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Emission Inventory for Criteria Pollutants of a Thermal Power Plant | OMICS International
ISSN: 2165-784X
Journal of Civil & Environmental Engineering
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Emission Inventory for Criteria Pollutants of a Thermal Power Plant

Anand Kumar Varma S* and Srimurali M
Department of Civil Engineering, S.V. University, Tirupati, AP, India
Corresponding Author : Anand Kumar VS
Research scholar
Department of Civil Engineering
SV University, Tirupati, AP, India
Tel: 09585971901
E mail: [email protected]
Received December 19, 2013; Accepted January 07, 2014; Published January 14, 2014
Citation: Anand Kumar Varma S, Srimurali M (2014) Emission Inventory for Criteria Pollutants of a Thermal Power Plant. J Civil Environ Eng 4:135. doi: 10.4172/2165-784X.1000135
Copyright: © 2014 Anand Kumar Varma S, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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Abstract

The emissions inventory is the basic requirement for modeling of air quality, environmental monitoring and impact assessment. For any air pollution control program emission inventory is a key component. Emission inventory should be developed for acquiring emission data of significant amount. Fulfillment of air emissions inventory for a power plant identifies the source of air pollution. The air pollutants released from the entire source are measured to estimate the emission rates and emission concentrations. In the present study, we made an emission inventory for criteria pollutants of Suspended Particulate Materials (SPM), sulfur oxides (SOx), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and carbon monoxide (CO) from stationary sources of a thermal power plant. Fuel consumption and emission database was developed for Rayalaseema thermal power project (1050 MW). Emission factors are calculated for the pollutants. The project lies on latitude of 14°42’52”N and longitude of 78°27’29”E located at VV Reddy Nagar, Kadapa, Andhra Pradesh, India. The methods used for inventory presentation are Manufacturers’ design specifications and direct measurement. Results are compared from two methods.

