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ISSN: 2332-2543
Journal of Biodiversity & Endangered Species
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Fauna of Protected Areas and Dirology: A challenge for Youths

Narayan Ramappa Birasal*

Zoology department, KLE Society’s Gudleppa Hallikeri College, Haveri–581110, Karnataka, India

*Corresponding Author:
Narayan Ramappa Birasal
Associate Professor, Zoology department
KLE Society’s Gudleppa Hallikeri College
Haveri–581110, Karnataka, India
Tel: 9449122732
E-mail: [email protected]

Received Date: May 20, 2014; Accepted Date: May 21, 2014; Published Date: May 29, 2014

Citation: Birasal NR (2014) Fauna of Protected Areas and Dirology: A Challenge for Youths. J Biodivers Endanger Species 2:e115. doi:10.4172/2332-2543.1000e115

Copyright: © 2014 Birasal NR. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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Introduction

The Wildlife is one of the most gracious gifts of nature to this land, which is as rich in its variety and colours as its number. In order to conserve the existing wildlife of India, the Union and State governments and several Non-government organizations have given useful suggestions and made sincere efforts to declare the natural habitats as protected areas. This article provides information about protected areas and the available scope for the young researchers, environmentalists, budding ornithologists to publish their research work in reputed journals. As member of editorial board of Journal of Biodiversity & Endangered Species, I hope that publication of details on fauna (non-domesticated animals) conserved in protected areas is useful for the future generation of researchers.

Wildlife can be found in all ecosystems. Wildlife is found in deserts, rain forests, plains, and other areas including the most developed urban sites [1]. Everybody hopes to build a future in which humans live in harmony with nature. The need for conservation of wildlife in India is often questioned because of the apparently incorrect priority in the face of direct poverty of the people. However, Article 48 of the Constitution of India specifies that, "The state shall endeavour to protect and improve the environment and to safeguard the forests and wildlife of the country" and Article 51-A states that "it shall be the duty of every citizen of India to protect and improve the natural environment including forests, lakes, rivers, and wildlife and to have compassion for living creatures." The majestic lion, the grateful yet fearsome tiger, unproductive leopard, powerful elephant, the nimble deer, attractive antelope, the picturesque peafowl, the gorgeous pelican, the beautiful parakeets, wood-pecker and the elegant flamingo are some of these of which any country might be proud.

Indian National Resource

There are 181 species of amphibians, 312 species of mammals, 399 species of reptiles, 1175 species of birds, and 60000 species of insects. Over the years, about 106 species of animals and about 140 species of birds have become extinct because of climate and geographic changes and also by over hunting by man for food, medicine, fur and many other reasons. According to ecologists, more than 600 species of animals and birds are expected to become extinct if not protected.

Human activities pose the biggest threat to wildlife because expanding human population results in expanding needs of man [2]. With scientific progress and technological development, man has started utilizing natural resources at a much larger scale. Continuous increase in population caused an increasing demand for resources. Wildlife is considered a renewable resource and hence its conservation is essential if we desire sustainable yields. Nature has endowed India with such abundant and varied fauna that it compares favorably with that of any country in the world whether it is developed, developing or underdeveloped.

India has large geographical size and variety of climate and habitats. Wild animals constitute great national resources. Preservation and protection of wildlife is important from the ecological point of view. The role of individual species in ecosystem (for example in food chain) cannot be undermined. Today amphibians are under a threat and their population has declined. This is the cause of ecological concern because some habitats and biomass of amphibians can exceed all other large animals combined.

