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Experimental Behavior of Bolted T-Stub Connections with IPE Standard Profile
ISSN: 2165-784X

Journal of Civil & Environmental Engineering
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Experimental Behavior of Bolted T-Stub Connections with IPE Standard Profile

Mahyar Maali1, Mahmut Kılıç1, Merve Sağıroğlu2 and Abdulkadir Cüneyt Aydın1*
1Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Ataturk University, Erzurum, Turkey
2Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Erzurum Technical University, Erzurum, Turkey
*Corresponding Author: Abdulkadir Cüneyt Aydın, Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Ataturk University, 25240, Erzurum, Turkey, Tel: +90 442 231 47 81, Email: [email protected]

Received Date: Oct 24, 2017 / Accepted Date: May 24, 2017 / Published Date: May 29, 2018

Abstract

In this research, new connection types were suggested, and their behaviors were determined using full-scale experiments. T-shaped combinations created using the IPE standard profile and T-shaped elements are different from those in the literature, which utilize welded plates. Thus, problems occurring at the welds of connections such as the occurrence of fracture points and inability to perform well in place are expected to be eliminated. To recommend the use of weld-less T connections, knowledge of the behavior of the connections was needed. In addition, in this research, the effects of changes in the dimensions of the connection members on the connection behavior were examined for the T-connection type. This provided information about the optimum sizes of the connection elements. The main parameters observed were the evolution of the resistance, stiffness, rotation capacity, ductility of a joint, and energy dissipation. The aim was to provide the necessary data to improve Eurocode 3 and efficiently use residue IPE standard profiles, rather than send them back to the consumption cycle.

Keywords: Full-scale experiment; IPE standard profile; T connection; Eurocode 3; Stiffness

Nomenclature

Fu: Ultimate or tensile stress; Fy: Yield stress; Est: Strain hardening modulus; ρy=fy/fu: Yield ratio; εst: Strain at strain hardening point; εuni: Uniform strain; εf: Strain at rupture load; X: Cartesian axis; distance; E: Young’s modulus; I: Moment of inertia; M: Bending moment; Mj.Rd: Joint flexural plastic (design) resistance; Mj.max: Maximum bending moment; Mmin.K–R: Lower resistance bound of the knee-range of the joint moment–rotation curve; Msup.K–R: Upper resistance bound of the kneerange of the joint moment–rotation curve; MӨ.Cd: Bending moment at fracture of the joint; P: Concentrated force; Sj.ini: Initial rotational stiffness of a joint; Sj.p-1: Post-yield rotational stiffness of a joint; Ө Cd: Rotation capacity of a connection; Ө M j.max: Rotation of the connection at maximum load; Ө M.j.Rd: Connection rotation analytical value at which the moment resistance first reaches (Mj.Rd); Ө min K–R: Rotation between the lower bound of the knee-range of the joint moment–rotation curve and the rotation capacity;Ө sup K–R: Rotation between the upper bound of the knee-range of the joint moment–rotation curve and the rotation capacity; Ψj.max: load Joint ductility index evaluated for the rotation at maximum load; Ψj: Joint ductility index; Ө: Rotation; DTi: LVDT: DTi; STi: Strain gauge

