, Ndomou S2, Nganou E4, Pankaj K5, Teboukeu B3 and Nayak BB3
1Department of Fish Processing Technology, College of Fisheries, Karnataka Veterinary, Mangalore-575002, India
2Department of Biochemistry, University of Dschang, Cameroon PO Box 67 Dschang, Cameroon
3Central Institute of Fishery Education, Mumbai, India
4Department of Biochemistry, University of Douala, Cameroon PO Box 2701 Douala, Cameroon
5NGSM Institute of Pharmaceutical Science, Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, NITTE University, Deralakatte, Mangaluru, Karnataka 575018, India
*Corresponding Author: Tiwo TC, Department of Biochemistry, University of Dschang, Cameroon PO Box 67 Dschang, Cameroon, Tel: +237 675436912, Email: [email protected]

Received Date: Jul 27, 2018 / Accepted Date: Sep 06, 2018 / Published Date: Sep 10, 2018

Abstract

The antioxidant activity of total phenolic compound content in smoked fishes treated by three different wood materials (Mangifera indica, Psidium guajava, Rhizophora mangle) was assessed in this study. Results showed that, the total phenolic compound was significantly higher (P<0.05) in fishes smoked with Rhizophora mangle using filter (ranged from 2.13 to 4.62 mg/100 g) compared to the control (raw fish) and fish smoked using other woods. The highest peroxide and anisidine value of oil extracted from smoked fishes was registered in Clarias Gariepinus and Cyprinus carpio smoked using traditional smoking oven and, in fishes purchased in the local market. However, anisidine and peroxide values of fish smoked using these three woods was significantly different (P<0.05) compared to the control and differ from each other. In the major case, the peroxide value was less than the 5 meq O2/Kg, especially in eviscerated fish. Higher antioxidant activity was observed in fish smoked with Rhizophora mangle using filter (3.69 ± 0.04 mg/100 g of total phenolic content). The increase in peroxide and anisidine value was inversely proportional to the total phenolic content of fish when smoked with the three types of woods. This was not observed in the case of traditional smoking process. In conclusion, the smoking of fish using Rhizophora mangle significantly increases (P<0.05) the total phenolic compound content in smoked fish. It simultaneously plays a good antioxidant role that leads to better preserved smoked fishes.

Keywords: Antioxidants; Woods; Oxidation; Smoking process; Clarias gariepinus; Cyprinus carpio

Introduction

Fresh fishes are very perishable. More often, many methods are used for the preservation (freezing, salting, chilling, smoking and drying,). Nowadays, the most used conservation techniques are drying and smoking [1,2]. During smoking, phenolic compounds play a significant role in the conservation of organoleptic properties of smoked fish [3]. During the process, many changes happen such as lipid oxidation. This is a complex process of deterioration of food lipid. Another change affects the food safety, functional property, and thus, the food shelf life [4-7]. The metallic ion acting as a prooxidants, accelerates the lipid oxidation and facilitate the transfer of electrons [4]. Hydroperoxides are primary products, lipid oxidation results in production of others low molecular weight and volatile compounds that are cause the changes in the aromatic and of food properties as well as flavour. The result of lipid oxidation is usually a complex mixture of compounds such as aldehydes, ketones, alcohols, hydrocarbons, esters, etc.)

Fish oils contain important level of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (PUFAs) that play a key role in human diet. However, due to their high content of polyunsaturated fatty acids and the presence of metal ions, fishes are likely to lipids oxidation than other fat and oils. Therefore, natural antioxidants used to stabilise it can be, phenolic and nitrogen compounds, carotenoids and ascorbic acid [8-10]. Since phenol structure include aromatic ring having hydroxyl group, they are in this way efficient in scavengers of peroxyl radicals. Therefore, phenolic compounds reduce and chelate ferric ion [11].

Phenolic compounds in smoked fish have been identified but, it appears that there is not data on the antioxidant activity of Mangifera indica, Psidium guajava, Rhizophora mangle during smoking. The aim of this study was therefore to determine the effect of different smoking process using these woods species on the oxidative parameters of smoked Cyprinus carpio and Clarias Gariepinus related to their total phenolic compounds. This will generate data on the field and allow a better understanding of the relation between smoking process, the phenolic component and stability of the fish oil.

