alexa Fe Absorption and Distribution of Imperata cylindrica (L.) P. Beauv. under Controlled Conditions | Open Access Journals
ISSN: 2161-0525
Journal of Environmental & Analytical Toxicology
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Fe Absorption and Distribution of Imperata cylindrica (L.) P. Beauv. under Controlled Conditions

Kalpana Sagar* and Srivastava RK
Environmental Research Laboratory, PG Department of Environmental Science, Government Model Science College (Autonomous), College with Potential for Excellence, UGC, Jabalpur, Madhya Pradesh, India
Corresponding Author : Kalpana Sagar
Environmental Research Laboratory
PG Department of Environmental Science
Government Model Science College (Autonomous)
NAAC RE-Accredited - ‘A’ Grade, College with Potential for Excellence
UGC, Jabalpur-482 001, Madhya Pradesh, India
Tel: +919926659131
E-mail: [email protected]
Received August 31, 2015; Accepted October 31, 2015; Published November 04, 2015
Citation: Sagar K, Srivastava RK (2015) Variability of Particulate Pollutant (PM2.5 and PM10) and Gaseous Pollutant (Ozone and NO2) at Jabalpur, Madhya Pradesh, India. J Environ Anal Toxicol 5:335. doi:10.4172/2161-0525.1000335
Copyright: © 2015 Sagar K, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
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Abstract

Background and aims: Imperata cylindrica (L.) P. Beauv. is a grass whose capacity to hyperaccumulate Fe and biomineralize jarosite has been proved in its natural habitat. Here we carried out an experiment to reproduce the Fe hyperacummulation under laboratory controlled conditions and a study to locate and identify the Fe compounds formed in the process. Methods: The experiment was conducted with plants cultivated in a hydroponic culture in Hoagland solution enriched with 300 mg/kg of Fe at pH 3 for 60 days. Samples were analyzed with mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) for its elemental analysis; with electronic microscopy (SEM, TEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis to analyze the different organs, tissues and cell content; and with X-ray diffraction (XRD) to identify the possible biomineral production. Results: I. cylindrica specimens reached 4805, 7976 and 53886 Fe mg/kg d.w. in leaves, rhizomes and roots respectively. Fe was visible as a plaque in the root and as deposits inside all the organs. Part of these accumulations corresponds to crystallized jarosite and iron oxides. Conclusions: We induced Fe hyperaccumulation and biomineralization in I. cylindrica under specific controlled conditions. Considering this we think this species could be an interesting candidate to phytoremediate soils.