Introduction

It is necessary to take into account the behavior of connections in the design and analysis of steel frames because it represents the actual behavior [1]. Thus, the behavior of the connections should be well known. Because the most important force transmitted by the connections in a frame is the moment, the connection behavior is represented by the rotational deformation. The connections produce various moment–rotation curves according to the type of connection, elements of connection, and shape of placement. Experimental studies are used to determine these curves. Tests on some connections were performed, and a database was created. To express the connection behavior in an analysis, classifications were performed and mathematical models were created using this database. Yet, these have been limited to the seven connection types defined in the literature [2-21]. However, there are many different types of beam-column connections in steel structures today that are not defined in data banks. Coelho et al. [22] assessed the behavior of 32 bolted T-stub connections made of welded plates. Swanson et al. [23] conducted several tests on individual T-stubs to show that their behavior was partly influenced by the bending of the bolts. Abidelah et al. [24] researched the experimental and analytical behavior of bolted end-plate connections with or without stiffeners. The experimental results of eight specimens of steel bolted beam-to-column and beam-to-beam connections with flush or extended end plates were investigated. Four of the connections had the end plates reinforced with stiffeners in the extended parts. Herrera et al. [25] investigated the behavior of built-up T-stubs subjected to tensile loading using numerical and experimental models. T-shaped combinations created using the IPE standard profile and T-shaped elements are different from those in the literature, which utilize welded plates. Thus, the elimination of the problems occurring at the welds of connections such as the occurrence of fracture points and the inability to perform well in place is expected. To recommend the use of weld-less T connections, knowledge of their behavior is needed. However, T-stub connections that use the IPE standard profile are not mentioned and investigated in either Eurocode 3 or the literature, as in this research.

Thus, the aim of this study was to analyze the influence of T connections that utilize the IPE standard profile on the behavior of steel connections, to provide the necessary data for improving Eurocode 3 and efficiently use residue IPE standard profiles, rather than send them back to the consumption cycle. Moment–rotation curves were used to evaluate the main parameters characterizing the behavior of the tested connections, such as the resistance moment, stiffness, rotation capacity, and energy dissipation.

Experimental Program

Test details and mechanical properties

This paper presents the nine experimental models that were developed to predict the behavior of bolted T-stub connections under static loads in three groups: T300, T270, and T240 (T300 cut from of IPE300 standard Profile, T270 cut from of IPE270 standard Profile, and T240 cut from of IPE240 standard Profile). The experimental program is shown in Figure 1, and the details are listed in Table 1. The behaviors of the T-stub joints were compared within their groups (T300-Hmax, T300- Hmin, T300-Hav, T270-Hmax, T270-Hmin, T270-Hav, T240-Hmax, T240-Hmin, and T240-Hav) (H = height of beam to height of T-stub joint). Column stiffeners with a thickness equal to 10 mm were welded to the column by means of a continuous 45° fillet weld. Thus, columns with a large cross section were chosen, and the use of the stiffener prevented excessive deflection in the flange column. The fillet welding was performed from the upper side of the joint in the down-hand position in the workshop. A consumable electrode was used in the manual metal arc welding process [26]. The plate stiffener, T-stub profile, and profile section was S235. HE160B was used for the columns, and IPE240 was selected for the beams. Hand-tightened full-threaded grade 8.8 M14 bolts in 16-mm drilled holes were used consistently for all the tested specimens. The aim of the study was to analyze the influence of T connections that used the IPE standard profile on the behavior of steel connections, to provide the necessary data for improving Eurocode 3.

civil-environmental-engineerin-dimensional

Figure 1: T-stub geometry, proposed three-dimensional semi-rigid joint, and locations of strain gauges (ST1=parallel to beam on T-stub, ST2=perpendicular to beam on T-stub, ST3=parallel to column on T-stub, ST4=perpendicular to column on T-stub, and d=diagonal to bolts).

Groups Name Experiment T-stub Joint Hmax=hymax/h Hmin=hymin/h Hav=Hyav/h X (mm)
T300 group T300-Hmax IPE 300 1 - -  
T300-Hmin - 0.63 -  
T300-Hav - - 0.82  
T270 group T270-Hmax IPE 270 1 - -  
T270-Hmin - 0.63 -  
T270-Hav - - 0.82  
T240 group T240-Hmax IPE 240 1 - - 215
T240-Hmin - 0.63 -  
T240-Hav - - 0.82  

hy=Height of beam, h=Height of T-stub joint, av=Average, max=Maximum, min=Minimum, X= Lengths of T-stub joints

Table 1: Test details.