Material and Methods

Smoking process

Fishes were collected at Batie of latitude 50 17’ 00’’ Nord and longitude 100 17’ 00’’ West, in west region and smoked using three types of woods (Mangifera indica, Psidium guajava, Rhizophora mangle). Many treatments were applied during the process. Fishes were smoked using an ameliorated smoking oven. Before using this smoking oven, another grid with metallic filter having fine stich was placed under the grid in contact with fishes and allows fishes, to be in contact only with filtered smoke. Another parameter study was the evisceration of fish. Therefore, this has permit to evaluate the effect of evisceration and the use of filter during the smoking of Clarias Gariepinus and Cyprinus carpio using three types of woods, in the ameliorated smoking oven for 7 hours. Part of these fishes was smoked using traditional smoking oven in which the temperature was high (up to 80°C). All these samples were analysed and compare to control and, to the smoked Clarias Gariepinus and Cyprinus carpio purchased in the local market.

Proximate composition of Cyprinus carpio and Clarias Gariepinus

The moisture, ash, lipid and nitrogen content of crude fish were determined according to the method describe by AOAC. The crude protein content of fish was determined by estimating its total nitrogen content using the Kjeldahl method. Nitrogen obtained was multiplied by a factor of 6.25 for the determination of the total protein content.

Determination of total amino acid by HPLC

Separation and quantification of amino acid component was carried out using an HPLC with an ion exchange column, model Hitachi L-2130 Elite La Chrom. This equipment has an auto sample L-2200 and FL detector L-2485 with wave length ex: 340 nm and Em 450 nm. About 100 mg of finely homogenized fish meat was weighed in a borosil test tube. 10 mL of 6N HCL was added in to the test tube. The borosil tube was sealed after filling nitrogen and the digestion (protein hydrolysis) of the tube content was done in an oven at 110°C for 24 hours. At the end of the hydrolysis, the test tube was cooled, and the content was filtered using Whatman n°1 filter paper. The tube was rinsed with distilled water and filtered. The filtrate was evaporated in a vacuum flash evaporator. 50 mL of deionized water was added in the test tubes during the evaporation until the content was free amino acids free (04 washing). The amino acid was dissolved in buffer A (prepared using tri sodium citrate and citric acid, NaCL, and 4ml Brij; and the pH was adjusted to 3.5) and injected in the HPLC system. The eluted amino acids were derivatized post column with O-phthaldehyde for fluorescence detector).

Spectrophotometric determination of tryptophan content of fishes

Tryptophan content in protein was determined.

Determination of fatty acid profile of oil extracted from fishes

The fatty acid profile was determined by Gas Chromatography as describe by AOCS [12].

Determination of total phenols component

Total phenolic compounds in smoked fishes was determined according to the method describe in NF V45-067.

Lipid extraction or defatted method

After smoking process, fish was defatted according to the method described by Bligh and Dyer [13] using a combination of chloroform and methanol (2:1).

Determination of peroxide value

The peroxide value was determined according to the standard spectrophotometric method of IDF 74A: 1991.

Determination of anisidine value

The anisidine value was determined following the method describe by AOCS [12].

Statistical analysis

Tests were performed in triplicate and results were expressed as mean ± standard deviations. Data were subjected to the analysis of variance (one-way ANOVA with Post-test) at 0.05% probability level. The Bonferroni tests (compare all pair of columns) was used to ascertain the specific pairs that were significantly different using GraphPad InStat 3.1 software.

Results and Discussion

Proximate composition of raw fish

The proximate composition of fishes in presented in Table 1. Results showed that, the protein content of 87.65 ± 1.54 and 86.56 ± 3.09 respectively were obtained in Cyprinus carpio and Clarias Gariepinus. Their fat content was 5.46 ± 0.11 and 7.46 ± 0.13% respectively. Globally, results show that these fishes are good sources of proteins. The results obtained are similar to the result in which proximate composition of Indian’s freshwater fish such as major’s carps were determined. The fat content observed in the case of this study allows us to classify them to be a semi-fat fish. This maybe attribute to the nature of feed provided during aquaculture practices.

Parameters Clariasgariepinus Cyprinus carpio
Moisture content (%WM) 80.04 ± 0.04 79.89 ± 0.14
Lipid content (%DM) 7.46 ± 0.13 5.46 ± 0.11
Protein content (%DM) 86.56 ± 3.09 87.65 ± 1.54
Ash content (%DM) 5.92 ± 0.03 6.79 ± 0.05
Hydrocarbon content (%DM) 0.02 ± 0.01 0.04 ± 0.14

Table 1: Proximate analysis of Cyprinus carpio and Clarias gariepinus.

