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Effects of Employee Selection Process on Productivity in the Public and Private Sectors: A Case of Benue State

Onyeaghala OH* and Hyacinth MI

Department of Business Administration, Federal University Wukari, State, Nigeria

*Corresponding Author:
Onyeaghala
Department of Business Administration
Federal University Wukari, State, Nigeria
Tel: 2347031866211
E-mail: [email protected]

Received date: November 01, 2016; Accepted date: November 10, 2016; Published date: November 30, 2016

Citation: Onyeaghala OH, Hyacinth MI (2016) Effects of Employee Selection Process on Productivity in the Public and Private Sectors: A Case of Benue State. Bus Eco J 7:273. doi: 10.4172/2151-6219.1000273

Copyright: © 2016 Onyeaghala OH, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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Abstract

This study examines the effect of selection process on employee productivity in private and public sectors. Selection process is the criterion or explanatory variable whereas employee productivity is the antecedence or predictor variable. The study employed the survey design and questionnaire was used for data collection. Content validity and face validity were conducted to validate the instrument. A test-re-test reliability method was applied to ascertain reliability of the instrument and result showed an acceptable reliability coefficient. Data was generated from 216 respondents randomly drawn from a private and public organization in Makurdi, Benue State. Data were presented using tables, frequencies and percentages while the research hypotheses were tested using independent t-test analytical tool, aided by Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). The findings of the study revealed that, there is a significant difference between the selection process employed by the private and public sector organizations and the productivity they achieved by employing such selection process. It was also revealed that the factors influencing selection process in private and public sector organizations are similar. The study therefore recommends that, for both the private and public sector organizations to have healthy and suitable employees capable of achieving high productivity, they should devise a formal and logical selection process and consistently adhere to it without deviations. Also, they should always consider factors such as educational qualification, experience, location, etc., with no iota of bias, discrimination or favouritism during their selection process.

Keywords

Seven-point plan; Five-fold grading scheme; Disposition; Competitive strength adjustment

Introduction

The highly competitive and changing market of today requires quick and effective response. To be highly competitive, managers are realizing that the success of a business enterprise depends largely on the efficient selection of its Human Resources [1]. In human resource management, recruitment is the foundation for selection process [2]. Recruitment involves using application forms, resumes, interview schedules, employment and skills tests and reference checks to evaluate and screen job candidates [3]. Selection is the process of choosing from numerous applicants a suitable candidate to fill a job position. Selection in modern organizations can be said to be anchored or rooted on the Biblical saying that; many are called but a few are chosen”.

Selection is among the major functions of human resource department and as well an important first step towards creating the competitive strength and the strategic advantage for the organization. Searching for, and obtaining potential job candidates in sufficient numbers and quality and at the right cost is the best way for organization to get the most appropriate people to fill its job positions.

Productivity is one of the most challenging issues related to manufacturing and service organizations. Productivity usually relates to efficiency (how many valuable resources are used relative to what it produced) and effectiveness (measuring the ability of the manufacturing or service process to produce the desired result). This can be achieved if the selection process of an organization is devoid of nepotism and chance to meet the challenging constraints affecting the organization [4].

The importance of adhering to selection process is vital for organizational competitiveness and a failure to approach this function effectively will result to selection of wrong and underperforming employees which will in turn lead to low level of productivity [5].

Statement of the problem

The success of organizations depends on the calibre of the manpower that steers their day to day affairs. When the right person is selected, the productivity of the selected person tends to be high or meet the standard set by the organization. Though it is the wish of every organization to attract the best human resource in order to channel their collective efforts into excellent performance, unconventional selection practices can mar attainment of Organizational objectives.