Management plans to conserve wildlife

Wildlife, besides its crucial role in preventing ecological degradation has other values like serving as a genetic pool for livestock improvement. Management plans to conserve wild life are (i) The Indian Board of Wildlife was set up in 1952 to ensure protection and scientific management of the diminishing wildlife in the country (ii) Countrywide uniform legislation in the form of the Wild life (Protection) Act enacted in 1972 with object of ensuring stricter protection to wildlife and its better management (iii) The Forest (Conservation) Act passed in 1980, to impose a severe restriction, on the diversion of forestland to non-forest use. (iv) Establishment of (a) national parks, (b) wildlife sanctuaries, (c) biosphere reserves and (d) specials projects formulated for captive breeding and for rehabilitation of endangered species

Wildlife conservation is the practice of protecting endangered plant and animal species and their habitats. Among the goals of wildlife conservation are to ensure that nature will be around for future generations to enjoy and to recognize the importance of wildlife and wilderness lands to humans. Many nations have government agencies dedicated to wildlife conservation, which help to implement policies designed to protect wildlife. The science of extinction is called dirology. An endangered species is defined as a population of a living being that is at the danger of becoming extinct because of several reasons. Either they are few in number or are threatened by the varying environmental parameters.

Flagship species: like tiger , Indian bison or Gaur and Asian Elephant are found in sufficient numbers in India in some protected areas. A study carried out by Dr. Ullas Karanth of the Wildlife Conservation Society has contributed a lot in this field [3-5].

Habitat destruction

Some of the activities that are causing a destruction of habitat of flora and fauna are

Destruction of forest land for agriculture and other purposes: Large tracts of forest land have been cleaned up for monoculture plantations like eucalyptus. This has led to the destruction of species that were dependent on the forest. This has adversely affected several species dependent on large tracts of scrub. The classic example is Great Indian Bustard [6].

Mining operations: clear out large areas of land and cause destruction to the species dependent on them. An example is the Kudremukh Iron Ore Company Limited which mined iron ore within the boundaries of the protected Kudremukh National Park [7].

Human–wildlife conflict:

Due to the loss of habitat, more and more species of fauna have started to venture into human habitation causing a conflict between humans and fauna. A typical species affected by this is the elephant which ventures out of the forest into human cultivations thereby eating or destroying the crops. In some cases, the elephants have also caused human deaths. In Karnataka state, between April and December 2012, a total of 157 elephants have died and about 18 people were killed in elephant attacks in the state. The figure is the highest ever since 2007-08. Majority of the elephants, about 141, died of natural causes, 3 due to gun shots and 13 of electrocution. The lack of food and water force elephants out of the forest and they end up in villages on the fringes of the forested areas [8].

Pollution

Release of industrial waste and human effluents into rivers have caused significant damages to species that reside in rivers and riverbanks. Air pollution is also a significant cause of concern in metros like Bangalore where it has been found that air pollution is discolouring foliage including those of ornamental plants. Pollution in rivers has caused sharp reduction in populations of animal species [9].

Wildlife management

With reference to wildlife, ecological subdivisions of India include (i) Himalayan mountain system (ii) Peninsular and (iii) Tropical rain forest region. Day by day, list of endangered and threatened animals is on rise. Due to continuous increase in the number of endangered species, steps have been taken to protect and manage the wildlife of the country. Government and Non-Government organizations like Bombay Natural History Society (BNHS), Wildlife Preservation Society (Dehradun), World Wildlife Fund, Indian Board of Wildlife etc have contributed a lot and dedicated to wildlife conservation.

In-situ conservation of wildlife

It is on-site conservation of genetic resources in natural populations of plant or animal species. It is the process of protecting an endangered plant or animal species in its natural home by protecting the habitat itself. Main benefit of in-situ conservation is that it maintains recovering populations in the surrounding where they have developed their distinctive properties. Another benefit is that this strategy helps ensure the ongoing processes of evolution and adaptation within their environments. Biodiversity conservation is mostly based on in situ conservation and this involves the protection of wildlife habitats. There are different categories of protected areas which are managed with different objectives for bringing benefits to the society. These include (A) National Parks (B) Sanctuaries (C) Biosphere Reserves (D) Nature / conservation reserves (E) Projects for endangered species

(A) National Parks: {IUCN category II Protected Areas}: India's first national park was established in 1936 as Hailey National Park (now known as Jim Corbett National Park). India only had five national parks till 1970. In 1972, India enacted the Wildlife Protection Act to safeguard the habitats of conservation reliant species. Further legislation strengthening protections for wildlife was introduced in the 1980s. As a result, we have 104 national parks (till 2012). Total land covered in India under all National parks is 39,919 km2, comprising 1.21% of India's total surface area. Of the total 104 NPs, Karnataka state has five. Table 1 gives the salient features of National parks of Karnataka state.