Amino acid composition: The amino acid composition is illustrated in Table 2. It appears that, these fishes contain 17 amino acid. Lysine was found to be the major amino acid. They also content good number of amino acid amongst which the 08 (eight) essential amino acids (Tryptophan, Lysin, Methionine, Phenylalanine, Threonine, Valine, Leucine and isoleucine).

  Clarias gariepinus Cyprinus carpio
Asp 10,00 ± 0,04 10,09 ± 0,15
Thr 3,62 ± 0,42 4,15 ± 0,11
Ser 2,72 ± 0,41 3,38 ± 0,08
Glu 16,08 ± 0,12 16,17 ± 0,25
Pro 4,45 ± 0,24 3,98 ± 0,14
Gly 3,22 ± 0,23 3,78 ± 0,41
Ala 4,76 ± 0,41 4,92 ± 0,14
Cys 0,38 ± 0,02 0,81 ± 0,10
Val 4,28 ± 0,07 4,74 ± 0,04
Met 3,63 ± 0,10 2,01 ± 0,06
Ileu 4,50 ± 0,04 4,16 ± 0,11
Leu 6,27 ± 0,25 7,56 ± 0,41
Tyr 5,53 ± 0,42 4,91 ± 0,04
Phe 4,55 ± 0,07 4,15 ± 0,08
His 7,25 ± 0,21 6,14 ± 0,18
Lys 14,67 ± 0,05 12,95 ± 0,12
Arg 6,37 ± 0,11 6,03 ± 0,12
Trp 1,46 ± 0,14 1,59 ± 0,11

Table 2: Amino Acid composition of Cyprinus carpio and Clarias gariepinus.

Fatty acid composition: The fatty acid composition of Cyprinus carpio and Clarias Gariepinus is presented in Table 3. In the present study, we found that Cyprinus carpio and Clarias Gariepinus oils have 24 fatty acids. The highest fatty acids found in raw fish were oleic acid (C18:1n-9), palmitic acid (C16:0) and stearic acid (C18:0). The obtained results are in line with those reported by Sharai et al. [14], Weber et al. [15]. Raw fish is rich of myristic acid (C14:0), palmitoleic acid (C16:1). These fishes also contain high amount of eicosapentenoic acid (C20:5n-3: EPA) and docosahexanoic acid (C22:6n-3: DHA). However, Cyprinus carpio and Clarias Gariepinus contain small amount of linolenic acid (C18:3n-3).

  Cyprinus carpio Clarias gariepinus
C12:0 0.74  ±  0.04 0.76  ±  0.06
C13:0 0.04  ±  0.01 0.02  ±  0.00
C14:0 2.37  ±  0.09 2.64  ±  0.12
C15:0 0.52  ±  0.02 0.36  ±  0.04
C16:0 32.24  ±  0.81 43.13  ±  2.01
C16:1(n-7) nd nd
C17:0 0.97  ±  0.04 0.56  ±  0.04
C18:0 0.72  ±  0.05 0.94  ±  0.10
C18:1(n-9) 26.59  ±  1.02 27.67  ±  1.20
C18:2(n-6) 28.91  ±  0.87 21.18  ±  0.99
C18:2(n-5) 0.66  ±  0.05 0.47  ±  0.04
C18:2(n-3) nd 0.07  ±  0.02
C18:3(n-3) 0.50  ±  0.02 0.30  ±  0.01
C19:0 nd nd
C20:0 nd nd
C21:0 nd nd
C20:1(n-9) 0.84  ±  0.09 0.53  ±  0.04
C20:2(n-6) 0.58  ±  0.06 0.11  ±  0.04
C20:3(n-3) nd nd
C20:4(n-6) 0.26  ±  0.04  
C20:4(n-3) nd 0.04  ±  0.00
C20:5 (n-3) 1.33  ±  0.09 0.25  ±  0.07
C22:1 (n-9) nd nd
C22:6 (n-3) 2.73  ±  0.15 1.27  ± 0.12

Table 3: Fatty acid composition of Cyprinus carpio and Clarias gariepinus

Effect of smoking process of oxidative parameters ( peroxide and anisidine value)

