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Ethnobotanical Study of Medicinal Plants on Arthritis Used by Chaoshan in Guangdong, China | OMICS International
ISSN: 2161-0444
Medicinal Chemistry

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Ethnobotanical Study of Medicinal Plants on Arthritis Used by Chaoshan in Guangdong, China

Peihong Chen1, Fuchun Zheng2, Yanmei Zhang1, Fenfei Gao1, Yicun Chen1,3* and Ganggang Shi1,3*

1Department of Pharmacology, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou 515031, China

2Department of Pharmacy, First Affiliated Hospital, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou 515031, China

3Traditional Chinese Medicine Laboratory, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou 515031, China

*Corresponding Author:
Yicun Chen
Department of Pharmacology
Shantou University Medical College
Shantou 515031, China
Tel: +8675488900432
E-mail: [email protected]
 
Ganggang Shi
Traditional Chinese Medicine Laboratory
Shantou University Medical College
Shantou 515031, China
Tel: +8675488900430
E-mail: [email protected]

Received date: December 13, 2016; Accepted date: December 20, 2016; Published date: December 24, 2016

Citation: Chen P, Zheng F, Zhang Y, Gao F, Chen Y, et al. (2016) Ethnobotanical Study of Medicinal Plants on Arthritis Used by Chaoshan in Guangdong, China. Med Chem (Los Angeles) 6:715-723. doi: 10.4172/2161-0444.1000420

Copyright: © 2016 Chen P, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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Abstract

Ethnopharmacological relevance: An ethnobotanical survey was conducted to collect information of medicinal plants on Arthritis relating to anti-inflammatory and Analgesia effect by Chaoshan-Shantou People living in Guangdong.

Aim of the study: This investigation was to document valuable knowledge represented as Chaoshan herbal medicine.

Materials and methods: Information was obtained from interviews and by reviewing studies of Chaoshan and Cantonese reported in the literature.

Results: Our data covered 86 species belonging to 82 genera in 52 families. In the search of the PubMed database, there are 28 herbs that have been studied, which have the most anti-inflammatory effects of the herb, followed by analgesia.

Conclusions: Due to the rapid disappearance of urbanization and industrialization of traditional culture and natural resources, indicating that the recorded information may be lost forever. Therefore, there is an urgent need to record the value of Chaoshan medicinal knowledge and encourage the transfer to the next generation.

 

Keywords

Chaoshan herbal medicine; Arthritis; Anti-inflammation; Analgesia

Introduction

The chronic and acute inflammation can lead to serious organs and tissues damage. Arthritis refers to occur in the human body joint and surrounding tissue inflammatory diseases, points to dozens. There are more than 100 million Chinese patients with arthritis and increasing in number. Its clinical manifestations are red, swollen, hot, painful, functional disability and joint deformities, which lead to joint disability, affecting the quality of life of patients. The etiology of arthritis is complex, mainly related to inflammation, autoimmune reaction, infection, metabolic disorders, trauma, degenerative diseases and so on. According to the pathogenesis and clinical manifestations, arthritis can be divided into rheumatoid arthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, gout arthritis and ankylosing spondylitis, etc.

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs) are the most commonly used drugs for the treatment of pain caused by inflammatory and degenerative diseases, including reactive arthritis [1-4]. The main mechanism is considered to be the two isoforms of epoxy synthase blockade, namely COX-1 and COX-2 expression, resulting in a decrease of prostaglandin synthesis. In fact, the therapeutic effect of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs is due to its inhibition of the COX-2 isoform, in inflamed tissue inducing capacity, and some of the most common side effects of their is, generally with homeostasis and inhibition of COX-1 isoform.

Similarly, tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) plays a core role, because it is in arthritis inflammatory and destructive processes vertices. Using anti TNF alpha blocking clinical trials showed, TNF regulation of inflammatory cytokine and chemokines, adhesion molecule expression, resulting in joint leukocyte migration, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), and joint destruction, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and angiogenesis [5-9]. TNF-alpha gene expression in complex control, and p38 mitogen activated protein kinase pathway controlling translation possible actions on the 3-untranslatedregion [10], and with the 5-untranslated/promoter region contains multiple transcription factor binding sites, including nuclear factor B (NF-κB) and activator protein-1 and nuclear factor of interleukin IL - 6 (IL-6) gene, and activation of T cells [11-13]. NF-κB has recently attracted particular attention because of its ability to regulate macrophage

TNFα production induced in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), ultraviolet light, phorbol myristate acetate, or contact with cytokineactivated T cells [14,15].