Coupon tension tests of the structural steel materials of the column stiffener, T-stub profile, flange, and web of the beam and column were performed in accord with UNE-EN 10002-1 [27]. The average characteristic values for the structural steels and bolts (8.8) are listed in Table 2. This table gives the values for the Young’s modulus (E), strain hardening modulus (Est), static yield and tensile stresses (fy and fu, respectively), yield ratio (ρy = fy/fu), strain at the strain hardening point (εst), uniform strain (εuni), and strain at the rupture load (εf). Each bolt (8.8) was tested under tension in order to determine the mechanical properties of the bolt material, in accordance with ISO 898-1999(E) [28].

Variables   E (MPa) Est (MPa) fy (MPa) fu (MPa) ρy εst εuni εf
10 mm plate 205352 1798 687 721 1 2.71 × 10-2 2.68 × 10-2 1.62 × 10-1
Bolt ----- ----- 1127 1247 0.9 ----- ----- -----
Beam Web 203521 1374 521 649 0.8 1.81 × 10-2 1.59 × 10-2 1.09 × 10-1
Beam Flange 204399 1399 562 685 0.8 1.97 × 10-2 1.68 × 10-2 1.15 × 10-1
Column Web 204424 1396 541 637 0.9 1.89 × 10-2 1.63 × 10-2 1.11 × 10-1
Column Flange 208242 1928 831 945 0.9 2.99 × 10-2 2.81 × 10-2 1.78 × 10-1
T300-stub web 204121 1425 581 705 0.8 2.18 × 10-2 1.80 × 10-2 1.38 × 10-1
T300-stub Flange 204781 1499 638 735 0.9 2.43 × 10-2 1.99 × 10-2 1.69 × 10-1
T270-stub web 204001 1394 545 671 0.8 1.90 × 10-2 1.66 × 10-2 1.13 × 10-1
T270-stub Flange 204498 1428 588 702 0.8 2.00 × 10-2 1.70 × 10-2 1.21 × 10-1

Table 2: Average characteristic values for structural steels and bolts.

Test arrangement and instrumentation

The specimens were subjected to a static force applied by a 900-kN hydraulic jack with a maximum piston stroke of 300 mm. Tests were performed under displacement control with a constant speed of 0.01 mm/s up to the collapse of the specimens. In order to prevent the lateral torsional buckling of the beam during loading, a two-column guidance device near the beam was provided [29]. In fact, the experiments found that the lateral torsional buckling of the beam did not occur during loading. An illustration of the test arrangement and mechanism is shown in Figure 2. This study aimed to develop a realistic stress pattern at the connection, and the fracture of several specimens, i.e., the ultimate load, was attained with the specific testing machine [29]. Thus, 1500 mm was chosen as the length of the beam and column.

civil-environmental-engineerin-transducers

Figure 2: Locations of displacement transducers (DT=LVDTs).

The main requirements for the instrumentation were measurements of (1) the applied load (P), which was measured using a load cell and hydraulic pump; (2) the displacements (DT) of the connection, beam, T-stub joint, and flange of the column, which were measured using linear variable displacement transducers (linear variable displacement transducers with a maximum displacement of 100 mm (LVDTs, shown as DT in Figure 2)); and (3) the strains at the T-stub connections, which were measured using strain gauges (TML YEFLA-5 (a maximum strain of 15% to 20%)). The results were collected using a data logging device that recorded all of the measurements and load cell values at 1-s intervals. All of the data were recorded for the duration of the test. Four strain gauges (ST) were added to the T-stub connection (horizontal and vertical), as shown in Figure 1, to observe the strain distribution. For a good comparison of the results, all of the specimens used the same arrangement for the locations of the strain gauges and measuring devices.

