Received October 15, 2014; Accepted November 29, 2014; Published December 15, 2014
Citation: Azam S, Hussain Z, Fiaz (2014) Exploring the Aesthetics of Product on Consumer Buying Behavior in FMCGS. J Bus Fin Aff 3:128. doi:10.4172/2167-0234.1000128
Copyright: © 2014 Azam S, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
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The at hand study intend to exploring the Aesthetics of product on consumer buying behavior. The results identified that the elements; color, label and designs influences the perception of the consumer about the purchasing of the product. Some colors have a fuming effect while others have a cool effect on the consumer mind. Labeling is compulsory as it makes the consumer aware of the product. While now a day people wanted the product with “Look at me” Aesthetics. Aesthetics has become such an important aspect in our lives that some people even believe that Aestheticisms everything or packaging is the product. The selection of the product highly depends on the package of the product. Promotion chain is formed by the product packaging and most of the time it’s close to the actual purchase and hence play important role in observing the customer results.
Consumer behavior; Color; Label; Package design
Packaging includes single and every aspects of the design based on industrial level on multiple levels. Packaging is a primary tool for practically every known form of consumer product. Packaging opens up a whole new emotional doorway. Package should not be an obstacle or hurdle for the people who want to buy the products. It’s a very relevant issue, because modern packaging can be more technically demanding than ever before, and anything from injection molding issues to mysteriously sized or shaped “Look at Me!” packaging can be equally good or bad for marketing. The sector in which the sector is “Fast Moving Consumer Goods” (FMCG).
The importance of packaging design as a vehicle for communication and branding is growing in competitive markets for packaged FMCG products.
Therefore the purpose of this research is to understand consumer behavior toward such products by responding the following questions.
1. How Aesthetics elements impact on consumer behavior.
2. How package color impact on consumer behavior.
3. How package design impact on consumer behavior.
4. How package label impact on consumer behavior.
Wevera et al. described “The role of new product development briefs in implementing sustainability: A case study”. They worked on these variables sustainable development, design brief fuzzy front end and Innovation process. The case study was conducted on Unilever products. Whenever any product is introduced in a market in order to maintain that product it usually faces some challenges. Maintaining the position of product especially FMCG could be a hard task and it not always result in prosper. Moreover there are certain factors that can lead to success or failure of it. A qualitative benchmark study has been conducted based on information publicly available in the environment. The study was based on 8 FMCG’s organization including Unilever. The studies found that the Unilever is an organization of relative maturity. The basic challenge they found was the organization need to communicate clearly about their product .
Clemet et al. studied “Understanding consumers in store visual perception: The influence of package design feature on visual attention”. They worked on these variable decision making, visual attention, eye tracking, design feature and in store. Human being has a limited capacity of visual attention when they are finding some important product. This study is based on limited human visual capacity and large stimuli of products. They collected data through two eye tracking experiment. One experiment was performed in grocery store using wireless tracking system and other was placed in lab setting. They found out that the consumer visual attention is distracted by shelf display items. Mostly pretty and cool tend to distract consumer. Product with new design or package with bright color got this advantage of attracting consumer to a great extent. Colors and shape can be useful in communicating the product’s theory to the consumer .
Musa et al. reckoned “Supply chain product visibility: Methods, system and impacts”. They took four variables for their study. They are RFID, tracking and tracing, sensor networks and architecture design. It refers to as how the organization views product life cycle. Organization focuses every single step from the making of product till the delivery of product to end consumers. It often requires keeping a record of components required for the development of products. Organization keeps a track of development of product, delivery of product to the consumer, experience faced by consumer, logistics by consumer. The methodology used was questionnaires. Questionnaire included a survey across industries to keep an access to the tracking and tracing system about products. They also keep a record for product classes. They developed visibility system of users and requirements needed. The systems developed were used to access four different existing architecture and model of supply chain visibility. They all systems were used to identify the best system required by the organization .
Lamberti et al., discussed “Marketing strategy and marketing performance measurement system: Exploring the relationship”. They took four variables in there study. These variables are marketing performance measurement, marketing strategy, performance measurement system design and qualitative study. Marketing performance has always been a mainstream on the list of organizations and industries. The method was data collection they used multiple approach study in seven different Italian organizations. A proper design is required by the organization for the maintenance of marketing performance system. They came out with the result that different organization use different marketing performance measurement system. In every measurement systems managerial implications are important and kept in first preferences. Marketing strategies are based on the need of market and then performance measurement is made to observe the working of marketing strategy .
Angeli et al. presented “Competitive dynamics between MNC’s domestic companies at base of pyramid: An institutional perspective”. In case of pyramid (Bop) markets there are certain factors behind the competitive dynamics of multi-national companies and domestic companies. They made an analysis of multi domestic MNC, Hindustan Unilever Liver i.e. they are facing a competition from the 2 small companies namely Nirma n Cavinkare and other then that they are facing competition in the field of detergents and shampoo. For analysis they took institutional theory as interpretative lens. This description was made on 2 level units. Firstly the constant search for legitimacy in both the host country and domain and within the MNC. Secondly the pursuits of legitimacy for both low and high income markets .