Keywords
Gaseous pollutants; Particulate matter; Diurnal average; Seasonal average; Positive correlation
Introduction
Gaseous and particulate pollutants have major negative impacts on climate and health. They also play significant role in environmental degradation. It is expected that the increasing load of atmospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ozone (O3) and particulate pollutant (PM10 and PM2.5) will add to global climate change; therefore, it is necessary to quantify the emissions in the very near future. The linked issues of ozone and particulate matter pollution have been significant problems in the field of tropospheric zone for many years. Groundlevel ozone is not emitted directly into the atmosphere. It results from photochemical reactions between oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the presence of sunlight. High levels of pollutants typically occur from May to September, between noon and early evening. NO2 also plays a major role in atmospheric reactions that produce ground-level ozone, a major component of smog. It is also a precursor to nitrates, which contribute to increased respirable particle levels in the atmosphere. Particulate matter is characterized according to size - mainly because of the different health effects associated with particles of different diameters. Particulate matter is the general term used for a mixture of solid particles and liquid droplets in the air. It includes aerosols, smoke, fumes, dust, ash and pollen. The composition of particulate matter varies with place, season and weather conditions. Fine particulate matter is particulate matter that is 2.5 microns in diameter and less. It is also known as PM2.5 or respirable particles because it penetrates the respiratory system further than larger particles. PM2.5 in Ontario is largely made up of sulphate and nitrate particles, elemental and organic carbon and soil. O3 and PM2.5 were introduced into the newly revised air quality standard system in February 2012 Ref. [1] studied seasonal variation of air pollutants of Delhi and its health effects. It was found that the concentration of pollutants was more in winters as compared to summer and monsoon. Spatial and temporal variation of particulate matter and gaseous pollutants in 26 cities in China representing by Ref. [2]. They found out that concentrations of SO2 and CO were much higher in the cities in north China than those in the south. As for O3 and NO2, however, there was no significant difference between northern and southern cities. Fine particles were found to account for a large proportion of airborne particles, with the ratio of PM2.5 to PM10 ranging from 55% to 77%. The concentrations of PM2.5 and PM10 were much higher than the values recommended by the World Health Organization one more study by Ref. [3] investigated ambient particulate matter (PM10) concentrations in major urban areas of Korea during 1996-2010. The concentrations of PM10 in all cities exhibited seasonal variations with the peak values occurring consistently in spring. The PM10 data in each city consistently exhibited strong correlations. Long-term particulate matter modeling for health effect studies in California - Part 1: Model performance on temporal and spatial variations studied by Ref. [4] resulting in less particulate nitrate formation, especially during winter months. Particulate matter and surface ozone is moderate concentrations of that predominantly arise during the summers have been shown to be detrimental to human health and destructive to vegetation (NRC, 1991). In view of Ref. [5] Atmospheric Pollution Research (APR) 797 the above discussion, it is necessary to define the status of ambient air quality due to the presence of different pollutants in the environment of Jabalpur.
Sampling site
Jabalpur is located in central part of India. It is situated at 23°9′38″N 79°56′19″E. Atmosphere of Jabalpur is affected by emissions from vehicle exhaust and different factories. It has an average elevation of 411 meters (1348 ft.). Topographically Jabalpur is rich with forests, hills and mountains which contain lots of minerals in it. On the other hand, quality of air is getting deteriorated slowly by increasing industrialization and due to tremendous increase in number of vehicles plying on the roads.
Materials and Methods
In the Environmental research laboratory at Government Model Science College, Jabalpur, India various ambient air quality analyzers for detection of the ambient air quality are installed.
Instrumentation- Ambient Air Quality Monitoring Station (AAQMS)
Ambient Air Quality Monitoring System (AQMS) monitored the level of pollutants - NOX, Particulate Matter (PM10 and PM2.5), Ozone, etc. in the ambient atmosphere. From a single analyzer to complete systems provides a wide range of solutions to meet much of the Ambient Air Quality Monitoring demands.
Ecotech established an instrument for environmental monitoring that is WinAQMS (Air Quality Monitoring Station). WinAQMS has been designed as a client/server program. This means that WinAQMS has two parts: the client and the server. The server handles all the communication between the logger and the analysers, recording of data and starting/stopping of calibrations. The client is concerned with giving the users access to settings and data. On its own the server has no user interface and there is no way you can interact with it using the mouse or keyboard. The client is the visual interface of WinAQMS and communicates with the server by requesting information or receiving information that it has asked for at a prior time. This arrangement means that the WinAQMS server must always be turned on before the WinAQMS client program can connect to it.
Particulate matter monitoring by BAM (Beta Attenuation Monitor)
The met one instrument model BAM-1020 automatically measures and record airborne particulate concentration level using the principal of beta ray attenuation. Thousands of BAM-1020 units are currently deployed worldwide, making the unit one of the most successful air monitoring platforms in the world. This method provides a simple determination of concentration in units of milligrams or micrograms of particulate per cubic meter of air. A small 14C (carbon 14) element emits a constant source of high-energy electrons known as beta particles. These beta particles are detected and counted by a sensitive scintillation detector. An external pump pulls a measured amount of dust-laden air through a filter tape. After tape is loaded with ambient dust, it is automatically placed between the source and detector thereby causing an attenuation of the beta particle signal. The degree of attenuation of the beta particle signal is used to determine the mass concentration of particulate matter on the filter tape, and hence the volumetric concentration of particulate matter in ambient air.
EC9810 ozone analyzer (O3)
The ozone analyzer determines ozone concentrations by measuring the amount of ultraviolet light that the ozone absorbs. Ozone exhibits strong absorption in the ultraviolet spectrum around 250 nanometers (nm). The EC9810 ozone analyzer exploits this absorption feature to accurately measure ozone concentrations to less than 0.5 ppb. A stream switched, single beam photometer serves as the basis for the EC9810. The ultraviolet light is detected by a photodiode that only responds to ultraviolet energy. The photodiode converts ultraviolet light to electrical signal that is proportional to ultraviolet light detected.
EC9841 nitrogen oxides analyzer (NOX)
The EC9841 analyzer uses gas-phase chemiluminescence detection to perform continuous analysis of nitric oxide (NO), total oxides of nitrogen (NOX), and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). The EC9841 design represents an advance in nitrogen oxides analysis technology achieved primarily by using adaptive microprocessor control of a single measurements channel. The instrument consists of a pneumatic system, an NO2 to NO converter (Molygon), a reactioncell, detector (PMT), and processing electronics. The analysis for NO by chemiluminescence detector is the best direct technique. The operation is based on the chemiluminescence of activated molecular nitrogen dioxide species produced by the reaction between in an evacuated reaction cell. The NO reacts with O3 to form the activated NO2 species in accordance to the reaction if we shown their mechanism.
Results and Discussion
This paper is intended to serve as an in-depth analysis of seasonal and diurnal variation of ambient air pollutants like- particulate matter (PM10 or PM2.5) and gaseous pollutants (O3 or NO2) during 2013 and 2014 in Jabalpur area. It is concluded that particulate Matter monthly average is PM10 and PM2.5 is 77 μg/m3, 40 μg/m3 in 2013 and 82 μg/m3, 41 μg/m3 in 2014 and the Gaseous pollutant NO2 and O3 showed 11 ppb, 52 ppb in 2013 and 10 ppb and 34 ppb in 2014 (Table 1). Diurnal average of PM10 and PM2.5 is 78 μg/m3, 41 μg/m3 in 2013 and 83 μg/ m3, 42 μg/m3 in 2014 and the Gaseous pollutant NO2 and O3 showed 11 ppb, 52 ppb in 2013 and 11 ppb and 51 ppb in 2014 (Table 2). It was found that the higher concentration of all the parameters in winter season and moderate in summer, lower in monsoon season for both diurnal and seasonally (Table 3; Figures 1-6). It is due to some meteorological condition or lower boundary layer of pollutants. As per above observation, I found the result of particulate and gaseous pollutant correlation values of monthly and diurnal variation in the year 2013 and 2014 of all the parameters is as follows (Table 4).
Conclusion
A study on air monitoring of ambient air parameters such as Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2), Ozone (O3), Particulate Matter (PM2.5 and PM10), has been presented. Seasonal and diurnal variations and characteristics have been discussed. It has been found that the concentrations of above mentioned parameters are found to be highest in winter, moderate in summer and lowest in monsoon season in the both year 2013 and 2014 in the study site.
Acknowledgements
We express our thanks to Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology (IITM), Pune to install the Ambient Air Quality Monitoring System (AAQMS) in Environmental Research Laboratory of Government Model Science College (Autonomous), Jabalpur which helped a lot in the present study and collection the data. I owe a great deal of appreciation and gratitude to my guide for helping me, to go ahead in the topic. I would also like to thank my colleagues and senior fellow researchers who have given me all the valuable suggestions and comments for the study.
References





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