The designed connections produced various moment–rotation curves that described the relationship between the applied moment (M) and the corresponding rotation (Ɵ) for the members according to the elements of the connection and shape of the placement [1]. The rotation and bending moment (M) were predicted using the displacements of the beam and top-and-seat angle connection multiplied by the distance between the load application point and beam end bolted to the column (Lload), respectively:

M=PLload (1)

The rotational deformation of the joint (Ɵ) is equal to the connection rotation. The beam rotation is approximately given by (Figure 2):

equation (2)

where I is the moment of inertia, and E is Young’s modulus of the beam. Some of the differences among the results for the LVDTs (DT1– DT2) were identical, as expected. Therefore, all of the deformation values presented throughout the remainder of the section refer to the readings from DT1 [29].

Moment–rotation curve

The M–Ɵ curve of the connection may be characterized using the aforementioned relationships. The main features of this curve are the plastic flexural resistance, Mj.Rd, which corresponds to the intersection point of the previous two regression lines obtained for the initial stiffness (Sj.ini) and post-limit stiffness (Sj.p−l) and its corresponding rotation ƟM.Rd; the maximum bending moment, Mj.max, and its corresponding rotation, ƟM.j.max; the knee-range of the M–Ɵ curve, which is defined as the transition zone between the initial and post-limit stiffness values, with its lower boundary at Mmink−R and rotation Ɵmink−R, and with its upper limit at Msupk−R and rotation Ɵsupk−R; and the bending moment capacity, ƟM.Cd, and its corresponding rotation capacity, Ɵcd. In particular, the following characteristics were assessed in the different experimental tests [29-31], as shown in Figure 3.

The ductility of a joint (Ψj) is a property that reflects the length of the yield plateau of the moment–rotation response. The proposed definition of the ductility of a joint is the difference between the rotation value corresponding to the joint plastic resistance, ƟMRd, and the total rotation capacity, ƟCd [32-33] (Figure 3). Thus, the ductility of a joint relates the maximum rotation of the joint, ƟCd, to the rotation value corresponding to the joint’s plastic flexural resistance, ƟMRd [29]:

civil-environmental-engineerin-rotation

Figure 3: Moment–rotation curve characteristics.

equation (3)

In addition, the rotation values at the maximum load and corresponding ductility levels, Ψj.max load, can be derived as follows:

equation (4)

The conclusions concerning the ductility of a joint and the rotation values at the maximum load and corresponding ductility levels will be explained in section 3. Eurocode 3 [34] gives quantitative rules for predicting the joint flexural plastic resistance and initial rotational stiffness for the major beam-to-column joints of end-plate connections. These structural properties are evaluated below using the geometric and mechanical nominal properties in Eurocode 3.

Results and Discussion

The moment–rotation responses for the nine full-scale specimens of steel-bolted, beam-to-column connections with T-stub joints in three groups, T300-Hmax, T300-Hmin, T300-Hav, T270-Hmax, T270-Hmin, T270-Hav, T240-Hmax, T240-Hmin, and T240-Hav (H = height of beam to height of T-stub joint) are reported in Figure 4 and listed in Table 3. These curves and table show the following:

civil-environmental-engineerin-groups

Figure 4: Moment–rotation curves for three groups.

Group Experiment Resistance (KN.m) Stiffness (KN m/rad) Rotation (rad) Ψj Ψj.max load Energy Dissipated (kN.m.rad)
KR (knee-range) Mj.Rd Mj.max ӨMCd Sj.ini Sj.p−l Sj.ini/Sj.p−l ӨM.Rd ӨMin.K.R ӨMsup.k.R ӨMj.max ӨCd
T300 T300-Hmax 2.20-24.43 23.48 27.54 25.67 1.15 0.28 4 0.068 0.0067 0.077 0.113 0.122 1.8 1.66 1.68
T300-Hmin 1.20-14.96 9.38 18.51 17.1 1.61 0.6 2.68 0.048 0.0073 0.11 0.145 0.147 3.06 3.02 1.36
T300-Hav 2.22-13.34 10.16 18.96 17.66 1.6 0.39 4.09 0.046 0.0085 0.105 0.178 0.179 3.89 3.87 1.7
T270 T270-Hmax 4.47-16.13 11.94 19.16 19.16 3.45 0.26 13.13 0.015 0.0049 0.071 0.109 0.111 7.4 7.27 1.06
T270-Hmin 2.18-9.08 4.5 14.22 14.01 3.79 0.79 4.79 0.012 0.004 0.076 0.146 0.151 12.6 12.17 1.07
T270-Hav 4.75-16.58 8.23 19.63 19.48 1.71 0.49 3.85 0.019 0.011 0.08 0.108 0.109 5.74 5.68 1.07
T240 T240-Hmax 1.76-15.02 7.83 21.75 21.01 2.32 0.55 4.17 0.018 0.0017 0.086 0.139 0.142 7.89 7.72 1.54
T240-Hmin 2.32-11.58 5.68 12.22 11.22 3.53 0.39 9.05 0.015 0.0046 0.118 0.125 0.132 8.8 8.33 0.81
T240-Hav 1.53-19.29 12.63 21.53 20.8 1.95 0.33 5.85 0.051 0.0025 0.175 0.2185 0.219 4.29 4.28 2.35