It is regrettably, many organizations in Nigeria ignore standard selection programmes, this makes selection of personnel inundated with myriad of unethical practices; bias, discrimination and favouritism. It is obvious that hiring someone who does not fit into a particular job or who does not suit the culture of the organization may bring about disciplinary problems, disputes, absenteeism, high labour turnover, fraud, poor service delivery to customers, suppressed creativity, innovations and learning, inability to cope with new challenges or changes, non-competitiveness, poor quality production, waste of organization’s money, time and other valuable resources. All these may culminate to low level of organizational productivity. It is against the backdrop of the above vexing problems, that this study was designed.

Objectives of the Study

The major objective of this study is to determine the effect of selection process on employee productivity in the private and public sectors.

The specific objectives are:

i. To ascertain if there is significant difference between the selection process employed by the private and public sectors.

ii. To determine if the selection process employed by the private and public sectors helps them to achieve productivity.

iii. To examine if there is significant difference between the factors influencing selection process in private and public sectors.

Research questions

To guide achievement of the aforementioned objectives, the following research questions were developed:

i. Is there significant difference between the selection processes employed by the private and public sectors?

ii. Does the selection process employed by the private and public sectors help them to achieve productivity?

iii. Is there significant difference between the factors influencing selection process in private and public sectors?

Research hypotheses

Following the problems identified and the objectives of this study, the following null hypotheses were formulated.

H01: There is no significant difference between the selection processes employed by the private and public sectors.

H02: The selection process employed by the private and public sectors do not help them to achieve productivity.

H03: There is no significant difference between the factors influencing selection process in private and public sectors.

Significance of the study

This study would benefit the following:

To the human resource (HR) managers of organizations, it would help them to know how to attract qualified and suitable applicants to apply for job openings in the organization.

The study would also benefit employees because, selection process when appropriately adhered to ensures selection of qualified and suitable candidates.

In addition, it will enhance government and general public participation in addressing the problems of human resource management in public and private sectors.

The study would also be relevant to future researchers as it will serve as a guide and reference material for further studies.

Conceptual Framework

Concept of selection

Selection is the process of collecting and evaluating information about an individual in order to extend an offer of employment [6]. Stoner, et al. [3], view selection as the process of gathering information for the purposes of evaluating and deciding who should be hired for the short and long term interests of the individual and the organization. Selection is choosing from numerous applicants a suitable candidate to fill a post. It is a decision-making activity and the psychological calculation of suitability of the candidate [7].

Selection differs from recruitment, although these are two phases of the employment process. While recruitment is considered to be a positive process as it motivates more candidates to apply for the job by creating a pool of applicants. Selection is a negative process as the inappropriate candidates are rejected in the process. Recruitment precedes selection in the staffing process [8].

Employee selection process

Selection process consists of various steps/stages, according to Pita [9] and Grobler, et al. [8], the steps are:

• Carry out human resources planning, job analysis, description and specification.

• Application blank/soliciting for/receiving application.

• Short listing of qualified candidates and screening out the unqualified applicants.

• Arranging for and conducting preliminary interview or initial screening.

• Employment test designed to find out how well an individual can do a job.

• Checking of reference source.

• Medical/physical examinations to ensure that the individual is in good health.

• The selection decision.

• Final approval/placement/engagement.

Factors influencing selection process

Selection of employees depends on many factors as illustrated in Figure 1, below.

business-economics-influencing-selection-process

Figure 1: Factors Influencing Selection Process and Relationship with Employee Productivity. Source: Researcherâs Conceptualization.

Figure 1, highlights factors such as; experience, educational achievements, salary requirements, location, skills, sex and so forth that can be considered in a selection process. All these factors can also affect the productivity of employees in both the private and public sectors.

Concept of productivity

Productivity is simply the amount of output derived from per unit of input. It is a way to compare the cost of something to its benefit. Productivity refers to an amount of physical output to its related labour input [10].

Organization productivity usually relates to efficiency and effectiveness. Efficiency and effectiveness are two words associated with organizational productivity. Efficiency is the degree to which a system or component of a system perform its designated functions with minimum consumption of resources. Efficiency is doing things right. It is generally measured by a ratio of outputs produced to resources used [10]. While, effectiveness is the degree to which a goal is achieved and suggests a quality of output measurement against a defined standard [10]. It means doing the right thing.