Figures 1-3 present the peroxide and anisidine values of oil extracted from fish after smoking processes. A significant increase (P<0.05) in peroxide value was registered in fish treated with traditional smoking oven (up to 22.26 meqO2/Kg) compared to the control. The phenolic compound is known to be antioxidant. The increase of total phenol content in smoked fish can be explained by the fact that during wood pyrolise, the phenolic component migrates into fish. The highest peroxide and anisidine values was observed from Clarias Gariepinus and Cyprinus carpio not eviscerated smoked with traditional smoking oven, and from fishes bought in the local market. This higher value may be explained by the elevated temperature that accelerates the oxidation despite the presence of antioxidant in fishes.

food-processing-technology-smoking-processes

Figure 1:Effect of different smoking processes on peroxide value of oil extracted from Clarias Gariepinus and Cyprinus carpio.
The value carrying different letters are significantly (P<0.05) different from control and each other when compare all pairs of columns. Results presented are the means of three values followed by their standard deviation. Control C.g: Control Clarias gariepinus (raw fish) ; Control C.c : Control Cyprinus carpio (raw fish) :  SNE GSF : Clarias Gariepinus not eviscerated smoking with Psidium guajava without filter ; SEGSF : Clarias Gariepinus eviscerated smoking with Psidium guajava without filter; CNE GSF : Cyprinus carpio not eviscerated smoking with Psidium guajava without filter ; CEGSF : Cyprinus carpioeviscerated smoking with Psidium guajava without filter; SNE MPF : Clarias Gariepinus not eviscerated smoking with Rhizophora mangle with filter; CNE MPF : Cyprinus carpio not eviscerated smoking with Rhizophora mangle with filter; CE MPF : Cyprinus carpio eviscerated smoking with Rhizophora mangle with filter; SE MPF : Clarias Gariepinus eviscerated smoking with Rhizophora mangle with filter; SNE MPSF : Clarias Gariepinus not eviscerated smoking with Rhizophora mangle without filter; CE MPSF : Cyprinus carpio eviscerated smoking with Rhizophora mangle without filter; CNE MPSF : Cyprinus carpio not eviscerated smoking with Rhizophora mangle without filter; SE MaPSF : Clarias Gariepinus eviscerated smoking with Rhizophora mangle without filter; CE MaSF Cyprinus carpio eviscerated smoking with Mangi feraindica without filter; SNE MaSF : Clarias Gariepinus not eviscerated smoking with Mangi feraindica with filter; CNE MaSF : Cyprinus carpio not eviscerated smoking with Mangi feraindica without filter; SE MaSF : Clarias Gariepinus eviscerated smoking with Mangi feraindica with filter ; SE GF : Clarias Gariepinus eviscerated smoking with Psidium guajava with filter; SNE GF : Clarias Gariepinus not eviscerated smoking with Psidium guajava with filter; CNE GF : Cyprinus carpio not eviscerated smoking with Psidium guajava with filter; CE GF : Cyprinus carpio eviscerated smoking with Psidium guajava with filter; SE MaF : Clarias Gariepinus eviscerated smoking with Mangi feraindica with filter; SNE MaF : Clarias Gariepinus not eviscerated smoking without Mangi feraindica with filter; CE MaF : Cyprinus carpio eviscerated smoking with Mangi feraindica with filter; CNE MaF : Cyprinus carpio not eviscerated smoking with Mangi feraindica with filter ; SA : Clarias Gariepinus not eviscerated traditional smoking oven buy in the local market; CA : Cyprinus carpio not eviscerated traditional smoking oven buy in the local market; CNE FT : Cyprinus carpio not eviscerated traditional smoking oven; CE FT : Cyprinus carpio eviscerated traditional smoking oven; SNE FT : Clarias Gariepinus not eviscerated traditional smoking oven; SE FT : Clarias Gariepinus eviscerated traditional smoking oven; n=3.

