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Medicinal Chemistry
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Evaluation of Antimicrobial Activity of Various Chemicals on Isolated Chicken and Mutton Spoilage Microorganisms

Bilal Ahmad Mir1*, Amin Mir2, Dhyal Singh1 and Zainab Rao1

1Department of Microbiology and Zoology, Uttarakhand PG College of Biomedical Sciences and Hospital, Dehradun, India

2Research Scholar at Uttarakhand Technical University, Dehradun, India

*Corresponding Author:
Bilal Ahmad Mir
Department of Microbiology and Zoology
Uttaranchal PG College of Biomedical Sciences
and Hospital, Dehradun, India
Tel: +919897635334|
E-mail: [email protected]

Received Date: May 22, 2017 Accepted Date: May 27, 2017 Published Date: May 31, 2017

Citation: Ahmad Mir B, Mir A, Singh D, Rao Z (2017) Evaluation of Antimicrobial Activity of Various Chemicals on Isolated Chicken and Mutton Spoilage Microorganisms. Med Chem (Los Angeles) 7: 900-903. doi: 10.4172/2161- 0444.1000450

Copyright: ©2017 Ahmad Mir B, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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Abstract

The study was carried out on the isolation of various micro-organisms, in which various samples of chicken and mutton were collected from different locations of the Dehradun. The process of slaughtering of the chicken and mutton as per the survey was of two types- viz, Jatka and Halal. The isolated micro-organisms from the chicken samples of Jatka type include- Vibrio, Enterobacter species, Clostridium, E. coli, Shigella, whereas the micro-organisms isolated from the chicken samples of Halal type include only Enterobacter species, Clostridium and E. coli. The micro-organisms isolated from the mutton sample of Jatka type include, Shigella, E. coli, Vibrio, Staphylococcus, and the micro-organisms isolated from the mutton samples of Halal type include only E. coli, Vibrio and Staphylococcus. The micro-organisms have been isolated and identified by various biochemical tests. The isolated micro-organisms have been then testified for antimicrobial susceptibility test against various chemical substances which include, Gentamicin, Naphthazarin, Azithromycin, Citric Acid, Amphotericin-B, Clindomycin, Cefixime, Norfloxacin, Streptomycin, Ampicilin. Among the various used chemical substances, Gentamicin have been found effective in inhabiting the growth of all the isolated micro-organisms, followed by Norfloxacin, Streptomycin, Ampicilin, Azithromycin, Citric Acid. Least antimicrobial activity was observed for Naphthazarin, Amphotericin-B, Clindomycin, and Cefixime. Among the isolated micro-organisms shigella species was found to be less proned against the applied anti-microbial drugs, and the most susceptible micro-organism among the isolated micro-organisms includes E. coli. Also from the collected chicken and mutton samples the samples of Halal type have been to be less effective against the growth of micro-organisms as compared to the Jatka type samples, which could be due to different procedure of slaughtering technique.

Keywords

Chicken and mutton samples; Anti-microbial activity; Halal; Jatka; Vibrio; Enterobacter species; Clostridium; E. coli; Shigella; Staphylococcus

Introduction

Microorganisms can be used to transform raw foods into fermented delights, including yoghurt, cheese, sausages, Tempeh, pickles, wine, beers and other alcoholic products. On the other hand, foods also can act as a reservoir for disease transmission, and thus detection and control of pathogens and spoilage organisms are important areas of food microbiology. During the entire sequence of food handling from the producer to the final consumer, microorganisms can affect food quality and human health.

This study briefly summarizes current knowledge on the biological implications of biogenic amines on human health and collects data on the factors affecting their formation in meat and fermented meat products by Joanna et al. [1]. George-John et al. [2] studied on meat spoilage during distribution can be considered as an ecological phenomenon that encompasses the changes of the available substrata (e.g., low molecular compounds), during the prevailing of a particular microbial association, the so-called specific spoilage organisms (SSO).

Microbial contamination of poultry carcasses can be influenced by many factors during transport and slaughtering. The study carried out by Svobodová et al. [3] evaluated the impact of four processing steps (plucking, evisceration, washing and chilling) on the total viable counts (TVC), counts of Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp. and Listeria spp. incidence on broiler carcasses. Food borne illness is a major public health concern. The largest number of food borne illness cases attributed to poultry and poultry products are caused by paratyphoid serotypes of Salmonella and by Campylobacter jejuni as studied by White et al. [4]. Consumption of meat is continuously increasing worldwide. The annual per capita consumption increased from 10 kg in the 1960s to 26 kg in 2000 and will reach 37 kg by the year 2030 as per the reports by Stadnik et al. [5]. On the other hand, a significant portion of meat and meat products are spoiled every year. Kantor et al. reported that approximately 3.5 billion kg of poultry and meat were wasted at the consumer, retailer and foodservice levels which have a substantial economic and environmental impact.