Productivity in a manufacturing industry usually relates to “how many valuable resources are used relative to what are produced (efficiency) and the ability of the manufacturing process to produce the desired result (effectiveness). In order to achieve maximum productivity, organizations must possess qualified personnel, who are committed and dedicated to service delivery. The road map to qualified personnel in any organization is determined by effectiveness of the selection process. Ineffective selection process predisposes organizations to the following consequences according to Michael [2]

i. Inability to cope with new challenges or changes.

ii. Non-competitiveness.

iii. High rate of employee turnover as a result of incessant layoff of workers.

iv. Lack of service excellence.

v. Poor quality production.

vi. Waste of organization’s resources such as money, time and other valuable resources.

vii. Poor productivity such as low return on investment, unsatisfied customers.

viii. Under performance of employees.

ix. Business failure.

Theoretical Framework

This study is rooted on the seven-point plan of human attributes as developed by Alec Rodgers (1952) and the five-fold grading scheme by Munro Fraser cited in Ukpafe, [11]. These theories provide good framework for selecting job candidates.

According to Alec Rodgers, the aim of the seven point plan is to provide a rough sketch of a scientifically defensible ‘system’ for the assessment of occupational potentialities. It is intended for both personnel selection and for vocational guidance purposes. The plan is intended to be used to interpret a job analysis in human terms and to set standards against which individual candidates may be measured. The attributes are as presented below:

i. Physical Make-up: Has the applicant any defects of health or physique that may be of occupational importance?

ii. Attainments: What types of education has he had? How well can he do educationally?

iii. General Intelligence: How much general intelligence can he display?

iv. Special Aptitudes: Has he any marked mechanical aptitude, manual dexterity, facility in the use of words or figures, talent for drawing or music?

v. Interest: To what extent is his interest intelligent? Practically constructional? Physically active? Social? Artistic?

vi. Disposition: How acceptable does he make him-self to other people? Does he influence others? Is he steady and dependable? Is he self-reliant?

vii. Circumstances: What are his domestic circumstances? What do the other members of the family do for a living? Are there any special openings available to him?

The five-fold grading scheme propounded by Munro Fraser (1953) states measures as:

i. Impact on Others – Physical make-up, appearances, speech and manner.

ii. Acquired Qualifications – Education, vocational training, and work experience.

iii. Innate Abilities – Natural quickness of comprehension and aptitude for learning.

iv. Motivation – The kinds of goals set by the individual, his or her consistency and determination in following them up, and success in achieving them.

v. Adjustment – Emotional stability, ability to stand up to stress and ability to get on with people.

Review of Empirical Literature

Joy, et al. [12], conduct a study on the impact of recruitment and selection criteria on organizational performance which adopted a survey research design. Findings showed that selection criteria have significant effect on organization’s performance. It was equally found that the more objective the selection criteria, the better the organization’s performance.

Mufu [13] carried out a research on recruitment and selection in the National Oil Refinery Company, in Cameroon. The research design adopted was descriptive survey. The result showed that company recruitment was based on a befitting personality and competencies of the candidates.

Mavis [14], conducted a study on “employee recruitment and selection practices in the construction industry in Ashanti Region”. The study used a cross sectional survey design for data collection and analysis. This study revealed that the recruitment and selection practice of firms has a relationship with their performances.

Raymond and Caroline [15], carried out an investigation on factors influencing employee selection in the public service in Kenya. The study used a descriptive design and it was found that a strong positive relationship exists between employee selection and the public service. In addition, employee selection mechanisms such as academic qualifications, background checks, work experience and personal characteristics affect pre-employment process.

Ukpafe [11] conducted a study on the effect of recruitment and selection process on the productivity of manufacturing firms in Enugu State, Nigeria. The study adopted survey design. The findings of the study were that: underperformance of employees and inability to cope with new challenges or changes had a negative influence on organizational productivity. The study equally, found that there is a positive relationship between recruitment and selection process and productivity.