  Name of the National Park Located in the district Spread over area in km2. Sight common to see the following wildlife
1 Anshi Uttara Kannada 250 Indian Elephant. Gaur, Wild boar. Sambar.chevrotain. Chital. Gray langur. Bonnet Macaque. Slender Loris. Bengal Tiger. Jungle Cat. Indian Leopard, Leopard Cat. Small Indian Civet. Common Mongoose. Golden Jackal. Sloth Bear. Malabar Giant Squirrel. Giant Flying Squirrel. Crested Porcupine. King Cobra, Python. Great Hornbill. Malabar Pied Hornbill and Ceylon Frogmouth.
2 Bandipur (First Tiger reserve of India) Chamarajnagar 800 Gauls. Sambar. Spotted deer. Barking deer. Mouse deer. Bonnet macaque. Slender lolls. Red Giant Flying Squirrel, Bengal Tiger . Leopard. Common palm civet. Small Indian civet, Sloth bear, Asiatic wild dog. Striped Hyena Golden Jackal.Trinket Snake
3 Bannerughatta Bangalore 115 Indian Leopard. Gaur, Indian Elephant, Golden Jackal, Fox. Wild boar Sloth Bear. Sambar. Spotted deer. Barking deer. Common Langur Bonnet Macaque. Indian Crested Porcupine
4 Kudremukh Encompasses regions in the districts of Dakshina Kannada, Udupi and Chikmagalur 600. Bengal Tiger. Indian Leopard. Golden Jackal. Lion-tailed Macaque. Common Langur. Sloth Bear. Gaur. Sambar. Spotted deer. Barking deer. Malabar Giant Squirrel. Indian Giant Flying Squirrel. Indian Crested Porcupine. Malabar Trogon. Great Hornbill. Malabar Whistling Thrush. Imperial Pigeon.
5 Nagarhole (Rajiv Gandhi) Situated in districts of Mysore and Kodagu 575 Gaur Sambar. Spotted deer, Barking deer. Mouse deer. Four horned Antelope. Giant fruit bat. Rusty spotted Cat. Common palm civet. Sloth bear. Asiatic wild dog. Falcons. Partridges. Quails. Peafowl, Owls.

Table 1: Important National Parks of Karnataka state

(B) Wildlife Sanctuaries: {IUCN Category IV Protected Areas}: India has more than 500 wildlife sanctuaries. Many National Parks were declared initially as wildlife sanctuaries. These protected areas are of national importance to conservation, usually due to some flagship faunal species. Example: National Chambal Wildlife Sanctuary for conserving the gharial. Table 2 gives the salient features of Wildlife sanctuaries of Karnataka state and Table 3 gives details of protected areas for bird’s heronry in Karnataka state.

