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- Paul Schroeder

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**Received Date**: May 09, 2017; **Accepted Date:** May 24, 2017; **Published Date**: May 26, 2017

**Citation: **Schroeder P (2017) External Gravity Theory and Gravity ‘Bumps’ During
Eclipses. J Phys Math 8: 228. doi: 10.4172/2090-0902.1000228

**Copyright:** © 2017 Schroeder P. This is an open-access article distributed under
the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted
use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and
source are credited.

**Visit for more related articles at** Journal of Physical Mathematics

Perspective variances cause conflicts of understanding between all people and are especially evident among the many builders of gravity theories. External Gravity theory provides a 180 degree change of perspective relative to current theories. While consistent with experience, External Gravity Theory rebuilds gravity and its flow direction and source by focusing on the actions of the structure of space rather than actions caused by matter. The flow of gravity is broken down into beams for increased analysis potential. Another name for External Gravitation would be Beam Theory. Of the many revelations found with gravity beams, the focus of this paper is on the solution of gravity measurements during eclipses which led to the dual eclipse bump anomaly.

Mohe eclipse bumps; Rotation; Gravity; Radiation; Space structure; Solar surface temperature

External gravity theory starts by raising the issue that attraction is a non-physical ‘action at a distance’ and that attraction gravity is metaphysical. Isaac Newton wouldn’t give physical nature to gravity in order to avoid the many inherent issues. We wish to assign a physical nature. The best way for a reader to relate to the necessary steps is to focus ideas toward space, given its dominant nature. Then space has material contents we call masses. Space itself cannot be empty in any part, as being void its part would not be measurable and thus not exist. So space has structure throughout. Near masses we find material solids liquids and gasses. These components are absent away from the masses so we must look elsewhere for the structure of space. We can relate here to light and other IM radiation which transfers from spatial bodies such as the sun. Radiation is everywhere, comes from all directions, and doesn’t interfere with other radiation. We can assign this radiation as the structure of space. Many have concerned themselves with how the radiation travels, and they assumed a medium called the aether. We save a layer with space formed strictly by the radiation contents. That leaves need for the extra structure called aether.

We assigned space as the nature of the universe because it participates. Matter based theories treat space as nothing but geometry. But we have found the EM spectrum everywhere in our skies. So, in reality space is EM radiation traveling from all directions and arriving at any point from all directions. Radiation travels infinitely across space at speed C. To attempt finding a start or end to overall radiation would be useless so the universe is infinite.

A feature of radiation is its impact and pressure upon material things. Light impacting our eyes is an example. Our Newtonian physics is built upon motions and interactions. But it hasn’t been possible to form a unified theory of everything due to the behavior of attraction gravity and of magnetic attraction Physics study has thus required fields and media, energy and force in order to transfer ‘attractions’ into interactions. Would we need these concepts if gravity and magnetism result from pressures caused by physical contact interactions?

A dual definition conflict regarding gravity exists in that some view gravity as the effect, force we call attraction, and sometimes gravity is as the source of these effects. Be sure to understand the definition being used. This paper suggests considering gravity (the source) to be a push by something in motion. Since the known motion within space is that of radiation, it must serve as the ultimate source of other motion. Therefore gravity must be a push and originate from radiation. Physics has found radiation to have a transverse wave structure which can be likened to a taut string which is vibrating. On paper a sin wave represents the continuation of the vibration. Avoid relating radiation waves to water waves which apply to a large collection of water occurring where separate mediums of water and air converge. The term beams is useful to gather the relevant radiation for a discussion of space. Viewing waves as actions within beams breaks down the geometry of space into small workable pieces, in much the same way that particle theory seeks the smallest particles. Linear sections of radiation are often shown as rays when exiting a sphere. The term ‘beam’ allows for considering variable distances and angles within a field of interest and for the merging of differing rays.

There is a dual particle/wave nature assigned to radiation. This unnecessarily confuses science since. External Gravitation sees the waves as being the particles. While radiation travels as waves, it arrives with impact like particles. Einstein found the measure of the impact correlates with the frequency so E=hf. The waves within a beam are the vibrations and display as sin waves, assuming the 2 dimensional view of the vibrations. Extending that, the beam should look about the same from any direction which suggests the 3 dimensional view of the waves is of coils. For this work we can use the terms wave and coil interchangeably. When a wave arrives at matter we can imagine the wave splashing down. The more waves per time (greater frequency), the more splashes and the more the energy as noted in: E=hf. This event occurs on the surface of a mass. There needs to be more since gravity applies within and the size and density of the mass affects the local effect of gravity.