Keywords
Thermal power plant; Emission inventory; Criteria pollutants; Modeling; Impact assessment
Introduction
Emissions inventory
The emissions inventory [1] is the primary task to identify the various sources of pollution from the particular project. It will give the physical and geographical conditions of the source. More reliable data can be produced regarding emission rates and emission concentrations. Systematic procedure is provided for emission inventory as follows:
Source identification
For the development of emission inventory [2] clear understanding of the project is essential. Physical site visit of the project and complete study on processing is essential to locate the required air pollution sources. Detailed review of maps or engineering drawings of the project site is essential; this can be obtained from review of literature on the industry. The sources of air pollution at the project identified the following:
• Release Type
• Location
• Emission of criteria air pollutants
Release type
Point sources, five stacks are identified with 220 m. tall and 4 m. diameter at the exit. These stacks emit flue gases into the atmosphere forcefully above ground level [3]. These are considered as tall point sources [2].
Wake: Affected Point Sources
There are no nearby buildings or other structures to interfere with the plume rise and dispersion. The point source is absolutely wake free source.
Location
The site of Rayalaseema Thermal Power Project [4] at Kalamala is located at a distance of 15 Km from Yerraguntla, 20 Km from Proddutur, 45 Km from Jammalamadugu and 8 Km from Muddanur railway station which is situated on Chennai-Guntakal Broad gauge line. The project site is at 180 m above MSL and is far away from any forest boundary. It lies on latitude of 14°42’52”N and longitude of 78°27’29”E. The project is located in an area of 1650 Hectares. The following Figure 1 depicts the location of the power plant where the study is carried out.
RTPP: Background
Andhra Pradesh state electricity board set up the Thermal power station at Kalamala with an installed capacity of 1050 Mw. It is established with five units under three stages. Each unit generates 210 mw of power. Table 1 gives the basic details regarding the capacity of the plant.
Criteria air pollutants emitted
Criteria air pollutants [5] from the source are: Suspended Particulate Materials (SPM), sulfur oxides (SOx), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and carbon monoxide (CO) from stationary source of a thermal power plant. Ozone also produced as secondary pollutant from its precursors. All the pollutants produced are considered as photo toxicants [6]. They will show severe environmental impact on man, material, livestock and vegetation.
Methods for the Estimation of Emission Rates
There are number of methods [7] for the estimation of emission rate and emission concentration from each source. In the present investigation direct measurement, Manufacturer’s design specifications and Emission factors [5] are used for emission inventory.
Manufacturer’s design specifications
Manufacturer’s design specifications are developed from composition of Singareni coal to estimate the emission rates of air pollutants from identified sources. Here quality of coal is taken into consideration to estimate emission rates and emission concentrations.
Fuel (Coal)
RTPP is linked with Singareni Collieries Co., Ltd., for supply of coal. This company has a proven coal resource of around 4000 million tones with 70% extractability. This company is sufficient to produce 30000 MW of electricity for 25 years. Annual coal requirements are calculated on the basis of the following and presented in Table 2.
Coal consumption 137 Tph. per unit
Coal consumption for 5 units = 137 × 5 = 685 Tph.
Coal consumption for 5 units = 685 × 24 × 365 = 6000600 Tones
Coal combustion calculation results
The following Table 3 shows the results obtained from coal combustion calculated for the 685 Tons of coal per hour.
Direct measurement
In Rayalaseema thermal power project Emission rates and source release parameters are established from the results of source emission online flue gas monitoring system direct pc based automation system for monitoring & recording facility capable of monitoring O2, CO, SO2, NOx, CO2 gas, stack temperature, excess air, combustion efficiency system provided with all the required accessories as required install after economizer and near id fan, to make the fully functional.
Automatic flue gas sampling & filtration system, mounted in weather proof ip55 protected enclosure
SPM is estimated by gravimetric method.
Pollutant emission rates are directly measured from the stack by using continuous monitoring system [8]. All the parameters required for the presentation of emission inventory are measured directly at the source. This method is more appropriate and reliable in emission inventory [9]. Direct measurement includes all stack release parameters specified in Table 4.
Calculation of flue gas concentration for point sources
The equation used for the calculation of pollutant concentration released from a source is:
image (1)
Where:
Cp = the concentration of pollutant p emitted in mg/m3
ERp = the rate of emission of pollutant p in mg/s
FR = the flow rate of flue gas in m3/s
The emission inventory can be expressed in two types of emission concentrations:
1. Actual concentration [10] of a pollutant released from a source in mg/Am3. It is calculated from the measured gaseous volumetric flow rate (Am3/s) and measured emission rate (Table 5).
2. Actual pollutant concentration released from a source is corrected to the normal conditions in mg/Nm3 [10]. This is calculated using the gaseous volumetric flow rate corrected to normal conditions (dry, 273K, 101.3 KPa) (Table 5).
Total emission rates and concentrations from all stacks in Rayalaseema thermal power plant is presented in Table 6.
Emission Factors
An emission factor [5] is a value derived to calculate the emission of a pollutant throughout the process. These factors will give average value of available data of acceptable quality, and these are generally representing long-term averages of the source type. Emission factors are used when other information is not available. Emission factors for criteria pollutants of Rayalaseema Thermal Power Project are calculated [11] as follows:
Emission Factor (EF) for SPM = ER/Activity ....2 (Emission control 99.5%)
591.31/685 = 0.863
Annual emission rate (ER annual) = EF × Activity annual ...3
Annual emission rate (ER annual) = 0.863 × 6000600 = 5178 Tpy
Emission Factor (EF) for SO2 = ER/Activity ...4
3939.84/685 = 5.75
Annual emission rate (ER annual) = 5.75 × 6000600 = 34503 Tpy
Emission Factor (EF) for NOX = ER/Activity …..5
249.48/685 = 0.364
Annual emission rate (ER annual) = 0.364 × 6000600 = 2184 Tpy
Emission Factor (EF) for CO = ER/Activity …..6
13.176/685 = 0.019
Annual emission rate (ER annual) = 0.019 × 6000600 = 114 Tpy
The emission factors calculated can be used to quantify the emissions of various power plants using coal from Singareni Collieries Co., Ltd., depending on the activity.
Presentation of Emissions Inventory
Comparison of emission inventory by Manufacturers’ design specifications and direct measurements calculation results of total emission rates [7] of various combustion products are represented in Table 7.
Conclusion
This study provided all basic information and data required for air pollution modeling, and clearly described the details of site specific conditions. Emission rates of criteria pollutants and other combustion products are presented from two methods, Manufacturers’ design specifications and direct measurement. Direct measurement is more accurate methodology for the development of emission inventory for coal combustion thermal power plants.
In this emission inventory presentation the results observed from Manufacturers’ design specifications and direct measurement are comparatively equal. Emission rates provided can be applied for environmental modeling and for environmental impact assessment criteria. Emission factors also calculated for criteria pollutants for future estimations, if emission data is not available for that particular power project. Annual emission rates are provided from emission factors and annual activity.
References

Tables and Figures at a glance

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Table 1 Table 2 Table 3 Table 4
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Table 5 Table 6 Table 7

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