Table 3: Moment-rotation characteristics.

• The knee-range for the T300, T270, and T240 groups increased by about 61.55%, 40.82%, and 30.16%, respectively, with an increase in H from Hmin to Hmax.

• The knee-range for the Hmax and Hmin models increased by about 40.35% to 47.55% and 32.70% to 49.85%, respectively, with an increase in the thickness of the web and flange in the T240 to T300 T-stub joints. Meanwhile, the knee-range for the Hav model decreased by about 33.20% to 37.21% with an increase in the thickness of the web and flange in T240 to T300 T-stub joints.

• The maximum knee-range was obtained with an increase in the thickness of the web and flange in T-stub joints and decrease in the height of the beam to height of the T-stub joint. For example, the knee-range was about 13.76 KN.m for T300-Hmin, whereas it was about 13.26 KN.m for T240-Hmax. Thus, the thickness of the web and flange in the T-stub joints was important for the height of the beam to height of T-stub joint in the knee-range.

• The plastic flexural resistance values for the T300, T270, and T240 groups increased by about 56.72% to 60.51%, 31.07% to 62.31%, and 27.46%, respectively, with an increase in H from Hmin to Hmax.

• The plastic flexural resistance values for the Hmax, Hmin, and Hav model groups increased by about 49.14% to 66.65%, 12.26% to 39.44%, and 18.99%, respectively, with the increase in the thickness of the web and flange in the T240 to T300 T-stub joints. Thus, the maximum plastic flexural resistance was obtained with an increase in the thickness of the web and flange in the T-stub joints instead of an increase in the height of the beam to height of the T-stub joint.

• The maximum bending moments for the T300, T270, and T240 groups increased by about 31.15% to 32.75%, 25.78%, and 1.05% to 43.84%, respectively, with an increase in H from Hmin to Hmax.

• The maximum bending moments for the Hmin and Hav model groups decreased by about 23.17% to 33.98% and 8.8% to 11.93%, respectively, with an increase in the thickness of the web and flange in the T240 to T300 T-stub joints. Meanwhile, the maximum bending moment for the Hmax model increased by about 20.98% to 30.43% with an increase in the thickness of the web and flange in the T240 to T300T-stub joints.

• The bending moment capacities for the T300, T270, and T240 groups increased by about 31.20% to 33.38%, 26.88%, and 0.99% to 46.56%, respectively, with an increase in H from Hmin to Hmax.

• The bending moment capacities for the Hmax and Hmin model groups increased by about 18.15% to 25.36% and 18.07% to 34.38%, respectively, with an increase in the thickness of the web and flange in the T240 to T300 T-stub joints. Meanwhile, the maximum bending moment for the Hav model decreased by about 6.34% to 15.09% with an increase in the thickness of the web and flange in the T240 to T300 T-stub joints.