Titilola [16] carried out a research on the effect of selection process on employee turnover in Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) in Sunnyside, Pretoria”. Descriptive survey design was employed in the study and findings revealed that: factors influencing selection process in SMEs were relevant experience, education, relocation and salary requirement.

Djabatey [17] conducted a study on recruitment and selection practices of organisations, a case of HFC Bank (GH) Ltd. The study adopted a descriptive design and findings revealed that factors such as work experience, academic qualifications, interviews and test used in selecting employees makes the selecting and recruitment practices very effective.

Ulasi [18] undertook a research on “HRM and productivity in Nigerian public sector”. Descriptive survey design was adopted. The major findings of the study revealed that; recruitment and selection processes affect the productivity of public sector workers.

Ikwesi [19] studied the effects of recruitment and selection procedures on the efficiency of the public service in Nigeria, descriptive survey design was applied and the major findings revealed that: recruitment and selection procedures in public service are not strictly followed; politicization and other informal processes dominate the established recruitment and selection procedures. Merit do not always count to secure employment in public service rather the use of federal character, quota system, indigene-ship, son of soil syndrome, etc. are mostly considered. Also, there was an established relationship between inefficiency of the Nigerian public service and weak recruitment and selection processes.

A related study was conducted by Nicole (2007) on the impact of recruitment and selection within the department of Economic Development and Tourism in the provisional Government of the Cape”. A descriptive survey design was adopted for the study. Findings from this study revealed that the decision of an employee with the department depends on the efficiency and effectiveness of recruitment and selection process, and the recruitment and selection process affects service delivery.

Methodology

This study was carried out in Nigerian Breweries Plc. (N.B.P), Makurdi, Benue State and Government Printing Corporation (B.P.C), Makurdi. The survey design method was adopted and a researcherdesigned questionnaire was used to elicit responses from respondents.

A population size of 392 employees was used in the study. Nigerian Breweries Plc., Makurdi with182 employees which represent 46% of the population and Benue State Government Printing Corporation, Makurdi has 210 employees which gave 54% of the population.

Since the population under this study is a definite one, the researcher used the Taro Yamane formula to obtain a sample size of 263 (125 from Nigerian Breweries Plc and 138 from Benue State Government Printing Corporation respectively).

The research instrument was validated through face validity and content validity. The test-re-test reliability method was used to ascertain the reliability of the instrument and it was deemed reliable and considered appropriate for use.

Data presentation and analysis was carried out using tables, frequencies and percentages. Independent t-test was used as the statistical tool to test the hypotheses aided by Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) version 20.0.

Decision rule

Reject Null Hypothesis if p-value is less than 0.05 (p < 0.05) and accept Null Hypothesis if p-value is greater than 0.05 (p > 0.05) (Table 1).

Data presentation and analyses

From the Table 1 above, on whether the organization strictly use application form(s) for selection, 40 respondents representing 36% strongly agreed, 36 (32%) agreed, 2 (2%) undecided, 19 (19%) disagreed and 14 respondents (13%) strongly disagreed. On whether interview is used for their selection, 48 respondents (43%) strongly agreed, 30 (27%) agreed, 24 (22%) disagreed and 9 respondents (8%) strongly disagreed. On whether the organization’s selection process is based on skills and abilities of the applicants, 29 respondents (26%) strongly agreed, 43 (39%) agreed, 8 (7%) undecided, 4 (4%) disagreed and 27 respondents (24%) strongly agreed. On the issue of selection based on personality test, 13 respondents representing 12% strongly agreed, 51 (46%) agreed, 3(3%) undecided, 26 (23%) disagreed and 18 respondents (16%) strongly disagreed. On whether all the selection processes mentioned above are used for their selection, 22 respondents (20%) strongly agreed, 36 (32%) agreed, 29 (26%) disagreed and 24 respondents (22%) strongly disagreed (Table 2).