food-processing-technology-anisidine-value

Figure 2:Effect of different smoking processes on anisidine value of oil extracted from Clarias gariepinus and Cyprinus carpio.
The value carrying different letters are significantly (P<0.05) different from control and each other when compare all pairs of columns. Results presented are the means of three values followed by their standard deviation. Control C.g: Control Clarias gariepinus (raw fish) ; Control C.c : Control Cyprinus carpio (raw fish) :  SNE GSF : Clarias Gariepinus not eviscerated smoking with Psidium guajava without filter ; SEGSF : Clarias Gariepinus eviscerated smoking with Psidium guajava without filter; CNE GSF : Cyprinus carpio not eviscerated smoking with Psidium guajava without filter ; CEGSF : Cyprinus carpioeviscerated smoking with Psidium guajava without filter; SNE MPF : Clarias Gariepinus not eviscerated smoking with Rhizophora mangle with filter; CNE MPF : Cyprinus carpio not eviscerated smoking with Rhizophora mangle with filter; CE MPF : Cyprinus carpio eviscerated smoking with Rhizophora mangle with filter; SE MPF : Clarias Gariepinus eviscerated smoking with Rhizophora mangle with filter; SNE MPSF : Clarias Gariepinus not eviscerated smoking with Rhizophora mangle without filter; CE MPSF : Cyprinus carpio eviscerated smoking with Rhizophora mangle without filter; CNE MPSF : Cyprinus carpio not eviscerated smoking with Rhizophora mangle without filter; SE MaPSF : Clarias Gariepinus eviscerated smoking with Rhizophora mangle without filter; CE MaSF Cyprinus carpio eviscerated smoking with Mangi feraindica without filter; SNE MaSF : Clarias Gariepinus not eviscerated smoking with Mangi feraindica with filter; CNE MaSF : Cyprinus carpio not eviscerated smoking with Mangi feraindica without filter; SE MaSF : Clarias Gariepinus eviscerated smoking with Mangi feraindica with filter ; SE GF : Clarias Gariepinus eviscerated smoking with Psidium guajava with filter; SNE GF : Clarias Gariepinus not eviscerated smoking with Psidium guajava with filter; CNE GF : Cyprinus carpio not eviscerated smoking with Psidium guajava with filter; CE GF : Cyprinus carpio eviscerated smoking with Psidium guajava with filter; SE MaF : Clarias Gariepinus eviscerated smoking with Mangi feraindica with filter; SNE MaF : Clarias Gariepinus not eviscerated smoking without Mangi feraindica with filter; CE MaF : Cyprinus carpio eviscerated smoking with Mangi feraindica with filter; CNE MaF : Cyprinus carpio not eviscerated smoking with Mangi feraindica with filter ; SA : Clarias Gariepinus not eviscerated traditional smoking oven buy in the local market; CA : Cyprinus carpio not eviscerated traditional smoking oven buy in the local market; CNE FT : Cyprinus carpio not eviscerated traditional smoking oven; CE FT : Cyprinus carpio eviscerated traditional smoking oven; SNE FT : Clarias Gariepinus not eviscerated traditional smoking oven; SE FT : Clarias Gariepinus eviscerated traditional smoking oven; n=3.

food-processing-technology-anisidphenolic-compounds

Figure 3:Effect of different smoking processes on total phenolic compounds in fish.
The value carrying different letters are significantly (P<0.05) different from control and each other when compare all pairs of columns. Results presented are the means of three values followed by their standard deviation. Control C.g: Control Clarias gariepinus (raw fish) ; Control C.c : Control Cyprinus carpio (raw fish) :  SNE GSF : Clarias Gariepinus not eviscerated smoking with Psidium guajava without filter ; SEGSF : Clarias Gariepinus eviscerated smoking with Psidium guajava without filter; CNE GSF : Cyprinus carpio not eviscerated smoking with Psidium guajava without filter ; CEGSF : Cyprinus carpioeviscerated smoking with Psidium guajava without filter; SNE MPF : Clarias Gariepinus not eviscerated smoking with Rhizophora mangle with filter; CNE MPF : Cyprinus carpio not eviscerated smoking with Rhizophora mangle with filter; CE MPF : Cyprinus carpio eviscerated smoking with Rhizophora mangle with filter; SE MPF : Clarias Gariepinus eviscerated smoking with Rhizophora mangle with filter; SNE MPSF : Clarias Gariepinus not eviscerated smoking with Rhizophora mangle without filter; CE MPSF : Cyprinus carpio eviscerated smoking with Rhizophora mangle without filter; CNE MPSF : Cyprinus carpio not eviscerated smoking with Rhizophora mangle without filter; SE MaPSF : Clarias Gariepinus eviscerated smoking with Rhizophora mangle without filter; CE MaSF Cyprinus carpio eviscerated smoking with Mangi feraindica without filter; SNE MaSF : Clarias Gariepinus not eviscerated smoking with Mangi feraindica with filter; CNE MaSF : Cyprinus carpio not eviscerated smoking with Mangi feraindica without filter; SE MaSF : Clarias Gariepinus eviscerated smoking with Mangi feraindica with filter ; SE GF : Clarias Gariepinus eviscerated smoking with Psidium guajava with filter; SNE GF : Clarias Gariepinus not eviscerated smoking with Psidium guajava with filter; CNE GF : Cyprinus carpio not eviscerated smoking with Psidium guajava with filter; CE GF : Cyprinus carpio eviscerated smoking with Psidium guajava with filter; SE MaF : Clarias Gariepinus eviscerated smoking with Mangi feraindica with filter; SNE MaF : Clarias Gariepinus not eviscerated smoking without Mangi feraindica with filter; CE MaF : Cyprinus carpio eviscerated smoking with Mangi feraindica with filter; CNE MaF : Cyprinus carpio not eviscerated smoking with Mangi feraindica with filter ; SA : Clarias Gariepinus not eviscerated traditional smoking oven buy in the local market; CA : Cyprinus carpio not eviscerated traditional smoking oven buy in the local market; CNE FT : Cyprinus carpio not eviscerated traditional smoking oven; CE FT : Cyprinus carpio eviscerated traditional smoking oven; SNE FT : Clarias Gariepinus not eviscerated traditional smoking oven; SE FT : Clarias Gariepinus eviscerated traditional smoking oven; n=3.