• The rate of the increase in the initial stiffness to the post-limit stiffness for the T300 and T270 groups increased by about 33% and 63.52% to 70.67%, respectively, with an increase H from Hmin to Hmax. Meanwhile, the rate of the increase in the initial stiffness to the post-limit stiffness for the T240 model decreased by about 35.35% to 53.92% with an increase in H from Hmin to Hmax.

• The rates of the increase in the initial stiffness to the post-limit stiffness for the Hmin and Hav model groups decreased by about 57.45% to 70.38% and 30.08% to 34.18%, respectively, with an increase the thickness of the web and flange in the T240 to T300T-stub joints. Meanwhile, the rate of the increase in the initial stiffness to the post-limit stiffness for the Hmax model increased by about 68.24% with an increase in the thickness of the web and flange in the T240 to T300 T-stub joints. Generally, the rate of the increase in the initial stiffness to the post-limit stiffness decreased with an increase in the thickness of the web and flange in the T240 to T300 T-stub joints.

• The rotations of the plastic flexural resistance for the T300, T270, and T240 groups increased by about 29.41% to 32.35%, 20% to 36.84%, and 16.66% to 70.58%, respectively, with an increase in H from Hmin to Hmax.

• The rotations of the plastic flexural resistance for the Hmax, Hmin, and Hav models increased by about 73.53% to 77.94%, 68.75% to 75%, and 58.69%, respectively, with an increase in the thickness of the web and flange in the T240 to T300 T-stub joints.

• The maximum rotations for the T300, T270, and T240 groups decreased by about 18.53% to 36.52%, 25.34% to 26.02%, and 36.38% to 42.79%, respectively, with an increase in H from Hmin to Hmax.

• The maximum rotations for the Hmax and Hav model groups decreased by about 18.71% to 21.58% and 18.53% to 50.57%, respectively, with an increase in the thickness of the web and flange in the T240 to T300 T-stub joints. Meanwhile, the maximum rotation for the Hmin model increased by about 13.79% to 13.89% with an increase in the thickness of the web and flange in the T240 to T300 T-stub joints. Generally, the maximum rotation increased with an increase in H from Hmin to Hmax.

• The rotation capacities for the T300 and T240 groups increased by about 17.87% and 7.04% to 39.61%, respectively, with an increase in H from Hmin to Hmax. Meanwhile, the rotation capacity for the T270 model decreased by about 26.46% with an increase in H from Hmin to Hmax.

• The rotation capacities for the Hmax and Hav model groups decreased by about 14.08% to 21.83% and 18.11% to 50.13%, respectively, with an increase in the thickness of the web and flange in the T240 to T300 T-stub joints. Meanwhile, the maximum rotation for the Hmin model increased by about 10.20% to 12.58% with an increase in the thickness of the web and flange in the T240 to T300 T-stub joints.

• The Ψj values for the T300, T270, and T240 groups decreased by about 41.50%, 41.17% to 54.45%, and 11.36% to 51.36%, respectively, with an increase in H from Hmin to Hmax.

• The Ψj values for the Hmax, Hmin, and Hav models decreased by about 5.13% to 77.05%, 65.22%, and 9.11%, respectively, with an increase in the thickness of the web and flange in the T240 to T300 T-stub joints.

• The Ψj.max.load values for the T300, T270, and T240 groups decreased by about 45.03%, 40.78% to 53.32%, and 7.3% to 55.06%, respectively, with an increase in H from Hmin to Hmax.

• The Ψj.max.load values for the Hmax, Hmin, and Hav models decreased by about 5.95% to 78.49%, 63.61%, and 9.81%, respectively, with an increase in the thickness of the web and flange in the T240 to T300 T-stub joints.

• The energy dissipations for the T300 and T240 groups increased by about 18.56% to 20% and 48.05% to 65.96%, respectively, with an increase in H from Hmin to Hmax.

• The energy dissipations for the Hmax, Hmin, and Hav models increased by about 8.33% to 36.53%, 21.32% to 41.17%, and 37.27%, respectively, with an increase in the thickness of the web and flange in the T240 to T300 T-stub joints.