Chaoshan area is located in the eastern part of Guangdong Province. Complex geographical factors as well as mountains, sea, plain both superior natural conditions, making medicinal plant resources in the eastern region is very rich. Most of them are used based as antiinflammatory and analgesia herbs. There is an urgent need to record the value of Chaoshan medicinal on anti-inflammation and analgesia and encourage the transfer to the next generation (TOC Graphic).

Materials and Methods

Study area

Chaoshan area is located in the eastern part of Guangdong Province, is located approximately east longitude 114'53 ~ 117'16', north latitude 22'31'~ 24'15', The Tropic of cancer through this place. The central region including Shantou, Chaozhou, Jieyang, Shanwei City, a total area of 157720 square kilometers. At the junction of the northeast and Fujian Province, the northwest bordering near Xinghai area, southeast region near the South China Sea. The northeast, northwest mountains, a natural barrier between regions, the main peak of Lantau Peak Phoenix bird bun 1498 meters above sea level, the highest peak in the territory, while the southeast coast is flat, rivers of Chaoshan Plain, west coast is a multistage platform. The climate in this region is a subtropical climate throughout the year, affected by the monsoon, but the coastal and inland areas are slightly different, plenty of sunshine, the annual average temperature is 21 to 22 degrees Celsius, rainfall, the average annual rainfall is 1300 to 2200 mm, relative humidity above 80% soil. Complex and varied types of soil, lateritic red soil, followed by yellow soil, red soil, alluvial, paddy soil, saline soil. Complex geographical factors as well as mountains, sea, plain both superior natural conditions, making plant resources in the eastern region is very rich. According to preliminary statistics there are medicinal plants 228 families, 903 genera, 1599, 73 variants [16].

Ethnobotanical survey

For this study, ethnopharmarcologists, pharmacognosists and botanists, translators with medicinal background from the Shantou University Medical college and local people with medicinal background. Information was obtained from interviews and by reviewing studies of Chaoshan and Cantonese reported in the PubMed.

Results

Ethnobotanical survey

Through the investigation, we have found a total of 86 herbs, including 52 families and 82 genera (Table 1). Details of relative number of species per family as medicinal herbs in Chaoshan area are showed in Figure 1. Among Leguminosae accounted for 11, Compositae accounted for 5 and so on. The folk prescription aggregated into the editor, and the Chinese herbal medicine compilation and Chinese Pharmacopoeia contrast found Wikstroemia indica (Linn.) C. A. Mey, Ampelopsis brevipedunculata (Maxim.) Trautv., Bombax malabarica L. and other herbs to the methods used in the treatment of arthritis in both of the books were no record or record dosage and extraction methods are different. Of the 86 plants recorded, for most (37 species) the entire plant is used as medicine. Of the remaining species, for 34 only their roots are used, and for 23 only their leaves are used. Figure 2 displays the result of analysis of medicinal plant parts used to treat ailment.

