The Business and Corporate Leadership initially built up their theories from military
knowledge. With the changing workplaces of industrial revolutions in the 18th and 19th centuries, military theory and practice contributed approaches to managing the newly popular factories. In the army barracks and in the mass coordination of men in the battlefield are to be found the prototype or regimentation of the factory-as both Marx and Weber noted [1
]. As a formal discipline, operational research originated in the efforts of military planners during World War II. In the decades after war, the techniques began to be applied more widely to problems in business, industry and society. Some ancient military texts have been cited for lessons that civilian managers can gather. For example Chinese General Sun Tzu in the 6th Century BC, The Art of War, recommends being aware of and acting on strengths and weaknesses of both a managers organization and the foes [2
]. Military strategy books such as The Art of War by Sun Tzu, On War by von Clausewitz, and The Red Book by Mao Zedong became instant business classics. From Sun Tzu they learned the tactical side of military strategy and specific tactical prescriptions. From Von Clausewitz they learned the dynamic and unpredictable nature of military strategy. From Mao Zedong they learned the principles of guerrilla warfare. The concept Philip certain techniques like ABC analysis were adopted by the business during world war. A concerted effort started in the 1980s when some business strategists realized that there was a vast knowledge base stretching back thousands of years that they had barely examined. They turned to military strategy for guidance. Kotler [3
] was a well-known proponent of marketing warfare strategy. The other main marketing warfare books were:
• Business War Games by Barrie James [4
• Marketing by Al Ries Warfare and Jack Trout [5
• Leadership Secrets of Attila the Hun by Wess Roberts [6
], mentioned business warfare strategies as following:
• Offensive marketing warfare strategies
- are used to secure competitive strategies; market leaders, runner-ups or struggling competitors are usually attacked.
• Defensive marketing warfare strategies
- are used to defend competitive advantages; lessen risk of being attacked, decrease effects of attacks, strengthen position.
• Flanking marketing warfare strategies
- Operate in areas of little importance to the competitor.
• Guerrilla marketing Warfare strategies
are attack, retreat, hide, then do it again, and again, until the competitor moves on to other markets
• Deterrence Strategies
- Deterrence is a battle won in the minds of the enemy. You convince the competitor that it would be prudent to keep out of your markets.
• Sequential Strategies
- A strategy
that consists of a series of sub-strategies that must all be successfully carried out in the right order.
• Alliance Strategies
- The use of alliances and partnerships to build strength and stabilize situations.
• Encirclement strategy
- Envelop the opponents position.
• Cumulative strategies
- A collection of seemingly random operations that, when complete, obtain your objective.
• Leapfrog strategy
- Avoid confrontation by bypassing enemy or competitive forces.
• The type of warfare
includes attack, defense and withdrawal.
• Forms of attacks are recommended as below:
• Pre-emptive strike
- Attack before you are attacked.
• Frontal Attack
- A direct head-on confrontation.
• Flanking Attack
- Attack the competitors flank.
• Types of defense are defined as below:
• Position Defense
- The erection of fortifications.
• Mobile defense
- Constantly changing positions.
- When you are under attack, launch a counter-offensive at the attacker’s weak point.
• Flank positioning
- Strengthen your flank. In strategic withdrawal he recommends retreat and re-groups so you can live to fight another day [7
Approaching to the advantages and disadvantages of various strategies, Companies typically use many strategies concurrently, some defensive, some offensive, and always some deterrents. According to the business
literature of the period, offensive strategies were more important that defensive one. Defensive strategies were used when needed, but an offensive strategy was requisite. Only by offensive strategies, were market gains made. Defensive strategies could at best keep you from falling too far behind [7
The marketing warfare literature also examined leadership and motivation, intelligence gathering, types of marketing weapons, logistics, and communications
By the turn of the century marketing warfare strategies had gone out of favor. It was felt that they were limiting. There were many situations in which non-confrontational approaches were more appropriate. The Strategy of the Dolphin was developed in the mid-1990s to give guidance as to when to use aggressive strategies and when to use passive strategies. A variety of aggressiveness strategies were developed.
Gradually the corporate world developed its own theories and now it is leading the world. The military has been rather slower to pick up or develop its own new strategies and techniques. With the technologies leading and the knowledge management to the fore, now is the time to evaluate these for adopting some of these to enhance military systems specially the military leadership
. Using the techniques of corporate world will help the military in enhancement of its leadership if systematically and logically applied.
These theories though originally adopted from Defense strategies using the same words as attack, defense withdrawal; yet the spirit of these theories has been changed according to the requirement of the business. The Leadership styles, motivation systems, marketing strategies, weapon and techniques, logistics and communication systems in the defense systems can be modified according to the new theories of management. For example strategy of offensive defense must be given priority over passive defense in these changed times. Immediate but calculated reaction is more paying than the delayed thought out reaction. Maintenance of deterrence saves wars hence less expensive.