Moultrie et al., introduced “Measuring design investment in firms: Conceptual foundations and exploratory UK survey”. They worked on 5 variables namely design investment, value design, R&D, innovation and design. Design has a significant impact on the performance of the things. Design keeps value. The worked on the structure of design investment. Every organization design a framework and this framework describe design as being part of the creation and commercialization of new product and service. The methodology for data collection was questionnaire and survey. Around 3334 attempts were made to contact companies only 824 were successful. They lead to 428 responses. Of these 358 were complete responses were rest of them were incomplete making a total percentage of 12.8% responses all together. The sample was design to span the composition of population of UK enterprises. They came out with the surprising patterns of design investment which demonstrate viability of underpinning framework of the investment. They result into a framework that helps the policy makers trying to understand the role and scale of design .
The variables used in this study are color, design and label of the package. Color choices vary with the sector. In case of FMCGs the package has to be very colorful and bright as to attract the large pool of customer. Only the perfect design and color could have more sales. Whereas for branded products the package has to be very unique. Marketers are focusing on new designs and idea for the package. Custom package design should be there which fits the need of the consumer . Design should be attracted to grasp the passer’s attention at once. There are many purposes of the packaging and labeling like, information transmission barrier protection, containment, marketing, security, physical protection, anti-counterfeiting packaging and many more (Figure 1).
H1 There is a relationship between Package Design and Consumer Buying Behavior
H0 There is a no relationship between Package Design and Consumer Buying Behavior
H1 There is a relationship between Package Color and Consumer Buying Behavior
H0 There is a no relationship between Package Color and Consumer Buying Behavior
H1 There is a relationship between Package Label and Consumer Buying Behavior
H0 There is a no relationship between Package Label and Consumer Buying Behavior
Population and sample size
Population is the one whom we choose for the collection of data and which becomes part of our survey for the research. The population of the study is the customer of Fast Moving Customer Goods. From the pool of related population data has been collected from 150 people in order to Exploring the Aesthetics of product on Consumer Behavior. As per the nature of our study which is quantitative I used convenient and snow ball sampling as it is easy to collect data from respondents.
A questionnaire is a research instrument consisting of a series of questions and other prompts for the purpose of gathering information from respondents.
To measure the loyalty and the feedback of the customers, questionnaires are used. Participant will asked a few questions.
The questionnaires contained a total of 20 questions and took approximately 10 to 15 minutes to complete. Incomplete questionnaires were not included in the survey. There were different measures for the variables defined and were thought of with many complications.
The data was analyzed through software “SPSS-Statistical Program for Social Sciences”. It is a software package and used for the statistics analysis. Sometimes also refer as predictive analytical software. Descriptive statistics are used to analyze the data. Simply stated, they refer to means, ranges, and numbers of valid cases of one variable. Correlation is a statistical measure to determine how two securities move in relation to each other . Correlation is also known as the correlation coefficient, which ranges between -1 and +1. Regression analysis is used for analysis of several variables at the same time, when the target is on the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables.
Validity and reliability
Validity is a concept to which extend of the data is well founded and real. The validity checking has been done through experts. Face validity has been used as the test is subjectively viewed. Reliability is the consistency of a measure. A measure is said to have a high reliability if it produces consistent results under consistent conditions. It is an effective tool for measuring Cronbach’s alpha, which is a numerical coefficient of reliability (Table 1).
|Cronbach's Alpha||N of Items|
Table 1: Reliability Statistics.
The reliability of all the variables is greater than 0.7 which means that the data is reliable enough to accept it.
Five figure summary interpretation
The above table shows the descriptive statistics of dependent and independent variables. As the above table contains the rang, Minimum value of variables, Maximum value of variable, Mean taken by adding the variable results and show the behavior of data and in the last std. Deviation is describe in the table. Ltotal range is 3, Mini is 2, Max is 5, Mean is 3.89 and Std. Deviation is 0.561, Dtotal variable Range is 3, Mini is 2, Max is 5, Mean is 3.90 and Std. Deviation is 0.585. Ctotal variable range is 4, Mini is 1, Max is 5, Mean is 3.91 and Std. Deviation is 0.647. Cbtotal is dependent variable which has range 3, Min is 2, Max is 5, Mean is 3.77 and Std. Deviation is 0.613.
H1: there is a relation between L.Total and D.Total
H0: there is no relation between L.Total and D.Total
H2: there is a relation between L.Total and C.Total
H0: there is no relation between L.Total and C.Total
H3: there is a relation between L.Total and CB.Total
H0: there is no relation between L.Total and CB.Total
H4: there is a relation between D.Total and C.Total
H0: there is no relation between D.Total and C.Total
H5: there is a relation between D.Total and CB.Total
H0: there is no relation between D.Total and CB.Total
H6: there is a relation between C.Total and CB.Total
H0: there is no relation between C.Total and CB.Total
The Table 2 showed the association analysis between scale variables of both independent and dependent variables, these values of relationship is computed by applying parsons correlation as the data is linear and normally distributed so we applied parsons correlation. According to this method only then the relationship between two variables is detected if the significance value is less than 0.05.
|Valid N (listwise)||150|
Table 2: Descriptive Statistics.