No. Latin name Family Local name Part    use From of administration Medicinal use
1 Alangium chinense(Lour.) Rehd Alangiaceae Ba jiao feng Root, Leaf, Flower Vinum, Soup RA, traumatic injury
2 Murraya paniculate (L.) Jack Rutaceae Jiu li xiang Root, Leaf Vinum, Soup Traumatic injury, RA, localizedanesthesia
3 Wikstroemia indica (Linn.) C. A.Mey Thymelaeaceae Liao ge wang Root, Leaf Soup, Compress RA, Traumatic injury, Injuryblooding
4 Kyllinga brevifolia Rottb Cyperaceae San jia cao Whole plant Vinum, Decoction RA, Traumatic injury
5 Smilax glabra Roxb Liliaceae Tu fu ling Root,Stem Soup RA
6 Ampelopsis brevipedunculata(Maxim.)Trautv. Vitaceae Da hao shan putao Root, Stem, Leaf Decoction RA, Traumatic injury
7 Waltheria americama L. Sterculiaceae He ta cao Root,Whole plant Decoction Relieve pain and inflammation
8 Toddalia asiatica (L.) Lam. Rutaceae Fei long zhangxue Root, Leaf Vinum, Decoction RA, Traumatic injury
9 Ipomoea pescaprae (L.) Sweet. Convolvulaceae Ma an teng Whole plant Vinum, Decoction, Soup Rheumatic pain, Knee joint pain
10 Bombax malabarica L. Bombacaceae Mu mian Root, Stem, Bark Decoction, Vinum Traumatic injury
11 Ficus simplicissima Lour. Moraceae Wu zhi mao tao Root, Stem Decoction RA, Traumatic injury
12 Impatiens balsamina L. Balsaminaceae Feng xian hua Flower Decoction drink by liquor RA
13 Gendarussa vulgaris Nees. Acanthaceae Wu gu huangteng Whole plant Decoction Fracture, Sprain and contusion,RA
14 Ficus pandurata Hance. Moraceae Niu nai shu Root, Leaf Decoction drink by liquor Traumatic injury
15 Adenosma glutinosum (L.) Druce Scrophulariaceae Mao she Whole plant Decoction, compress RA, Traumatic injury
16 Callicarpa loureiri Hook. etArn Verbenaceae Chang ye zizhu cao Root, Stem Decoction RA, Traumatic injury
17 Saurures chinensis (Lour.) Baill Saururaceae Shui lao Root, Stem Decoction Diuretic swelling
18 Lysimachia fortunei Maxim. Primulaceae Shui pu yin Whole plant Decoction RA, Traumatic injury
19 Pholidota chinensis Lindl Orchidaceae Shi xian tao Bulb Soup RA
20 Humata tyermanni S.Moore. Davalliaceae Shi qiu yin Rhizome Decoction RA, Urticaria
21 Lycoris radiate (L Herit) Herb Amaryllidaceae Shi suan Bulb Compress RA,
22 Phymatopsis hastata (thunb.)Kitag Polypodiaceae Long she hao Whole plant Vinum Osteomyelitis
23 Clerodendron japonicum (Thunb) Sweet. Verbenaceae Long chuang hua Root, Leaf Hot compress RA, Lumbar muscle strain, Traumatic injury
24 Selaginella uncinata (Desv.)Spring Selaginellaceae Long ling cao Whole plant Vinum RA, Traumatic injury
25 Bidens pilosa L. Compositae Si fang ku gujing Whole plant Soup Antiinflammatory, Antidiarrheal
26 Chloranthus henryi Hemsl Chloranthaceae Si kuai wa Root,Whole plant Decoction RA, Traumatic injury
27 Siegesbeckia glabrescens Makino. Compositae Mu jing cao Whole plant Decoction RA, Limbs anesthesia
28 Cleome gynandra L. Capparidaceae Bai hua choucao Seed or Wholeplant Compress RA
29 Acanthopanax trifoliatus (L.) Merr Araliaceae Bai le Root, Leaf Decoction RA
30 Pterospermum heterophyllumHance. Sterculiaceae Ban feng he Root stem Decoction, Vinum RALumbar muscle strain traumaticinjury, Sprain and contusion
31 Eupatorium chinense L. Compositae Duo xu gong Root, Leaf Decoction, add salt RA, Bronchitis
32 Millettia dielisana Harms exDiels. Leguminosae Xue feng gen Root rattan Decoction and vinum RA, Traumatic injury ,Limbs anesthesia
33 Inula cappa DC. Compositae Chong tian bai Root,Whole plant Soup Rheumatism edema, Traumatic injury
34 Artocarpus hypargyraea Hance Moraceae Hong she geng Root Decoction or soak in Liquor RA
35 Ardisiae gigantifoliae Stapf. Myrsinaceae Zou ma tai Root,Leaf,Wholeplant Decoction RA, Traumatic injury
36 Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.)Hook Taxodiaceae Sang Root, Bark, Fruit,Wood Decoction RA, Traumatic injury ,
37 Xanthium Sibiricum Patr. ExWidd. Compositae Can ger zi Fruit, Whole plant Decoction RA
  Moghania philippinensis (Merr. et         Lumbar muscle strain,
38 Rolfe) Li Leguminosae Ding di gen Root, Leaf Decoction Traumatic injury
39 Ganoderma lucidum(Leyss. exFr.) Karst. Polyporaceae Ling zhi Sporocarp Tincture RA, Bronchitis
40 Rhynchosioa volubilis Lour. Leguminosae Ji zai muzhougen Whole plant Soup RA, Llumbar muscle strain
41 Paederia scandens (Lour.) Merr. Rubiaceae Ji shi teng Whole plant Vinum RA
42 Abrus cantoniensis Hance. Leguminosae Ji gu cao Whole plant(execpt seed) Decoction RA