Material and Methods for Antimicrobial Analysis

The antimicrobial analyses of various “Chicken and Mutton” samples were carried out at Uttarakhand College of Biomedical Sciences and Hospital, Dehradun. Microbial world is of great importance in the present world. They are beneficial in various ways to humans, not only they help to maintain the environment clean, but also they furnish various types of antibiotics which are useful against various diseases. So, this microbial analysis was carried out. All the chemicals used were of analytical grade. Different samples of chicken and mutton were collected from the local shops at DL Road and Sahastradhara Crossing, Dehradun then leaved all of these samples for 4 days for complete spoilage.

Identification methods

All the bacterial colonies were identified by Gram’s staining method as they are Gram -ve or Gram +ve and several biochemical characterization methods. Litmus milk test, Gelatin Agar test and Urea agar media were used to determine the load of viable cells followed by several biochemical tests has been developed for this purpose.

Observations

Identification of bacterial strains: So far our observation is taken into consideration the following types of microorganisms have been isolated from the meat and chicken samples and are mention in the following Table 1.

Antimicrobial susceptibility testing

Antimicrobial activity of various chemical substances against various isolated bacterial strains from chicken and mutt on samples (Tables 2-8).

S. No Name of Bacteria Isolated
Chicken Sample Mutton Sample
Halal Jatka Halal Jatka
1. Shigella ------------------ --------------- Shigella
2. Enterobacter species Enterobacter species --------------- ---------------
3. Clostridium Clostridium ---------------- ----------------
4. E. coli E. coli E. coli E. coli
5. Vibrio ----------- Vibrio Vibrio
6. ----------- ----------- Staphylococcus Staphylococcus

Table 1: Showing various bacterial strains isolated from the chicken and mutton samples.

Results and Discussion

S. No Strain Used Chemical Used Zone of Inhibition (mm)
1 Shigella Gentamicin 29
2 Shigella Naphthazarin 19
3 Shigella Azithromycin 6
4 Shigella Citric Acid 27
5 Shigella Amphotericin-B Nil
6 Shigella Clindomycin 10
7 Shigella Cefixime Nil
8 Shigella Norfloxacin 18
9 Shigella Streptomycin 17
10 Shigella Ampicilin 13
image

Table 2: Inhibition against Shigella Bacter by Various Chemicals.

S. No Strain Used Chemical Used Zone of Inhibition (mm)
1 E. coli Gentamicin 28
2 E. coli Naphthazarin 15
3 E. coli Azithromycin 06
4 E. coli Citric Acid 26
5 E. coli Amphotericin-B Nil
6 E. coli Clindomycin Nil
7 E. coli Cefixime Nil
8 E. coli Norfloxacin 18
9 E. coli Streptomycin 17
10 E. coli Ampicilin 13
image

Table 3: Inhibition Against E. coli by various chemicals.

S. No Strain Used Chemical Used Zone of Inhibition (mm)
1 Vibrio Gentamicin 30
2 Vibrio Naphthazarin 16
3 Vibrio Azithromycin Nil
4 Vibrio Citric Acid 25
5 Vibrio Amphotericin-B Nil
6 Vibrio Clindomycin Nil
7 Vibrio Cefixime Nil
8 Vibrio Norfloxacin Nil
9 Vibrio Streptomycin 15
10 Vibrio Ampicilin Nil
image

Table 4: Inhibition Against Vibro Bacter by Various Chemicals.

image
S. No Strain Used Chemical Used Zone of Inhibition (mm)
1 Enterobacter Species Gentamicin 27
2 Enterobacter Species Naphthazarin 20
3 Enterobacter Species Azithromycin Nil
4 Enterobacter Species Citric Acid 24
5 Enterobacter Species Amphotericin-B Nil
6 Enterobacter Species Clindomycin 13
7 Enterobacter Species Cefixime Nil
8 Enterobacter Species Norfloxacin Nil
9 Enterobacter Species Streptomycin 15
10 Enterobacter Species Ampicilin Nil

Table 5: Inhibition against Enterobacter Species by Various Chemicals.

S. No Strain Used Chemical Used Zone of Inhibition (mm)
1 Clostridium Gentamicin 27
2 Clostridium Naphthazarin 17
3 Clostridium Azithromycin 14
4 Clostridium Citric Acid 25
5 Clostridium Amphotericin-B Nil
6 Clostridium Clindomycin 19
7 Clostridium Cefixime Nil
8 Clostridium Norfloxacin 20
9 Clostridium Streptomycin 12
10 Clostridium Ampicilin 10
image

Table 6: Inhibition against Clostridium Bacteria by various Chemicals.

S. No Strain Used Chemical Used Zone of Inhibition (mm)
1 Staphylococcus Gentamicin 24
2 Staphylococcus Naphthazarin 17
3 Staphylococcus Azithromycin Nil
4 Staphylococcus Citric Acid 22
5 Staphylococcus Amphotericin-B Nil
6 Staphylococcus Clindomycin 11
7 Staphylococcus Cefixime Nil
8 Staphylococcus Norfloxacin Nil
9 Staphylococcus Streptomycin 13
10 Staphylococcus Ampicilin Nil
image

Table 7: Inhibition against Staphylococcus by Various Chemicals.