According to the table the significance value between L.Total and D.Total is 0.00 which shows that there exists a relation between both variables and the value of Pearson correlation is 0.537, which showed that the strength of the relationship is moderate. Hence h1 is accepted.
The significance value between L.Total and C.Total is also 0.00 which shows that there is a relation between both variables hence h2 is accepted and the value of Pearson correlation is 0.430, which showed that the strength of the relationship is moderate.
The significance value between L.Total and CB.Total is also 0.00 which shows that there is a relation between both variables hence h3 is accepted and the value of Pearson correlation is 0.303, which showed that the strength of the relationship is weak.
The significance value between D.Total and C.Total is also 0.00 which shows that there is a relation between both variables hence h4 is accepted and the value of Pearson correlation is 0.657, which showed that the strength of the relationship is moderate.
The significance value between D.Total and CB.Total is also 0.00 which shows that there is a relation between both variables hence h5 is accepted and the value of Pearson correlation is 0.364, which showed that the strength of the relationship is weak.
The significance value between C.Total and CB.Total is also 0.00 which shows that there is a relation between both variables hence h6 is accepted and the value of Pearson correlation is 0.338, which showed that the strength of the relationship is weak [9,10].
Consumer Behavior= a+bx1+cx2+dx3
Consumer Behavior= 1.846+0.147(Ltotal) + 0.198(Dtotal)+0.148(Ctotal)
To check the effect of all the independent variable on dependent variable, multiple regressions is used. In the co-efficient table is the significance value of Independent variable is less than 0.05 then there is relationship between dependent and independent variables (Table 3).
|Model||R||R Square||Adjusted R Square||Std. Error of the Estimate||Change Statistics|
|R Square Change||F Change||df1||df2||Sig. F Change|
a Predictors: (Constant), Ctotal, Ltotal,Dtotal
b Dependent Variable: Cbtotal
Table 3: Model Summary
All the independent variables that are C Total, L Total and D Total have values .000 which is less than 0.05 in the co-efficient table which shows there is relationship between dependent and independent variables.
The significance value in ANOVAs Table 4 is 0.000 which is less than 0.005 which proves that the model is good.
|Model||Sum of Squares||df||Mean Square||F||Sig.|
a Predictors: (Constant), Ctotal, Ltotal, Dtotal
b Dependent Variable: CBtotal
Table 4: ANOVA.
The impact of independent variable on dependent variable is showed up by adjusted R square value. The value of adjusted R square is .145 which shows that these variables are contributing approx. 14% in dependent variable while 86% is contributed by other various factors (Tables 5 and 6).
|Model||Unstandardized Coefficients||Standardized Coefficients||t||Sig.|
a. Dependent Variable: CBtotal
Table 5: Coefficients
|Model||Unstandardized Coefficients||Standardized Coefficients||t||Sig.|
a. Dependent Variable: CBtotal
Table 6: Coefficients
1. The elementary scope of this research paper is to gather the data on hand. Moreover this research explore the Aesthetics of product on consumer behavior.
2. By this study the policy maker can take assistance in designing the package. They can have the benefit from the study of the impact of Aesthetics.
3. The study will also serve as a source of benefits for the governing bodies by understanding the importance of package in the FMCG sector and by having the look at the attachment created between the package and customer.
4. This study will also be able to cover up the gap. The gap will definitely help the managers to fill up that hole of the gap being faced by company or that are causing the negative effect on consumer minds related to the package.
5. This research study will facilities the markers of FMCG in making the policy in such a way that ensures the maximum sales based of the fact that the consumer has developed the better understanding of the package and its elements.
The purpose of this study is to check the relation between the Aesthetics and the consumer behavior with the help of primary data collection. Through all that process it’s verified that there is a strong relation exists in Aesthetics such as Label, Design and color with the consumer behavior in order to find its impact on FMCG (Fast Moving Consumer Goods). The sector chosen for research has a huge impact on everyone’s life. This study will help the marketing managers to focus on such important elements while planning for the packaging of products. Every marketing purpose can be gained by the clear understanding of what a consumer think and then translating the thoughts and dream of the customer on package. Marketers should be ever ready to make changes if he has to keep pace with the changing trends. At present eco and green land has been given a lot of importance. So a package of new design and trend will be loved by all and it will give the maximum profit to the organization. Due to the limitation and unavailability of resources the study has to narrow down the scope of research to Lahore city only. It will help the organizations while designing the package for products. This study will provide the frame to Marketing Team of organizations to grab the attention on the necessary elements.