  Flame of the Bird sanctuary Located in the district Spread over area in km'. Sight common to see the following wildlife
1 Adichunchanagiri Mandya 88 created mainly for the conservation of peacocks
2 Arahithittu Mysore 135 Leopard fox and spotted deer
3 Biligiriranga Swamy Temple Chamarajnagar 53953 Sloth bear Gaur Sambar Nilgiri wood pigeon Malabar whistling thrush Yellow-throated bulbul Peregrine falcon. Rufousbellied hawk eagle Endangered amphibian itthyophis ghyttnosus'
4 Bhadra Chikkamagalur & Shimoga 49246 Tiger Leopard Elephant Gaur Slender Ions Pangolin Ruby throated bulbul Shama Malabar whistling thrush
5 Brahmagiri Kodagu 1818 elephant gaur tiger jungle cat bonnet macaque and Nilgiri marten
6 Cauvery Bangalore Mysore & Mandya 10259 Leopard Elephant Sambar Common otter Endangered grizzled giant squirrel squirrel Sanctuary is famous for mahseer fish (Tor sp l
7 Dandeli Uttara Kannada 47502 Gaur Wild pig Slender loris Malabar giant squirrel Barking deer
8 Daroji (Sloth Bear Sanctuary) Bellary 5587 This sanctuary was mainly created for the preservation of sloth bears
9 Melukote temple Mandya 4582 Wolf Leopard Blackbuck Pangolin
10 Mookambika Udupi 247 Slender Ions lion-tailed macaque sambar and chital are some of the animals found here The endangered cane turtle
11 Nugu Mysore 3032 elephant gaur leopard spotted deer and common palm cr.et
12 Pushpagiri Kodagu 10259 Elephant Tiger Slender loris. Nilgiri marten Bonnet macaque Great pied hornbill Malabar trogon Nilgiri blackbird
13 Ranehennur Ha.eri 119 This sanctuary was created mainly for the conservation of blackbucks This sanctuary is also a habitat for the endangered Great Indian Bustard
14 Sharavathi Valley Shimoga 43123 Tiger Leopard Mouse deer Bonnet macaque Common langur Paradise flycatcher Racket-tailed drongo Bluethroated barbet
15 Shettihalli Shimoga 3956 Tiger. Leopard Bonnet macaque Malabar giant squirrel
16 Someshwara Udupi 8840 Tiger. Leopard Lion-tailed macaque Spotted deer
17 TalaCauvery Kodagu 105 Clawless otter Elephant Tiger Stnped necked mongoose Mouse deer Fairy bluebird Malabar trogon Broadbiller roller

Table 2: Important Wildlife sanctuaries of Karnataka state

  Name of the Bird sanctuary Located in the district Spread over area In km'. Sight common to see the following birds
1 Aniveri Uttara Kannada 223 White ibis, little cormorant. pied kingfisher, common grey hornbill Paradise fly catcher
2 Gudavi Shimoga 73 White ibis. Pheasant-tailed (scan& Purple moorhen. Little grebe
3 Ranganathittu Mandya 67 Cormorants. Darter. Great stone plover. coi swallow. Spoonbills. Lesser whistling teal (Roosting site for some birds)
4 Illandagadde Shimoga Small island onTunga river Median Egret. Little Cormonant Darter
5 Kaggaladu Heronry Tumkur Known as best herony for painted storks in South India Birds found nesting here are painted storks. grey herons. pelicans. black stilts and ducks
6 Kokkare Bellur Mandya Haven fur avian species like Spot Billed Pelican 8 Painted Storks Apart from pelicans and storks 250 species of birds have been sighted here
7 Magadi Gadag 5422 Bar-headed geese
8 Ghataprabha Belgaum 2978 Demoiselle Crane. European While Stork. Rivet terns
9 Bankapur Peacock Sanctuary Marv' 5629 This sanctuary was created mainly for the conservation of Peacocks (Declared on June 9. 2006)
10 Bonal Yadgir Second largest bird sanctuary in the state. after Ranganthrttu Bird Sanctuary Purple heron. White-necked stork. Black bis Brahminy duck

Table 3: Important Bird heronries of Karnataka state

(C) Biosphere Reserves: {category roughly corresponding to IUCN Category V Protected Areas}. The Indian government has established 18 Biosphere Reserves, which protect larger areas of natural habitat than a National Park or wildlife Sanctuary, and often include one or more National Parks and or preserves, along buffer zones that are open to some economic uses. Protection is granted not only to the flora and fauna of the protected region, but also to the human communities who inhabit these regions. Table 4 gives the gives details of Biosphere reserves of India.