43 Achyranthes aspera L. Amarantaceae Ji cuo bi Root or Whole plant Decoction and drink by Liquor RA
44 Liquidambar formosana Hance Hamamelidaceae Feng shu Root, Leaf,Fruit-resin Decoction RA
45 Aralia chinensis L. Araliaceae Ci jiang mu Root,Stem Soup RA, Traumatic injury
46 Zanthoxylum avicennae(Lam.)DC Rutaceae Ci cang gen Root,Leaf Decoction, soak in liquor RA, Traumatic injury
47 Desmodium caudatum(Thunb.)DC. Leguminosae Mo cao Root or Wholeplant Vinum RA
48 Glechoma longituba(Nakai) Kupr. Labiatae Ruan zhi jie guxiao Whole plant Drink by liquor RA, Fracture
49 Rubus parvifolius L. Rosaceae Hu mu gen Root Alcohol extraction Antiinflammatory, Analgesic,Insecticide
50 Podocarpus macrophyllus(Thunb.) D. Don Podocarpaceae Luo han song Root,Leaf Fire with liquor Compress RA, Traumatic injury, Fracture
51 Salix babylonica L. Salicaceae Cui liu Branch Root Bark,Fibril Decoction RA
52 Uraria crinite    Desv. Leguminosae Hu li wei Whole plant Fumigant Bronchitis, RA, Traumatic injury
53 Urena procumbens L. Malvaceae Gou jiao ji Whole plant Root or Whole Soup RA, Traumatic injury
54 Solanum indicum L. Solanaceae Ci qie plant Soup RA, Traumatic injury
55 Celastrus orbiculatus Thunb. Celastraceae Nan she teng Root, Rattan Vinum RA, Traumatic injury
56 Oxalis corniculata L. Oxalidaceae Xian suan cao Whole plant Vinum Traumatic injury, RA
57 Drynaria fortune (kunze)J.Smith Polypodiaceae Gu sui bu Rhizome Vinum, Decoction Traumatic injury, Fracture, RA
58 Cymbopogon citrates (DC.) Stapf. Gramineae Xiang mao Whole plant Compress Pain from rheumatism
59 Datura metel L. Solanaceae Yang jin hua Flower, Leaf, Seed Vinum, Soup Chronic bronchitis, RA
60 Schefflera octophylla (Lour.)Harms Araliaceae Ya jiao mu Bark,Leaf,Root Vinum RA, Sciatica, Traumatic injury
61 Millettia speciosa champ. Leguminosae Dao diao jin zhong Root Decoction RA, Lumbar muscle strain,Chronic bronchitis,Traumatic injury
62 Clerodendrum fragrans Vent. Cissus modecoides Planch var. Verbenaceae Chou mo li Leaf, Root Soup, Decoction RA, Sprain and Contusion
63 subintegra Gagnep. Vitaceae Feng teng tou Root Decoction, Compress RA, Lumbar muscle strain
64 Morus alba L. Moraceae Sang bai pi Branch Decoction Rheumatism edema, Joint pain
65 Clausena lansium (Lour.) Skeels. Rutaceae Huang shu pi Root Decoction Root treat rheumatic arthritis,
66 Gymnema sylvestre(Retz.) schult. Asclepiadaceae Gua xue zaiteng Stem, Leaf, Root Compress RA, Traumatic injury
67 Desmodium pulchellum(L.) Benth Leguminosae Pai qian cao Whole plant Soup RA
68 Hedera nepalensis K,Kochvar..sinensis (Tobl.) Rehd Araliaceae Chang chun teng stem, Whole plant Fumigant and washing RA, Sciatica, Osteomyelitis,Traumatic injury
69 Pratia nummularia     A. Brown. et Aschers. Campanulaceae Tong cui yu dai cao Whole plant Decoction RA, Traumatic injury
70 Ranunculus sceleratus L. Ranunculaceae Jia qin cai Whole plant Decoction RA
71 Desmos chinensis Lour. Annonaceae Jia yin zhua Root, Whole plant Decoction RA, Traumatic injury
72 Stephania longa Lour. Menispermaceae Li bi teng Whole plant Decoction RA, Sciatica
73 Cassia occidentalis L. Leguminosae Wang jiang nan Whole plant Decoction RA, Traumatic injury
74 Lycopodium cernuum L. Lycopodiaceae Lu jiao mao Whole plant Decoction RA, Traumatic injury
75 Desmodium triquetrum(L.)DC. Leguminosae Hu lu cha Whole plant Decoction Waist pain
76 Melastoma candidum D.Don. Melastomataceae Yin zhi pu bi Root, Leaf Decoction Migraine, RA, Traumatic injury
77 Caesalpinia minax Hance Leguminosae La ba ci Root, Stem, Leaf Decoction RA, Traumatic injury fracture
78 Cocculus sarmenntosus(Lour.)Diels Menispermaceae Yi dou jin Root Decoction RA, Sciatica
79 Pistia stratiotes L. Araceae Fan pin Leaf Decoction Rheumatism Edema, RA
80 Mirabilis jalapa L. Nyctaginaceae Gu shou hua gen Root, Leaf Decoction Acute arthritis
81 Basella rubra L. Basellaceae Pu ten gcai Whole plant Soup RA, Fracture, Traumatic injury
82 Berchemia lineata DC. Rhamnaceae Shu ru gen Root Soup Traumatic injury, RA
83 Smilax china L. Liliaceae Hao ke ci Rhizome Vinum, Decoction RA, Traumatic injury, Cancer
84 Ficus microcarpa L.f. Moraceae Rong shu Root, Aerial root Soup, Sirup RA, Bronchitis
85 Malvastrum coromandelianum (L.) Garcke Malvaceae Sai kui Whole plant Soup RA, Traumatic injury
86 Cinnamomum parthenoxylon (Jack) Nees. Lauraceae Zhang shu Root, Stem, Leaf, Bark Decoction Traumatic injury, RA

