alexa
Reach Us +44-1647-403003
Effectiveness of 0.05% Cyclosporine in the Treatment of Subepithelial Infiltrates Related with Adenoviral Keratoconjunctivitis | OMICS International
ISSN: 2165-7920
Journal of Clinical Case Reports
Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700+ peer reviewed, Open Access Journals that operates with the help of 50,000+ Editorial Board Members and esteemed reviewers and 1000+ Scientific associations in Medical, Clinical, Pharmaceutical, Engineering, Technology and Management Fields.
Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our 3000+ Global Conferenceseries Events with over 600+ Conferences, 1200+ Symposiums and 1200+ Workshops on Medical, Pharma, Engineering, Science, Technology and Business

Effectiveness of 0.05% Cyclosporine in the Treatment of Subepithelial Infiltrates Related with Adenoviral Keratoconjunctivitis

Harun Cakmak*, Mehmet Ozbagcivan, Tolga Kocaturk and Sema Oruc Dundar
Department of Ophthalmology, Adnan Menderes University Medical Faculty, Aydın, Turkey
Corresponding Author : Harun Cakmak, M.D
Assistant Professor
Department of Ophthalmology
Adnan Menderes University Medical Faculty
Merkez Kampus Kepez Mevkii, 09010, Aytepe, Aydın, Turkey
Tel: 00905444400626
Fax: 00902562144086
E-mail: [email protected]
Received March 24, 2013; Accepted April 12, 2013; Published April 15, 2013
Citation: Cakmak H, Ozbagcivan M, Kocaturk T, Dundar SO (2013) Effectiveness of 0.05% Cyclosporine in the Treatment of Subepithelial Infiltrates Related with Adenoviral Keratoconjunctivitis. J Clin Case Rep 3:268. doi:10.4172/2165-7920.1000268
Copyright: © 2013 Cakmak H, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Visit for more related articles at Journal of Clinical Case Reports

Abstract

Adenoviral keratoconjunctivitis (AK) has a wide spectrum of duration and clinical manifestations. Conjunctival infection with adenovirus is the most common external ocular infection worldwide and is highly contagious, sometimes appearing in epidemics. After an incubation period of 2 to 14 days, symptoms of tearing and itching along with findings of conjunctival edema and hyperemia with or without conjunctival pseudomembranes can appear in 1 eye, and then in the fellow eye a few days later.

Introduction
Adenoviral keratoconjunctivitis (AK) has a wide spectrum of duration and clinical manifestations. Conjunctival infection with adenovirus is the most common external ocular infection worldwide and is highly contagious, sometimes appearing in epidemics [1]. After an incubation period of 2 to 14 days, symptoms of tearing and itching along with findings of conjunctival edema and hyperemia with or without conjunctival pseudomembranes can appear in 1 eye, and then in the fellow eye a few days later [2].
Individual serotypes typically cause specific types of disease; thus, epidemic keratoconjunctivitis is usually due to serotypes 8, 19, and 37, follicular conjunctivitis to serotypes 3, 4 and 7 [3].
Keratitis that follows approximately 10 days after the onset of the follicular conjunctivitis, may present with the formation of Subepithelial Corneal Infiltrates (SEIs) usually bilaterally and often asymmetric [4].
CsA is a well-known immunosuppressant that has been used in the prevention of transplant rejection for decades. It is an immunomodulator that specifically inhibits CD4+ T-lymphocyte proliferation through the inhibition of interleukin-2 receptor expression and other T cell– dependent inflammatory mechanisms. CsA also has inhibitory effects on eosinophil and mast cell activation and the release of granule proteins, inflammatory mediators, and cytokines. Topical CsA has been used successfully in the treatment of Mooren ulcers, ulcerative keratitis associated with rheumatoid arthritis, Thygeson’s punctate keratitis, Keratoconjunctivitis Sicca (KCS), Vernal Keratoconjunctivitis (VKC), Atopic Keratoconjunctivitis (AKC), ligneous conjunctivitis and highrisk penetrating keratoplasty [5].
Case
A 30 year-old man who did not have any prior eye discomfort, was referred to hospital with complaints of blurred vision, foreign-body sensation, irritation and photophobia in his left eye. He was on topical moxifloxacin HCl (Vigamox®), topical fusidic acid (Fucithalmic®) and topical ketorolac tromethamine 0.5% (Acular LS®) treatment. Because of the increase in the white spots on the cornea, the patient was referred to our clinic.
On examination, his best corrected vision was 20/20 in both eyes; intraocular pressures were within normal limits. According to slit-lamp examination, the right eye was normal but in the left eye dense corneal subepithelial deposits and conjunctival ciliary injections and chemosis were seen (Figure 1). Fundus examination was normal in both eyes. The medication of the patient was rearranged. Topical antibiotics and topical ketorolac tromethamine 0.5% eye drops were discontinued. Topical 0.05% cyclosporine (Restasis®) 3 times a day was started.
On the 4th day of the treatment, all symptoms were improved including blurred vision, foreign-body sensation, irritation, and photophobia. Corneal subepithelial deposits had disappeared; conjunctival ciliary injection and chemosis both were decreased (Figure 2). His medication was continued.
On the 7th day of the treatment no subepithelial deposits, no conjunctival ciliary injection and no chemosis were seen (Figure 3). All medications were stopped on the 14th day. From now on the has’t has any complaints about his eyes.
Discussion
AK may cause serious sight-threatening complications related with dense subepithelial deposits. These subepithelial deposits may be permanent and result in visual impairment.
Although AK is not blinding, SEI in the visual axis may cause serious reduction of visual acuity. SEIs may show persistancy for months to years.
SEIs caused by adenoviral infection are a common chronic ocular condition that typically presents with significant patient symptomatology [3]. Long-term topical steroid use is usually effective but may be associated with side effects. Laibson et al. showed that topical corticostreoid treatment was proven to prevent SEI [6].
Okumus et al. showed promising results with 0.5% CsA in steroid resistant cases [7]. In addition, 2% and 0.5% CsA in a mouse model have been shown to reduce the formation of SEI [8]. In a retrospective study, seven patients with corneal SEIs unresponsive to steroids were treated with CsA. Because of the side effects of corticosteroids in adenoviral keratoconjunctivitis, instead of corticosteroids, it was reported that CsA could be used [9].
Topical CsA has proved useful for subjective improvement of patients with post-adenoviral infiltrates in the retrospective case series by Levinger et al. [10] However, in this series, no improvement in visual acuity was observed. In addition to Hillenkamp et al. [4] found topical CsA didn’t prove useful for decreasing the incidence of postadenoviral infiltrates.
Finally, the evidence from this single case is insufficient for proposing the recommendation that topical CsA should be the first line of treatment of post-adenoviral infiltrates. In order to prevent the long-term complications of corticosteroids, topical CsA can be used instead of steroids. We believe that this treatment may benefit many patients with corneal infiltrates related AK around the world. This interesting hypothesis should be proven through a randomised clinical trial of topical CsA versus topical corticotherapy for post-adenoviral infiltrates.
References










Figures at a glance

Figure Figure Figure
Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3
Select your language of interest to view the total content in your interested language
Post your comment

Share This Article

Relevant Topics

Article Usage

  • Total views: 12737
  • [From(publication date):
    April-2013 - Dec 10, 2019]
  • Breakdown by view type
  • HTML page views : 8895
  • PDF downloads : 3842
Top