  Year Name Location State Type Area
(Square
Kilometer)
1 1986 Nilgiri Biosphere
Reserve
Part of Waynad, Nagarhole,
Bandipur and Mudumalai,
Nilambur, Silent Valley and
Anaimalai Hills
Tamilnadu,
Kerala and
Karnataka
Western
Ghats
5520
2 1988 Nanda Devi Parts of Chamoli dt,
Pithoragarh dt & Bageshwar
District
Uttarakhand Western
Himalayas
5860
3 1988 Nokrek Part of Caro Hills Meghalaya East
Himalayas
820
4 1989 Gulf of Mannar Indian part of Gulf of Mannar
extending from Rameswaram
island in the North to
Kanyakumari in the South of
Tamil Nadu and Sri Lanka
Tamilnadu    
Coasts 10500
5 1989 Manas Part of Kokrajhar, Bongaigaon,
Barpeta, Nalbari, Kamrup &
Darrang Districts
Assam East
Himalayas
2837
6 1989 Sundarbans Part of delta of Ganges and
Barahamaputra river system
West Bengal Gangetic
Delta
9630
7 1989 Great Nicobar
Biosphere Reserve
Southern most islands
of Andaman and Nicobar
Islands
Andaman and
Nicobar
Islands
Islands 885
8 1994 Simlipal Part of Mayurbhanj district Odisha Deccan
Peninsula
4374
9 1997 Dibru-Saikhowa Part of Dibrugarh and Tinsukia
districts
Assam East
Himalayas
765
10 1998 Dihang-Dibang Part of Siang and Dibang Valley Arunachal
Pradesh
Eastern
Himalaya
5112
11 1999 Pachmarhi Parts of Betul, Hoshangabad
& Chhindwara Districts
Madhya
Pradesh
Semi-Arid 4982
12 2000 Khangchendzonga Parts of Kanchanjunga Hills Sikkim East
Himalayas
2620
13 2001 Agasthyamalai
Biosphere Reserve
Neyyar, Peppara & Shenduruny
Wildlife Sanctuary and their
adjoining areas
Kerala,
Tamil Nadu
Western
ghats
1828
14 2005 Achanakamar -
Amarkantak
Part
of Annupur, Dindori and Biles!:
urdistricts
Madhya
Pradesh,
Chhattisgarh
Maikala
Hills
3835
15 2008 Great Rann of
Kutch
Part of Kutch, Rajkot,
Surendranagar & Patan dts
Gujarat Desert 12454
16 2009 Cold Desert Pin Valley National Park and
surroundings; Chandratal and
Sarchu & Kibber Wildlife
Sancturary
Himachal
Pradesh
Western
Himalayas
7770
17 2010 Seshachalam Hills Seshachalam Hill Rall2ES
coverin g parts of Chittoor and
Kadapa districts
Andhra
Pradesh
Eastern
Ghats
4755
18 2011 Panna Part of Panna and Chattarpur
Districts
Madhya
Pradesh
catchment
area of the
Ken River
543

Table 4: Important Biosphere Reserves of India

(D) Nature/conservation reserves: A landmark decision taken for conserving biodiversity rich rivers and basins is the declaration of three conservation reserves in Uttar Kannada district of Karnataka, namely (i) 299.52 Sq.Km area as Aghanshini Lion Tailed Macaque Conservation Reserve (ii) 57.07 Sq. Km area as Bedthi Conservation Reserve, and (iii) 52.5 Sq.Km area as Hornbill Conservation Reserve, on May 31, 2011 by Karnataka state Government. Recently, Bedthi, Aghanashini and Kali river valleys in Uttara Kannada district received Conservation Reserve tag. The three reserves are set out to protect Lion Tailed Macaque Habitats, rare and endangered Myristica Swamps of the Western Ghats and Hornbill habitats [10]. The focus is conserving each of these iconic species, the end result of protecting the entire ecosystem will lead to conservation of a number of other endemic and endangered species including the free flowing rivers. It is hoped that these conservation reserves herald a beginning of innovative ways devised by experts to protect our valuable free flowing rivers. Many such rivers all across the country have been nurturing biodiversity and supporting livelihoods and it is high time that civil society groups, scientists and policy makers come together and look for various ways to protect these rivers from the onslaught of dams and pollution, for the current and future generations (Figure 1).