Gravity pressure must do more than pressure the surface, so some of the radiation must penetrate the mass. Longer wave radiation would splash less and arrive more like a penetrating arrow. The longer the wave the deeper will be the penetration. Very long wave radiation will continue thru the mass and exit the other side. Waves within matter occasionally incur atomic particles. These interactions squeeze the waves so that they have shorter wave lengths and higher frequencies. This diminishes their pressure. The diminished pressure of those waves means they exit with a lesser upward push. The resulting upward push of those beams at the surface is less than the undiminished downward push there so the ‘net’ effect is a gravity effect we currently call attraction. Net effects of the interaction of the sources of gravity from all directions are a key to External Gravitation.

In order for the push from gravity beams to decline when penetrating matter, something must be changed.

That change is a conversion of the waves into higher frequency light beams. The imbalance of the push pressure of beams coming from different directions is the source of heat. In our common attraction situation, the imbalance is the difference between upward and downward pushes. Since the surface is where the difference between incoming beams and exiting beams is the greatest, that is the maximum location of heat. As an aside this discussion redefines the sun and stars as standard matter and it is the altered gravity beams that provide the light and heat rather than some reaction sourced by the matter itself. Thus the maximum heat from the sun is at the surface and it lessens rapidly within the interior.

We can also refer to the pushing gravity concepts of LeSage for which the main objection is that the heat build up would destroy the mass. Clearly this objection misunderstands gravity beams. Also, the shadow region between bodies such as the earth and moon that LeSage focuses on is where the gravity effects gradually decrease as fewer exiting beams merge with more incoming beams as distance from surfaces increases. With penetration causing effects we see that this is a center focused action since the longer the penetration the closer to the center beams will come. This duplicates Newtonian gravity formulas that relate to centers and include the factor R2.

Essentially gravity is a push pressure, and is not energy. Since longer wave radiation provides the most gravitational force, the greater the wave frequency the less the gravity push that occurs. GP=k/f where GP Is gravity pressure and k is a constant. Since E=hf, then E=hk/GP so the energy of a radiation is an inverse to gravity pressure. Though surprising, this makes sense since energy is a content of matter via E=MC2. Matter itself is the recipient of gravity.

We now introduce more revelations from applying linear forms of pushing gravity. All matter bodies (and therefore all masses) rotate relative to their local equilibrium both by their atomic makeup and their entire body. Mass cannot exist without rotation. Rotation is simply a form of nonlinear motion. Masses also move relative to all other masses and thus location determines ones perspective. Think about launching something straight up on earth. As it continues upward is it straight up relative to you as earth rotates or relative to the original launch site relative to the solar system? And is it straight up relative to a lu7nbar occupant? No.

An analogy for space rotation and swirling is placing a device that rotates into the center of a barrel of water. The water will swirl around the rotor and the swirl will decrease as you approach the edge. The sun is our rotor and gravity structure of space is the ‘water. The swirl continuously decreases with distance from the sun as there is no edge.

Infinite speed would overcomes the idea of curvature resulting from gravity but with any other speed of gravity the path must be seen as curved from some someone’s view. It is easier to view the importance of this situation using slower speeds. There curved paths are often seen as elliptical, hyperbolic and parabolic in nature. The study of astrodynamics addresses these issues and makes patched conic orbits for approaching moons and planets. Cosmology likewise needs to address this curvature issue in detail. We can review the 2 body situation by thinking about the earth and moon. The moon is pushed toward earth because undiminished gravity beams push it from beyond. Picture circular clocks with the lesser one (moon) above the dominate clock (earth). The push from beyond is centered at 12:00: O’clock on the moon clock. Meanwhile some gravity beams, which diminished by exiting earth, are among those hitting the moon (at 6: O’clock). The net result is the centripetal force.

Equally important is that the motions causing curvature modify the net result. The beams that exited earth are bent relative to the moon and arrive there somewhat displaced toward 5: O’clock. The net centripetal force is very slightly modified. A greater modification affects the lateral balance. There is now more gravity pressure arriving at the moon from its right. That imbalance is the motive force for its orbital motion and maintains the motion. Newton’s laws ignoring friction have always been approximations and a continuing motive is needed. Newton indicated willingness to accept a pushing particle gravity if it didn’t interfere with the motion of orbitals. The curvature of the beams and their particle/waves solves his issue. It also answers a common objection to the pushing gravity of LeSage.