Table 1: Medicinal plants used by Chaoshan.

medicinal-chemistry-Relative-species-medicinal

Figure 1: Relative number of species per family used as medicinal herbs by the ChaoShan area.

medicinal-chemistry-Chao-Shan-medicinal-herbs

Figure 2: Form in which Chao Shan medicinal herbs are used.

The pharmacological effects of herbal medicine reported in the PubMed

Through in PubMed database search we investigate to the herbs in the treatment of arthritis of the research, we found 28 kinds of Chinese herbal medicine has done related pharmacological research. Among them, there are anti-inflammatory effects of 28 species, analgesia or ease the pain of a total of eight kinds of, and antibacterial, immune regulation and anti-hyperuricemia.

Anti-inflammatory effect

Narendhirakannan found that gynandra L. 150 mg kg / Cleome leaves methanol extract has significant anti-inflammatory activity in adjuvant arthritis rats [17-19] (Table 2). Yang caught sight of the ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts from Radix Toddaliae Asiaticae significantly reduced claws and joint swelling and spleen index is reduced, and reducing cytokines such as TNF-alpha, the concentration of IL-1, IL-6, and cytokines such as IL-10 was significantly higher than that of control group [61]. Matsui compounds of lansamide I, lansiumamide B, and SB-204900 from Clausena lansium (Lour.) Skeels (Rutaceae) markedly decreased histamine release. In addition, lansiumamide B- and SB- 204900-treated cells also reduced the protein and/or mRNA levels of TNF-α. The phosphorylation of p38 MAPK was markedly suppressed by SB-204900 [32]. Rodanant was found to be highly effective in the use of paniculata Murraya compounds (L.) Jack to stimulate monocyte inflammation on lipopolysaccharide [37]. The extract of Celastrus - (-) -Epiafzelechin has inhibitory effect on cyclooxygenase, and exhibited about 3-fold weaker inhibitory potency on the enzyme activity than indomethacin as a positive control. Furthermore, (-) –Epiafzelechin shows significant anti-inflammatory activity on carrageenin-induced mouse paw edema when the compound (100 mg/kg) was orally administrated at 1 h before carrageenin treatment [43]. Meng has adiscover on Saururus chinensis (Lour.) Baill., the subfraction 4 (SCF4) from the n-hexane layer of the ethanol extract of the aerial parts of S. chinensis significantly inhibited the production of nitrite and the expression of pro-inflammatory mediators via heme oxygenase-1 upregulation [52].