S. No Strain Used Chemical Used Zone of Inhibition (mm)
1 Salmonella Gentamicin 27
2 Salmonella Naphthazarin 16
3 Salmonella Azithromycin Nil
4 Salmonella Citric Acid 27
5 Salmonella Amphotericin-B Nil
6 Salmonella Clindomycin Nil
7 Salmonella Cefixime Nil
8 Salmonella Norfloxacin Nil
9 Salmonella Streptomycin 15
10 Salmonella Ampicilin Nil
image

Table 8: Inhibition Against Salmonella by Various Chemicals.

Altogether 06 bacterial isolates were obtained from chicken sample and 04 isolates from mutton sample. The bacterial isolates were screened for their thermo-tolerance property in different temperatures starting from 50°C to 90°C.

The bacterium Staphylococcus species is a spherical bacterium (coccus) which on microscopic examination appears singly, in pairs, or bunched, grape-like clusters. They are Gram-positive, facultative anaerobes, but grow rapidly under aerobic conditions and were characterized by morphological observation and biochemical tests. Salmonella is a rod-shaped, Gram negative, non-sporulating, facultative anaerobic motile bacterium. They are mesophiles with a growth temperature range of 5 to 46°C and optimum growth temperature of 35 to 37°C. Litmus milk test, Gelatin Agar test and Urea agar media viable cells followed by several biochemical tests lead to the identification of Salmonella. Shigella was identified as Gram-negative, non-motile, nonspore forming rod-shaped bacteria as per Litmus milk test, Gelatin Agar test and Urea agar media followed by several biochemical tests. The strains grow between 7 and 46°C, with an optimum at 37°C. Litmus milk test, Gelatin Agar test and Urea agar media followed by several biochemical tests identified E. coli as harmless, Gram negative, motile, non-sporulating; rod shaped facultative anaerobic bacterium. Vibrio bacterium as identified as Gram-negative, non-sporulating motile curved rods with an optimum temperature of 30°C to 37°C, but can grow over a temperature range of 5 and 42°C as per Gelatin Agar test and Urea agar media followed by several biochemical tests. The identification of Enterobacter bacteria was carried out by Gelatin Agar test and Urea agar media followed by several biochemical tests and had been identified as motile, rod-shaped cells, some of which are encapsulated. Clostridium was identified as an anaerobic, Grampositive, spore-forming rod that produces a potent neurotoxin by various tests like Gelatin Agar test and Urea agar media followed by several biochemical tests.

Preliminary Screening for the anti-bacterial activity was performed using Agar Well diffusion method. The mentioned Chemical substances showed an excellent antibacterial activity against the bacteria Shigella, Enterobacter species, Clostridium, E. coli, Vibrio, and Staphylococcus. As per the microbial susceptibility tests Gentamicin showed highest antibacterial activity against Shigella bacterium fallowed by citric acid, Naphthazarin, Norfloxacin, Streptomycin and less activity was observed for Azithromycin. Gentamicin showed highest antimicrobial activity against E. coli, followed by citric acid, Norfloxacin, Streptomycin and Naphthazarin. Least activity was observed by azithromycin antibiotic. For Vibrio bacterium, the highest zone of inhibition was showed by Gentamicin fallowed by citric acid, Naphthazarin and less activity was observed for streptomycin. Clindomycin, Azithromycin, Amphotericin-B, Cefixime, Norfloxacin, and Ampicilin showed no any activity against Vibrio Bacterium. Enterobacter species have no any effect upon the utilization of Azithromycin, Amphotericin-B, Cefixime, Norfloxacin, and Ampicilin. The concerned bacterium is adducted against these antibiotics. Gentamicin have a highest response against Enterobacter as per antimicrobial susceptibility is taken into consideration followed by citric acid, Naphthazarin and Clindomycin. Clostridium bacteria have no any effect against antibiotics like Cefixime, and Amphotericin-B. Ampicilin have less activity against Clostridium bacteria and highest antimicrobial susceptibility was observed for Gentamicin followed by citric acid Norfloxacin, Clindomycin, Naphthazarin, Azithromycin, Streptomycin. The Highest Zone of Inhibition was observed by Gentamicin against Staphylococcus, followed by Citric Acid, Naphthazarin, Streptomycin and Clindomycin. No any activity was observed by the use of Azithromycin, Amphotericin-B, Cefixime, Norfloxacin and Ampicilin antibiotics. Salmonella bacterium a strong bacteria and some antibiotics like Gentamicin, Naphthazarin and citric acid have some antimicrobial activity against salmonella. Rest of the used antibiotics like, Ampicilin, Norfloxacin, Cefixime, Amphotericin-B and azithromycin have no any activity against the salmonella bacterium.

Conclusion

From the above mention research it could be concluded that the spoiled chicken and mutton samples should not be consumed. Being rich in protein content the chicken and the mutton samples are frequently affected by various bacterial strains. Also from the collected chicken and mutton samples the samples of Halal type have been found to be less effective against the growth of micro-organisms as compared to the Jatka type samples, which could be due to different procedure of slaughtering technique. In case of Jatka the animal is being slaughtered at once and the blood gets coagulated within no time, but during the slaughtering process in which the animal is being slaughtered in a Halal way, makes whole blood to come out of the body of an animal. So as per this research it could be concluded that Halal type of flesh should be consumed than the Jatka type.

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