The moment–strain responses for the nine full-scale specimens of steel-bolted connections with T-stub joints in the three groups are reported in Figure 5. These curves show that there is also a correlation between the moment–rotation and moment–strain plots of these two completely different tools, which can be taken as further proof of the installation and measurement precision. As can be observed in Figure 5, at the point of failure for each specimen, all of the strains changed from elastic to plastic for the three groups of specimens.

civil-environmental-engineerin-moment

Figure 5 Moment–strain curves.

Three collapse modes were observed during the tests: (i) the bolt being directly overloaded by the applied forces on the beam of the T-stub connection, (ii) shear of bolts on the column of T-stub connection, and (iii) rupture of T-stub connection on the beam (Figure 6a). The failure modes of the specimens appeared after necking positions on the beam of the T-stub connection, shear of bolts on the column of the T-stub connection, or rupture of the T-stub connection on the beam (Figure 6b). Furthermore, after the collapse, a V-shape appeared between the T-stub and column in the beam-to-column connection location. The maximum V-shape appeared in all three groups.

civil-environmental-engineerin-collapse

Figure 6: (a and b): Collapse of models.

Conclusions

In this research, new connection types were suggested, and their behaviors were determined using full-scale experiments. The T-shaped combinations that were created using the IPE standard profile and T-shaped elements were different from those in the literature, which used welded plates, and efficiently used residue IPE standard profiles, rather than sending them back to the consumption cycle. The main conclusions can be summarized as follows:

• The knee-range, plastic flexural resistance, maximum bending moment, bending moment capacity, and rotation of the plastic flexural resistance for the T300, T270, and T240 groups increased with an increase in H from Hmin to Hmax.

• The thickness of the web and flange in the T-stub joints was more important than the height of the beam to height of the T-stub joint in the knee-range.

• The maximum plastic flexural resistance was obtained with an increase in the thickness of the web and flange in the T-stub joints instead of an increase in the height of the beam to height of the T-stub joint.

• The rotations of the plastic flexural resistance for the Hmax, Hmin, and Hav models increased by about 73.53% to 77.94%, 68.75% to 75%, and 58.69%, respectively, with an increase in the thickness of the web and flange in the T240 to T300T-stub joints.

• The maximum rotations for the T300, T270, and T240 groups decreased by about 18.53% to 36.52%, 25.34% to 26.02%, and 36.38% to 42.79%, respectively, with an increase in H from Hmin to Hmax.

• The Ψj and Ψj.max.load values for the T300, T270, and T240 groups decreased by about 41.50%, 41.17% to 54.45%, and 11.36% to 51.36%, respectively, with an increase in H from Hmin to Hmax.

• The Ψj and Ψj.max.load values for the Hmax, Hmin, and Hav models decreased by about 5.13% to 77.05%, 65.22%, and 9.11%, respectively, with an increase in the thickness of the web and flange in the T240 to T300 T-stub joints.

• The energy dissipations for the T300 and T240 groups increased by about 18.56% to 20% and 48.05% to 65.96%, respectively, with an increase in H from Hmin to Hmax.

• The energy dissipations for the Hmax, Hmin, and Hav models increased by about 8.33% to 36.53%, 21.32% to 41.17%, and 37.27%, respectively, with an increase in the thickness of the web and flange in the T240 to T300 T-stub joints.

Acknowledgments

The writers gratefully acknowledge the financial support given by the BAP project (2015/124) of Ataturk University and the support provided by the Gençler Metal steel company in making test specimens available. Their support in conducting the tests is most appreciated.

References

Citation: Maali M, Kılıç M, Sağıroğlu M, Aydın AC (2018) Experimental Behavior of Bolted T-Stub Connections with IPE Standard Profile. J Civil Environ Eng 8: 312 DOI: 10.4172/2165-784X.1000312

Copyright: © 2018 Maali M, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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