Latin Pharmacological Action Reference
Cleome gynandra L. Anti-inflammatory [17-19]
Pterospermum heterophyllum Hance. Anti-inflammatory [20]
Eupatorium chinense L. Anti-inflammatory [21]
Toddalia asiatica (L.) Lam. Anti-inflammatory, Analgesia, Antibacterial [22,23]
Impatiens balsamina L. Antibacterial, Analgesia [24]
Mirabilis jalapa L. Antibacterial [25,26]
Waltheria americama L. Analgesia [27]
Smilax china L. Anti-inflammatory, Uricotelic, Analgesia [28-30]
Clausena lansium (Lour.) Skeels. Anti-inflammatory, Analgesia [31-33]
Achyranthes aspera L. Immunomodulatory effects [34]
Abrus cantoniensis Hance. Immunomodulatory effects [35]
Ranunculus sceleratus L. Anti-inflammatory [36]
Murraya paniculata(L.) Jack Antibacterial, Anti-inflammatory [37]
Caesalpinia minax Hance Anti-inflammatory [38,39]
Ganoderma lucidum(Leyss. ex Fr.)Karst. Immunomodulatory effects [40]
Ipomoea pescaprae (L.) Sweet. Analgesic [41]
Desmodium caudatum (Thunb.)DC. Anti-inflammatory, Analgesia [42]
Celastrus orbiculatus Thunb. Anti-inflammatory [43]
Ficus pandurata Hance. Analgesia [44]
Basella rubra L. Immunomodulatory effects [45]
Morus alba L. Antibacterial, Immunomodulatory effects, Uricotelic [46-48]
Saururus chinensis (Lour.) Baill Anti-inflammatory [49-52]
Bidens pilosa L. Anti-inflammatory, Antibacterial [53,54]
Smilax glabra Roxb Anti-inflammatory [55]
Cassia occidentalis L. Anti-inflammatory [56]
Gendarussa vulgaris Nees. Anti-inflammatory [57]
Schefflera octophylla (Lour.)Harms Analgesia, Anti-inflammatory [58]
Datura metel L. Anti-inflammatory, Antifungal [59,60]

Table 2: The pharmacological effects of herbal medicine.

While Sauchinone, isolated from the roots of Saururus chinensis (LOUR.) BAILL., exhibited the vascular protective effects in human umbilical vein endothelial cells induced heme oxygenase (HO)- 1 expression [51]. And Kim, Cho’s study showed that S. chinensis methanol extract has antioxidative and anti-inflammatory activities by enhancing antioxidative defense systems and suppressing NO production via the down-regulation of iNOS expression and NFkappaB activity [49,50]. Pereira reported Intraperitoneal injection of methanol extract of Bidens pilosa (PLN) can significantly reduce the size of the popliteal lymph node inflammation caused by zymosan [62]. Chih was found by contrast experiment that extracts (500 mg/kg) of B. pilosa L. var. minor and B. pilosa L. is more significantly decreased the paw edema induced by complete Freund's adjuvant than B. chilensis DC [63]. Lu’s study results showed that a compound extracted from the rhizome of Smilax glabra, at non-cytotoxicity concentrations, significantly suppressed the production of nitric oxide (NO) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), as well as the mRNA expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and TNF-α in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells, but did not affect interleukin-6 (IL-6) release or its mRNA expression. It seems related to its up-regulation of the phosphorylation of p65, extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) [55]. Patel found the ethyl acetate (EtOAc) extract of Cassia occidentalis L. (roots) (IC50=21.3 to 43.1 micro g/ mL) and Mimosa pudica (whole plant) (IC50=31.7 to 47.2 micro g/ mL) and the dichloromethane (DCM) extract of Leucas cephalotes (whole plant) (IC50=46.8 to 49.3 micro g/mL) exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activity by in vitro inhibition of the production of TNF-alpha, IL-1beta and NO in LPS stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. Furthermore, the five compounds isolated from the ethyl acetate extract of Cassia occidentalis roots were found to suppress LPS-induced IL- 1beta, TNF-alpha and NO production in a concentration-dependent manner in these cells at IC50 values ranging from 22.5 to 97.4 micro M. Emodin and chrysophanol were also found active in inhibiting pro-inflammatory cytokines in vivo [56]. Saleem found both aqueous and alcoholic extracts of the leaves Gendarussa vulgaris (G. vulgaris) Nees. showed significant anti-inflammatory property in vivo method that was estimated by human red blood cell membrane stabilisation (HRBC) method and in vivo method was estimated on the carrageenan induced paw oedema. And alcoholic extract at a concentration of 300 mg/mL showed potent activity on comparing with the standard drug diclofenac sodium [57].

Chen’s results showed that the ethanol extract of S. octophylla has significant dose-dependent anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities. And its five different polar fractions especially the CHCl3 fraction significantly inhibited the abdominal writhing induced by acetic acid and ear edema induced by xylene, also increased pain threshold in hot plate test in 120 min and reduced ticking times in formalin test. The ethanol extract of S. octophylla and the CHCl3 fraction demonstrated an anti-RA effect in a dose-dependent manner. The levels of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 in ethanol extract (600 mg/kg) and CHCl3 fraction (300 mg/kg) groups were significantly lower than those of the model group [58]. Yang had isolated Nine new with anolides from the leaves of Datura metel L. All isolates were evaluated for in vitro anti-inflammatory potential using LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 murine macrophages. Among them, compounds daturafolisides A, daturafolisides B, baimantuoluoside B, 12-deoxywithastramonolide exhibited significant inhibition of nitrite production. Compounds daturafolisides C, daturafolisides D, daturafolisides F, and daturataurin B presented moderate inhibitory activities with values of IC50 at 59.0, 52.8, 71.2, and 53.1 μM, while the rest compounds displayed weak suppressive effect. In addition, they found Compounds dmetelins A, dmetelins D, 7α,27-dihydroxy-1-oxo-witha-2,5,24-trienolide isolated from the leaves of Datura metel L. (Solanaceae) also showed significant inhibitory activities on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide (NO) production in RAW264.7 cells, and compounds dmetelins B and dmetelins C showed moderate inhibitory activities with IC50 values of 17.8, 11.6, 14.9, 33.3 and 28.6 μM, respectively.