The total phenolic contents were significantly higher (P<0.05) in the fish smoked with Rhizophora mangle. Compare to the control, smoking process has significantly increased (P<0.05) the phenolic component. Wood materials contain big amount of lignin. It is a polymer that produces during smoking processes many compounds such as coumaryl alcohol and sinapyl alcohol. The highest total phenolic compounds content obtained from the fish, smoked with Rhizophora mangle using filter (ranging from 2.12 to 4.62) was inversely proportionally oxidation parameters. Earlier studies on phenols nitration has made possible to understand that, smoking may result in the deposition of phenols in the fish. In fact, Knowles et al. [16] has reported that smoking result in the deposition of methyl phenols, Guaiacols and Syringols. The composition of smoke depends on the woods materials used, on the degree of combustion and the availability of air [17]. The filter may then have an aptitude to retained non-phenolic component. Nevertheless, we have registered a phenolic content in the raw fish (0.29 ± 0.02 mg/100 g). This can be explained by the animal metabolism, by the catabolism of amino acid and by the microbiological activities as registered by Ha and Lindsay [18]. The low peroxide and anisidine values are related to the high phenolic component. The discrepancies in antioxidant is due to the wood materials since it composition varies as mentioned.

Conclusion

This work was designed to study the effect of different smoking processes on the oxidative parameters of oil extracted from smoked Clarias Gariepinus and Cyprinus carpio. These fishes contain the 08 essentials amino acid. Fishes smoked with Rhizophora mangle exhibited higher phenolic content and, its antioxidant activity was higher compared to other smoked fishes. The effect of filter in smoking with Rhizophora mangle was observed. This study has permitted to understand that the smoking process can be short (7 hours) and increase the quality of fish in term of oxidative parameters (low peroxide and anisidine value). We can conclude that, smoking of fish using Rhizophora mangle with metallic filter in the ameliorated smoking oven increased the phenolic compounds content in the finish products.

Acknowledgments

The authors thank the Department of Science and Technology of India for the RTF-DCS/ DST Fellowship received and, the NAM S & T Centre for his financial support. The authors are thankful to the Directors of, Central Institute of Fisheries Education and the Central Institute of Fisheries Technology for allowing us to carry out part of this research in their Institutes.

Author Contributions

C.T.Tiwo, H.M.Womeni, F.Tchoumbougnang and B.B.Nayak have designed the research work. S.Ndomou, E. Nganou and C.T.Tiwo performed smoking and drafted the manuscript. C.T.Tiwo, M.V.Chandra and B.TEBOUKEU carried out the research work by determining the proximate chemical composition of fish, the peroxide and anisidine value, and the total phenol compound. Statistical analysis was done by B.Teboukeu and C.T. Tiwo. All authors red and approved the final manuscript.

References

Citation: Tiwo TC, Womeni HM, Tchoumbougnang F, Chandra MV, Ndomou S, et al. (2018) Effect of Smoking on the Oxidation Parameters and the Total Phenolic Compounds of Two Freshwater Fishes: Clarias Gariepinus and Cyprinus Carpio . J Food Process Technol 9: 754. DOI: 10.4172/2157-7110.1000754

Copyright: © 2018 Tiwo TC, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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