biodiversity-endangered-species-Uttara-Kannada

Figure 1: Map showing Conservation reserves in Uttara Kannada district

(E) Projects for endangered species: For conservation of wildlife, the threatened species have been classified as endangered, vulnerable and rare according to the degree of danger they face for survival. Following are some of the special projects launched to protect selected wildlife (i) Hangul project: was started in 1970 to protect Hangul (Kashmir Stag). (ii) Gir Lion Project: was started in 1973. The Gir forest in Saurashtra peninsula of Gujarat state is the only surviving habitat of the Asiatic Lion (Panthera leon persica). (iii) Project Tiger: was started in 1973. There are 25 tiger reserves in India covering 30,000 sq.km area. (iv) Crocodile Breeding project: The project came into existence with a proposal from Dr H R Bustard, an FAO expert on crocodile breeding and management, for the development of a crocodile farming industry in India. The project was initiated in 1975. There are 3 species of crocodiles in India (a) saltwater or estuarine crocodile (Crocodylus porosus), (b) Freshwater (swamp) crocodile (C. palustris) and (c) Gharial (Gavialis gangeticus). Gharial eggs were hatched for the first time in captivity anywhere in the world at Yikerpada, (Dgenkanal district, Orissa). 16 crocodile rearing centres have been developed in India. (v) Brow antlered-deer project: was started in 1977 in Manipur to protect Brow antlered-deer (vi) Rhino conservation project: It was introduced in 1987 in Assam and is continued for effective and intensive management of rhino habitats. Dudhwa National Park was selected for this project. (vii) Snow leopard project: It was taken up to create 12 snow-leopard reserves throughout Himalayas (viii) Project elephant: was started in 1992 with the aim at ensuring long term survival of identified viable populations of elephants (ix) Yak project research centre : was started at West Kameng, Arunachal Pradesh.

Exclusive areas

As special effort, both the Union and State governments have declared habitats to conserve the exclusive species in particular areas. A few examples of such declared areas in Karnataka state are (A) Ranebennur Blackbuck sanctuary (119 km2) was declared as wildlife sanctuary in June 1974 to protect Blackbucks (B) Daroji Sloth Bear Sanctuary in Bellary district in Karnataka [11]. The sanctuary was exclusively created for the preservation of Indian Sloth bears in October 1994. (C) Bankapur peacock sanctuary in Haveri district was established in June 2006. Understanding the great presence of peacocks in 139 acres of Bankapur fort area, the government took decision to preserve the natural habitat of Indian national bird [12]. (D) Butterfly Park: first of its kind was established in November 2006 [13]. The Butterfly Park is spread across 7.5 acres of land. The butterfly conservatory (a circular enclosure with a poly-carbonate roof of 10,000 sq ft provide the living environment to support more than twenty species of butterflies). The environment has a tropical setting, with a humid climate, an artificial waterfall, and appropriate flora to attract butterflies.

Conclusion

Among the goals of wildlife conservation are to ensure that nature will be around for future generations to enjoy and to recognize the importance of wildlife and wilderness lands to humans. Many nations have government agencies dedicated to wildlife conservation. Numerous independent nonprofit organizations also promote various wildlife conservation causes. Wildlife conservation has become an increasingly important practice due to the negative effects of human activity on wildlife. In spite of all efforts, more forest area is needed for greater interest of protecting wildlife from the adverse effect of climate change. Optimum afforestation could help stop degradation of environment and biodiversity, making the country a safe habitat for all. It is the time to formulate a time-befitting policy, that the present impacts of climate change had adversely affected the region’s agriculture, ecology, bio-diversity, weather, environment etc. Hence it is for the youths to take up this challenge to conserve the fauna of protected areas and prevent science of extinction of wildlife i.e dirology.

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