Analgesia

Kariuki HN’s experiment in 2013 showed, in the early phase of the formalin test, the 100 mg/kg dose showed no significant antinociceptive activity while the 200 mg/kg showed significant (p<0.01) antinociceptive activity. The 100 mg/kg dose showed highly significant antinociceptive activity (p<0.001) in the late phase of the formalin test while the 200 mg/kg dose showed no significant antinociceptive activity. A reduction in carragenin induced acute inflammation paw oedema was significant (p<0.01) following administration of 100 mg/kg dose but not with the 200 mg/kg dose. The study therefore lends support to the anecdotal evidence for use of T. asiatica in the management of painful and inflammatory conditions [23]. Oku H’s results showed 1,4-naphthoquinone sodium salts, sodium 3-hydroxide- 2[[sodium3-hydroxide-1,4-dioxo(2-naphthyl)]ethyl]naphthalene-1,4- dione (impatienolate) and sodium 2-hydroxide-3-(2-hydroxyethyl) naphthalene-1,4-dione (balsaminolate) isolated from the corolla of Impatiens balsamina L exhibited Significant selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitory activities [24]. Muthuraman A ‘s study showed that rats administered the hydroalcoholic extract of Acorus calamus could increase the levels of superoxide anion, total calcium and myeloperoxidase activity significantly in chronic constriction injury of sciatic nerve induced thermal, radiant, mechanical hyperalgesia and thermal, chemical, tactile allodynia. Moreover, HAE-AC attenuated chronic constriction injury induced by development of painful behavioural, biochemical and histological changes in a dose dependent manner similar to that of pregabalin serving as positive control [64]. Khunakornvichaya A found oral administration of M. alba stem extract (56 and 560 mg/kg) significantly attenuated joint pain as indicated by a significant (p<0.05) increase in the values of percent weight borne on the operated hind limb for the OA-induced groups that received M. alba stem extract at 56 and 560 mg/kg when compared to those of the vehicle-treated OA-induced group. Moreover, a significant improvement in the Mankin score was also observed in rats treated with 560 mg/kg M. alba stem extract, which was in agreement with its pain-relieving effect. The results showed that M. alba stem extract exhibited an anti-nociceptive effect as well as cartilage protection in the ACLT-induced rat model of OA47. Ma KJ found oral administration of Desmodium caudatum (Thunb.) DC significantly and dose-dependently inhibited the writhing responses in mice, increased reaction time in mice in the hot-plate test. Furthermore, no death was observed when mice were orally administered DCE up to 40 g/kg [42]. Khedr AI did a molecule docking with compounds 3b-acetoxy-11amethoxy-olean- 12-ene, ficupanduratin A, stigmastane-3,6-dione isolated from Ficus pandurata that exhibited good affinity towards the CB2 receptor, with displacement values of 69.7, 62.5 and 86.5%, respectively [44]. Chen’s results showed that the ethanol extract of Schefflera octophylla has significant dose-dependent antinociceptive activities. And its five different polar fractions especially the CHCl3 fraction significantly inhibited the abdominal writhing induced by acetic acid and ear edema induced by xylene, also increased pain threshold in hot plate test in 120 min and reduced ticking times in formalin test [58]. The antinociceptive effects of the methanolic extract and two fractions obtained from aerial parts of Ipomoea pescaprae (L.) Sweet. exhibited considerable antinociceptive activity against two classical models of pain in mice. Methanolic extract presented a calculated ID50 value of 33.8 mg/kg, i.p. against writhing test and also inhibited both phases of pain (neurogenic and inflammatory) of the formalin test with ID50 of 37.7 and 12.5 mg/ kg, i.p. for the first and second phase, respectively [41].