S/N Statement Number of response and Percentage (%)
    SA A U D SD Total
i. My selection into this organization was strictly based on application form(s). 40 (36) 36 (32) 2 (2) 19 (17) 14 (13) 111 (100)
ii. Employment interview was the tool used for my selection in this organization. 48 (43) 30 (27)   - 24 (22) 9 (8) 111 (100)
iii. Our organization’s selection process is based on skills and abilities test for the applicants. 29 (26) 43 (39) 8 (7) 4 (4) 27 (24) 111 (100)
iv. The selection process of our organization is strictly based on personality test. 13 (12) 51 (46) 3 (3) 26 (23) 18 (16) 111 (100)
v. All the above selection processes were used during employee selection process in our organization. 22 (20) 36 (32)   - 29 (26) 24 (22) 111 (100)

Table 1: Selection process employed by the private sector organizations.

S/N Statement Number of response and Percentage (%)
    SA A U D SD Total
i. My selection into this organization was strictly based on application form(s). 4 (4) 21 (20) 11 (10) 44 (42) 25 (24) 105 (100)
ii. Employment interview was the tool used for my selection in this organization. 15 (14) 18 (17) 1 (1) 50 (48) 21 (20) 105 (100)
iii. Our organization’s selection process is based on skills and abilities test for the applicants. 9 (9) 19 (18) 4 (4) 55 (52) 18 (17) 105 (100)
iv. The selection process of our organization is strictly based on personality test. 4 (4) 19 (18) 3 (3) 58 (55) 21 (20) 105 (100)
v. All the above selection processes were used during employees’ selection process in our organization. 23 (22) 22 (21) 7 (6) 29 (28) 24 (23) 105 (100)

Table 2: Selection Process employed by the Public Sector Organizations.

From the Table 2 above, on whether the organization strictly uses application form(s) for their selection, 4 respondents representing 4% strongly agreed, 21(20%) agreed, 11 (10%) undecided, 44 (42%) disagreed and 25 respondents (24%) strongly disagreed. On whether interview is used for their selection, 15 respondents (14%) strongly agreed, 18 (17%) agreed, 1(1%) undecided, 50 (48%) disagreed and 21 respondents (20%) strongly disagreed.

On whether the organization’s selection process is based on skills and abilities of the applicants, 9 respondents (9%) strongly agreed, 19 (18%) agreed, 4(4%) undecided, 55 (52%) disagreed and 18 respondents (17%) strongly agreed. On the issue of selection based on personality test, 4 respondents representing 4% strongly agreed, 19 respondents (18%) agreed, 3 respondents (3%) undecided, 58 respondents (55%) disagreed and 21 respondents (20%) strongly disagreed. On whether all the selection processes mentioned above are used for their employee selection, 23 respondents (22%) strongly agreed, 22 (21%) agreed, 7 (6%) undecided, 29 (28%) disagreed and 24 respondents (23%) strongly disagreed (Table 3).

S/N Statement Number of response and Percentage (%)
    SA A U D SD Total
i. The output of the selected employees equal to the input. 20
(18)
56
(51)
6
(5)
16
(14)
13
(12)
111
(100)
ii. The selected employees produced up to the minimum standard set by the organization. 12 (11) 18 (16)   - 59 (53) 22 (20) 111 (100)
iii. Sales volume of the entire organization increase after selecting new employees. 16 (14) 67 (61) 4 (4) 7 (6) 17 (15) 111 (100)
iv. The organizational sales exceed cost of sales after selecting employees. 22 (20) 54 (50) 2 (2) 24 (22) 9 (8) 111 (100)
v. The organizational market share increased after the selecting new employees. 10 (10) 30 (27) 34 (30) 23 (20) 14 (13) 111 (100)

Table 3: If the Selection Process Employed by the Private Sector Organizations helps them to Achieve Organizational Productivity