The sideways force by the ‘net’ of gravity beams is slight relative to the straight line force. But it is constantly there as the rotation of earth remains constant. The flow from the bent gravity beams continue an orbital motion begun when the orbital was much smaller. There is no aberration relative to the bent beams as they exactly supply the drive. The beams also penetrate the moon. How the normal curve center of the moon penetrating beams pass relative to the moon’s center specifies the moon’s rotation. This is particularly relevant for planets relative to the sun.

Now, we are ready to focus on ground work for the 1997 Mohe eclipse. We mentioned the net gravitational differences of pushing gravity upon earth due to interference by the sun. Duplicating the ‘attraction’ view, we recognize that gravity beams exiting the sun are diminished and arrive at the 6:O: clock - side of earth facing the sun. Being diminished the beams provide less push than do the gravity beams from the back that push earth toward the sun. The result is the centripetal force. Less obvious is that the beams exiting the sun must acquire rotation from that source and thus arrive at earth slightly from the right 5:O: clock side of earth in its orbit. I term the beams as being bent. This arrival of bent beams of gravity from the east side of earth provides the motive force for the orbital motion. See discussion on page 56 of the book or in papers. Descartes’ whirling structure of space, rejected upon implementation of Newton’s gravity model, returns and here and helps explain the actions addressed by Kepler’s third law. Note that Newton’s laws of continuous unimpeded motion misrepresent reality.

Measurements were taken in 1997 in Northwest China of the total solar eclipse. No significant anomaly during the total eclipse was found. However two ‘gravity anomaly valleys’ [1] with near symmetrical decrease in gravity were found at first contact and last contact. The diagram below shows the decrease receives slightly more downward push beams from each side than from straight down **(Figure 1)**.

The Mohe total eclipse gravity anomaly strongly supports my gravity model. As explained, some extra gravity pushing beams angle in to earth from the 5: O’clock side and behind. At the any noontime, as discussed above, slightly more gravity beams arrive to the right, due to bending, than arrive coming directly down. Remember those arriving from the right push earth in its orbit. During an eclipse the moon blocks those beams prior to blocking solar light. That causes the initial bump registering a less than expected gravity push. The timing was found to correlate with the speed c of the gravity beams. Now for the cause of bump 2. The earth is moving relative to straight line gravity beams. Consider those which didn’t quite encounter the sun, passing to the sun‘s west. Those beams incur aberration when arriving at earth due to earth‘s orbital motion. They are bent toward the right. These beams are blocked by the moon right after the solar eclipse. The net effect of the dual bending beam groups provides the expected gravity at noontime. Overall the Chinese Moshe test site shows extra downward push beams from each side while the straight downward effect of gravity is additionally lessened due to the curvature. This yields our daily normal gravity measure [2-12].

The eclipse is a most obvious anomaly that encourages looking at gravity from the perspective of External Gravitation. Beyond that are numerous views of physical phenomena such as the particle mass duality of radiation and the finding of maximum heat on the sun’s surface which have been resolved here. Other topics covered in External Gravitation papers and the book include the recycling of gravity, the creation of matter, the growth of masses, the causes of Kepler’s third law, antigravity, magnetism, the forces, winds, galaxial formation, motions of like sized rotating masses, and more.

- She Yang X, Wang QS (2002) Gravity Anomaly During the Mohe Total Solar Eclipse.Chinese science bulletin 46: 1833-1836.
- Schroeder P (2006) The Universe is Otherwise. Booksurge, USA.
- Schroeder P (2008) Paeps: External Gravity Particles.The Universe is Otherwise: Part 1.
- Schroeder P (2008)The Spectrum of Existence.The Universe is Otherwise: Part 2.
- Schroeder P (2008)Motions, Rotations and Revolutions. The Universe is Otherwise: Part 3.
- Schroeder P (2010) Gravity from the Ground Up.Proceedings of the NPA
**7**: 498-503. - Schroeder P (2011) Get ‘Real’ About Gravity.Proceedings of the NPA 8: 521-529.
- Schroeder P (2011) Ignoring Newton’s Hints Brought Scientific Chaos.Proceedings of the NPA 8: 521-529.
- Schroeder P (2012) Gravity and Revolution Rates within Galaxies.Proceedings of the NPA.
- Schroeder P (2012) Creating Matter from EM Radiation.Proceedings of the NPA.
- Schroeder P (2013) Mass Rotation Controls Orbiting.Proceedings of the NPA.
- Isaac Newton I (2003)Principia; in James Newman.The World of Mathematics.

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