Uricotelic

Chen studies showed that ethyl acetate fraction from Smilax china L. showed a significant anti-hyperuricemic activity in hyperuricemic mice compared with petroleum ether, chloroform, n-butanol and residual ethanol fraction fractions. Caffeic acid, resveratrol, rutin and oxyresveratrol isolated from EAF showed different inhibitory activities on xanthine oxidase in vitro, with the IC50 values of 42.60, 37.53, 42.20 and 40.69 μM, respectively, and exhibited competitive or mixed inhibitory actions [28]. Different dosages of astilbin which isolated from the rhizome of Smilax china L. (1.25, 2.5, and 5.0 mg/kg) were administered to 10% fructose-induced hyperuricemic rats. In Chen studies, the results demonstrated that astilbin significantly decreased the serum uric acid (Sur) level by increasing the urinary uric acid (Uur) level and fractional excretion of urate (FEUA) but not inhibiting the xanthine oxidase (XOD) activity [65]. The effective substance of Morus alba L. could promote the excretion of uric acid through different mechanisms in rats and mice, reduce the concentration of uric acid in the body [66,67].

Immunomodulatory effects

Narayan found that PCA feed urethane primed lung tissues showed down regulated expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α along with TFs, NF-κB and Stat3 while the expression of pro-apoptotic proteins Bax and p53 were enhanced in PCA feed urethane primed lung tissues [34]. In Rubel R’s test G. lucidum was able to increase interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) concentration but reduced CD3(+) and CD8(+) spleen lymphocytes. in vivo. Ex-vivo, IFN-gamma; and interleukin-10 levels were increased and the tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) level was reduced by peritoneal macrophages from mice fed with G. lucidum [40]. An extract from Basella rubra (B. rubra) L polysaccharide in -BRP-4, can generate NO at a concentration of 10 to 100 g/mL. The phagocytic activity of macrophage was enhanced in BRP-4 treated RAW264.7 cells. BRP-4 combined with concanavalin A (Con A) provided obvious promotion and strengthening of the proliferation of the splenocytes [45]. M. alba L. fruit extract could stimulated the production of cytokines, nitric oxide (NO) and tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and tumoricidal properties of macrophages. MFE activated macrophages through the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAP Kinase) and nuclear factor- κB (NF-κB) signaling pathways downstream from toll-like receptor (TLR) 4. MFE was shown to exhibit cytotoxicity of CT26 cells via the activated macrophages, even though MFE did not directly affect CT26 cells. In a xenograft mouse model, MFE significantly enhanced anticancer activity combined with 5-fluorouracil and markedly promoted splenocyte proliferation, natural killer (NK) cell activity, cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) activity and IFN-γ production. Immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody levels were significantly increased [46].

Discussion and Conclusion

The present investigation revealed that Chaoshan in Guangdong are using 86 plant species belonging to 82 genera in 52 families for arthritis. Most species are collected locally. In previous Chaoshan Chinese herbal medicine culture inheritance is survive on "father son" mode of inheritance. However, with the advance of the process of urbanization in the Chaoshan area, many of the older generation Chaoshan herbalist facing no successor predicament, because a new generation of Chaoshan young people unwilling to engage in grass pharmacists job. Also, the fast disappearance of traditional culture and natural resources due to urbanization and industrialization suggests that unrecorded information may be lost forever. Thus, We urgently need document systematically the medical knowledge of Chaoshan.

In relation to plant use,72 species of the plants recorded in this study were found to be used for treating rheumatic arthritis, part of them used for analgesia, anti-inflammatory. Through the analysis of the results of a search of PubMed database we obtain, reported in the literature of Chinese herbal medicine, more than half have antiinflammatory effect and analgesic effect of the herbs in the quantity ranks the second. And the clinical treatment of arthritis the method is by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs to relieve inflammation and pain of patients.

In search of the 86 Chaoshan herbs, there are 28 herbs pharmacological studies on treatment of arthritis, indicating that there are still many Chaoshan herbal undetected and research. Chaoshan area is located along the coast, because of climate and diet, the natives are more likely to suffer from arthritis, rheumatoid arthritis. In the struggle to perennial and arthritis, this kind of disease, the Chaoshan area of the ancestors left a number of therapeutic arthritis remedies and herbal knowledge. Through to these knowledges were classified and unified will of Chaoshan area of herbal medicine culture inheritance and development of therapeutic arthritis drugs have very good help.

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by the grants from the Natural Science Foundation of Guangdong Province, China (No.2015A030313432), the Science and Technology Project of Guangdong Province, China (No.2016B090918129), and the Department of education, Guangdong government under the top-tier university development scheme for research and control of infectious diseases.

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