alexa Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals - Inducers of Epigenetic Gene Expression and Enhancers of Cell Death in Neurons | Open Access Journals
ISSN: 2155-9538
Journal of Bioengineering & Biomedical Science
Like us on:
Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700+ peer reviewed, Open Access Journals that operates with the help of 50,000+ Editorial Board Members and esteemed reviewers and 1000+ Scientific associations in Medical, Clinical, Pharmaceutical, Engineering, Technology and Management Fields.
Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our 3000+ Global Conferenceseries Events with over 600+ Conferences, 1200+ Symposiums and 1200+ Workshops on
Medical, Pharma, Engineering, Science, Technology and Business

Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals - Inducers of Epigenetic Gene Expression and Enhancers of Cell Death in Neurons

Koji Shimoke1,2*

1High Technology Research Core (HRC), Kansai University, 3-3-35, Yamate-cho, Suita, Osaka 564-8680, Japan

2Laboratory of Neurobiology, Department of Life Science and Biotechnology, Faculty of Chemistry, Materials and Bioengineering, Kansai University, 3-3-35, Yamate-cho, Suita, Osaka 564-8680, Japan.

*Corresponding Author:
Dr. Koji Shimoke
Tel: +81-6-6368-0853
Fax:
+81-6-6330-3770
E-mail:
[email protected]

Received Date: November 08, 2015; Accepted Date: November 09, 2015; Published Date: November 30, 2015

Citation:Shimoke K (2015) Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals - Inducers of Epigenetic Gene Expression and Enhancers of Cell Death in Neurons. J Bioengineer & Biomedical Sci 6: e122. doi:10.4172/2155-9538.1000e122

Copyright: © 2015 Shimoke K. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Visit for more related articles at Journal of Bioengineering & Biomedical Science

Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) exert estrogen-like effects that have various consequences in individuals. EDCs inhibit the effects of endogenous hormones by binding to the hormone receptor more tightly than the hormone itself. EDCs also accumulate in cells due to their chemical stability, and thus male genital organs treated with EDCs change to female-like organs. For example, crocodiles in Florida have been found to have an abnormally shortened penis, a decreased number of sperm, sterility, imperfect descent of the testicles and abnormal hypoplasia of sexual organs that all may be caused by EDCs [1]. EDCbound hormone receptors work as transcription factors in the nucleus, but the genes that induce phenotypic changes that influence germ cells are unclear. EDCs may also cause breast and prostate cancer by exerting estrogen actions and it has been suggested that EDCs can also influence the nervous system. p-Nonylphenol, an alkylphenol EDC produced from detergents in the environment, binds to estrogen receptor and has estrogen-like actions. This molecule is used as a plasticizer in plastics and as an antioxidant in polystyrene and polyvinyl chloride, and is found widely in the environment. This is a concern, since it has been shown that p-nonylphenol induces apoptosis in a trophoblast-derived choriocarcinoma cell line [2].

Apoptosis occurs in neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s and Huntington’s diseases [3]. The molecular mechanism of apoptosis consists of DNA fragmentation by nucleases after a caspase cascade is initiated by mitochondrial dysfunction and phosphorylation of stress kinases such as c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 mitogen-activated kinase (p38MAPK), which belong to the MAPK family. A second type of apoptosis involves accumulation of unfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) [4]. This phenomenon is referred to as ER stress, and apoptosis induced through this stress is termed ER stress-mediated apoptosis. Bisphenol A (BPA), another EDC, can induce ER stress-mediated apoptosis. This type of apoptosis involves genes such as glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) and Nur77, which are thought to be expressed via an epigenetic mechanism of histone H3 modification to prevent ER stress-mediated apoptosis. Thus, a detailed functional analysis of each gene is necessary in a toxicological study of BPA.

Research Support

KAKENHI (25340104), SENRYAKU (2013-2017) and Kansai University Grant-in-Aid for Encouragement of Scientists (2014).

References

Select your language of interest to view the total content in your interested language
Post your comment

Share This Article

Relevant Topics

Recommended Conferences

Article Usage

  • Total views: 7777
  • [From(publication date):
    January-2016 - Jun 25, 2017]
  • Breakdown by view type
  • HTML page views : 7726
  • PDF downloads :51
 

Post your comment

captcha   Reload  Can't read the image? click here to refresh

Peer Reviewed Journals
 
Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700 + peer reviewed, Open Access Journals
International Conferences 2017-18
 
Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our 3000+ Global Annual Meetings

Contact Us

 
© 2008-2017 OMICS International - Open Access Publisher. Best viewed in Mozilla Firefox | Google Chrome | Above IE 7.0 version
adwords