From the Table 3 above, on whether the output of selected employees equal input, 20 respondents representing 18% strongly agreed, 56(51%) agreed, 6 (5%) undecided, 16 (14%) disagreed and 13 respondents (12%) strongly disagreed. On whether the selected employees produce up to the minimum standard set by the organization, 12 respondents (11%) strongly agreed, 18 (16%) agreed, 59 (53%) disagreed and 22 respondents (20%) strongly disagreed. On whether the organization’s sales volume increase after selecting new employees, 16 respondents (14%) strongly agreed, 67 (61%) agreed, 4(4%) undecided, 7 (6%) disagreed and 17 respondents (15%) strongly agreed. On whether the organizational sales exceed cost of sale after selecting employees, 22 respondents representing 20% strongly agreed, 54 (50%) agreed, 2(2%) undecided, 24 (22%) disagreed and 9 respondents (8%) strongly disagreed. On whether the organization’s market share increased after selecting new employees, 10 respondents (10%) strongly agreed, 30 (27%) agreed, 34(30%) undecided, 23 (20%) disagreed and 14respondents (13%) strongly disagreed (Table 4).

S/N Statement Number of response and Percentage (%)
    SA A U D SD Total
i. The output of the selected employees equal to the input. 7
(7)
40
(38)
15
(14)
21
(20)
22
(21)
105
(100)
ii. The selected employees produced up to the minimum standard set by the organization. 16 (15) 21 (20) 4 (4) 41 (39) 23 (22) 105 (100)
iii. Sales volume of the entire organization increase after selecting new employees. 14 (13) 39 (38) 11 (10) 26 (25) 15 (14) 105 (100)
iv. The organizational sales exceed cost of sales after selecting employees. 21 (20) 40 (38) 5 (5) 22 (21) 17 (16) 105 (100)
v. The organizational market share increased after the selecting new employees. 15 (14) 18 (17) 10 (10) 35 (33) 27 (26) 105 (100)

Table 4: If the Selection Process Employed by the Public Sector Organizations helps them to Achieve Organizational Productivity.

From the Table 4 above, on whether the output of selected employees equal input, 7 respondents representing 7% strongly agreed, 40 (38%) agreed, 15 (14%) undecided, 21 (20%) disagreed and 22 respondents (21%) strongly disagreed. On whether the selected employees produce up to the minimum standard set by the organization, 16 respondents (15%) strongly agreed, 21 (20%) agreed, 4 (4%) undecided, 41 (39%) disagreed and 23 respondents (22%) strongly disagreed. On whether the organization’s sales volume increase after selecting new employees, 14 respondents (13%) strongly agreed, 39 (38%) agreed, 11 (10%) undecided, 26 (25%) disagreed and 15 respondents (14%) strongly agreed. On whether the organizational sales exceed cost of sale after selecting employees, 21 respondents representing 20% strongly agreed, 40 (38%) agreed, 5 (5%) undecided, 22 (21%) disagreed and 17 respondents (16%) strongly disagreed. On whether the organization’s market share increased after selecting new employees, 15 respondents (14%) strongly agreed, 18(17%) agreed, 10 (10%) undecided, 35 (33%) disagreed and 27 respondents (26%) strongly disagreed (Table 5).

S/N Statement Number of response and Percentage (%)
    SA A U D SD Total
i. Educational achievement does affect our organization’s selection process. 29
(26)
43
(39)
2
(2)
21
(19)
16
(14)
111
(100)
ii. Experience was one of the criteria considered during my pre-employment process. 44 (39) 35 (32) 6 (5) 14 (13) 12 (11) 111 (100)
iii. The selection process I undergo before employment was based on my location. 23 (21) 52 (47)   - 19 (17) 17 (15) 111 (100)
iv. The selection process of this organization is not characterized with discrimination and favouritism. 34 (31) 42 (38) 3 (3) 21 (18) 11 (10) 111 (100)
v. Employees’ selection criteria based on sex is part of our organization’s selection process. 32 (29) 56 (50)   - 14 (13) 9 (8) 111 (100)

Table 5: Factors Influencing Selection Process in Private Sector Organizations

From the Table 5 above, on whether educational achievement affects organization’s selection process, 29 respondents representing 26% strongly agreed, 43 (39%) agreed, 2 (2%) undecided, 21 (19%) disagreed and 16 respondents (14%) strongly disagreed. On whether experience is also a criterion for their pre-employment process, 44 respondents (39%) strongly agreed, 35 (32%) agreed, 6 (5%) undecided, 14 (13%) disagreed and 12 respondents (11%) strongly disagreed. On whether location is considered in their selection process, 23 respondents (21%) strongly agreed, 52 (47%) agreed, 19 (17%) disagreed and 17 respondents (15%) strongly agreed. On whether the selection process in their organization is characterized with discrimination and favouritism, 34 respondents representing 31% strongly agreed, 42 (38%) agreed, 3(3%) undecided, 21 (18%) disagreed and 11 respondents (10%) strongly disagreed. On whether sex (gender) difference form part of their selection process, 32 respondents (29%) strongly agreed, 56 (27%) agreed, 14 (13%) disagreed and 9 respondents (8%) strongly disagreed (Table 6).

S/N Statement Number of response and Percentage (%)
    SA A U D SD Total
i. Educational achievement does affect our organization’s selection process. 36
(34)
44
(42)
6
(6)
14
(13)
5
(5)
105
(100)
ii. Experience was one of the criteria considered during my pre-employment process. 11 (10) 14 (13) 15 (14) 39 (38) 26 (25) 105 (100)
iii. The selection process I undergo before employment was based on my location. 22 (21) 47 (45) 12 (11) 17 (16) 7 (7) 105 (100)
iv. The selection process of this organization is not characterized with discrimination and favouritism. 5 (5) 14 (13) 1 (1) 60 (57) 25 (24) 105 (100)
v. Employees’ selection criteria based on sex is part of our organization’s selection process. 7 (7) 41 (39) 4 (4) 36 (34) 17 (16) 105 (100)

Table 6: Factors Influencing Selection Process in Public Sector Organizations

From the Table 6 above, on whether educational achievement affects organization’s selection process, 36 respondents representing 34% strongly agreed, 44 (42%) agreed, 6 (6%) undecided, 14 (13%) disagreed and 5respondents (5%) strongly disagreed. On whether experience is also a criterion for their pre-employment process, 11 respondents (10%) strongly agreed, 14 (13%) agreed, 15 (14%) undecided, 39(38%) disagreed and 26 respondents (25%) strongly disagreed. On whether location is considered in their selection process, 22 respondents (21%) strongly agreed, 47(45%) agreed, 12 (11%) undecided, 17(16%) disagreed and 7 respondents (7%) strongly disagreed. On whether the selection process in their organization is not characterized with discrimination and favouritism, 5 respondents representing 5% strongly agreed, 14(13%) agreed, 1 (1%) undecided, 60 (57%) disagreed and 25 respondents (24%) strongly disagreed. On whether sex (gender) difference form part of their selection process, 7 respondents (7%) strongly agreed, 41(39%) agreed, 4 (4%) undecided, 36(34%) disagreed and 17 respondents (16%) strongly disagreed.

Test of hypothesis one

H0: There is no significant difference between the selection processes employed by the private and public sectors (Table 7).

  Levene's Test for Equality of Variances t-test for Equality of Means
F Sig. T Df Sig.
(2-tailed)
Mean Difference Std. Error Difference 95% Confidence Interval of the Difference
Lower Upper
Equal variances assumed 7.591 .006 -2.975 214 .003 -.383 .129 -.637 -.129
Equal variances not assumed     -2.959 201.926 .003 -.383 .130 -.639 -.128

Table 7: Test of Hypothesis One Independent Samples Test

Result showed that t (201.926)=-2.959, p=0.003. Since the p-value (0.003) is less than 0.05 (0.003 < 0.05), the null hypothesis is rejected and the alternative hypothesis accepted.

Testing hypothesis two

H0: The selection process employed by the private and public sectors do not help them to achieve productivity (Table 8).

  Levene's Test for Equality of Variances t-test for Equality of Means
F Sig. T Df Sig.
(2-tailed)
Mean Difference Std. Error Difference 95% Confidence Interval of the Difference
Lower Upper
Equal variances assumed 4.174 .042 6.106 214 .001 .959 .157 .649 1.268
Equal variances not assumed     6.129 212.658 .001 .959 .156 .650 1.267

Table 8: Testing Hypothesis Two Independent Samples Test

Result showed that t (212.658)=6.129, p=0.001. The null hypothesis is rejected because the p-value (0.001) is less than 0.05 (0.001 < 0.05). This implies that the alternative hypothesis is accepted.

Testing hypothesis three

H0: There is no significant difference between the factors influencing selection process in private and public sectors (Table 9).

  Levene's Test for Equality of Variances t-test for Equality of Means
F Sig. T Df Sig.
(2-tailed)
Mean Difference Std. Error Difference 95% Confidence Interval of the Difference
Lower Upper
Equal variances assumed 6.884 .009 .310 214 .758 .043 .138 -.229 .315
Equal variances not assumed     .308 203.773 .758 .043 .139 -.230 .316

Table 9: Testing Hypothesis Three Independent Samples Test.

Result showed that t (203.773)=0.308, p=0.758. The result for the above analysis fails to support the rejection of the null hypothesis because the p-value (0.758) is greater than 0.05 (0.758 > 0.05). Therefore, the null hypothesis is accepted and alternative hypothesis rejected.

Discussions of Findings

In the test of Hypothesis one, the SPSS analysis gave a p-value of 0.003 which is less than the minimum value of 0.05 null hypothesis acceptance levels. Therefore, the null hypothesis is rejected and the alternative hypothesis which states that there is a significant difference between the selection process employed by the private and public sectors is accepted. This confirms the view of Ikwesi [19], who asserts that, the selection practices adopted by private sector are not exactly as those adopted by the public sectors.

In the test of Hypothesis two, the SPSS analysis gave a p-value of 0.001 which is less than the minimum value of 0.05 null hypothesis acceptance levels. Therefore, the null hypothesis is rejected and the alternative hypothesis which states that the selection process employed by the private and public sectors helps them to achieve productivity is accepted. This is in line with the view of Ukpafe [11], who established a positive relationship between selection process and productivity. Furthermore, this finding is also in line with the views of Ulasi [18], and Djabatey [17].

Hypothesis three was tested and the SPSS analysis gives a p-value of 0.758 which is greater than the minimum value of 0.05 null hypothesis acceptance levels. In this case, the null hypothesis is accepted and the alternative hypothesis is rejected. This implies that there is no variability or difference between the factors influencing selection process in both private and public sectors. This is in confirmation of the views of John et al. [15], who said that employee selection mechanisms such as academic qualifications, background checks, work experience and personal characteristics affects pre-employment process of organizations. It equally concurs with the findings of Titilola [16], which indicates that the factors influencing selection process in SMEs are relevant experience, education, relocation and salary requirement [18-22].

Conclusion

Based on the findings, we conclude that:

1. There is a significant difference between the selection process employed by the private and public sectors.

2. The selection processes employed by both the private and public sectors do help them to achieve productivity but the extents to which they achieve productivity vary from each other.

3. There is no significant difference between the factors influencing selection process in both the private and public sectors.

Recommendations

Based on the findings, the following recommendations were made:

For both the private and public sector organizations to have healthy and suitable employees capable of achieving high productivity, they should devise a formal and logical selection process and consistently adhere to it without deviations. Also, they should always consider factors such as experience, educational qualification, location, etc., with no iota of bias, discrimination or favouritism during their selection process.

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