alexa Foetal Adjustment to Precarious Conditions: Genes Elegantly Bioprocess | Open Access Journals
ISSN: 2155-9821
Journal of Bioprocessing & Biotechniques
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Foetal Adjustment to Precarious Conditions: Genes Elegantly Bioprocess

Akbar Nikkhah*
Chief Highly Distinguished Professor, Department of Animal Sciences, University of Zanjan, Iran
Corresponding Author : Akbar Nikkhah
Chief Highly Distinguished Professor
Department of Animal Sciences
Faculty of Agricultural Sciences
University of Zanjan, Zanjan, Iran
National Elite Foundation, Tehran, Iran
Tel: +98-24-350-328-01
Fax: +98-24-350-332-02
E-mail: [email protected]
Received February 24, 2015; Accepted February 25, 2015; Published March 02, 2015
Citation: Nikkhah A (2015) Foetal Adjustment to Precarious Conditions: Genes Elegantly Bioprocess. J Bioprocess Biotech 5:e126. doi: 10.4172/2155-9821.1000e126
Copyright: © 2015 Nikkhah A. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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The objective of this perspective article was to underline the significance of embryonic and foetal adaptation to risky environmental conditions through internal maternal and own physiology. Mammals including humans are characterized by their evolutionary principles of growth and development. These evolutionary trends are integrated with earth sciences following physics laws and cosmology as both a science and a reality. In a more limited scale, occurrence of day and night has caused the emergence of circadian rhythms in cell biology that are best reflected in circadian patterns of gene expression, transcription and translation. Such an evolutionary cascade orchestrates different types and functions of genes and proteins in mammals [1-3].
Recent discoveries indicate that foetus can be well adapted to any modest modifications that occur in the environment. Despite the fact that embryo and indeed foetus utilize substrates preferentially over maternal tissues, the possibility exists that under very exceptional circumstances, any environmental issue affecting the mother, will also influence the foetus either beneficially or unhealthfully. However, this article proposes that gradual exposure to any serious environmental limitation experienced by maternal tissues and uterine can enable the foetus become accustomed steadily but effectively. Exposure to deficient oxygen at high altitude is a working example. Allowing the cell physiology to gradually adapt to reduced oxygen availability can prevent hazardous effects and even improve fuel use efficiency with better waste management. Adjustment to high elevations is brought about through faster breathing, higher heart rate, and feasibly altered blood chemistry [4]. This usually takes place at above 2500 meters height. Nevertheless, variably some adaptation may also occur at above 1500 meters altitude [4].
Evidence exists that mortality rate is lower in residents of higher vs. lower altitudes [5]. Moreover, increased elevation seems to be related to decreased obesity [6]. Furthermore, high altitude has been proposed to protect human against Alzheimer's disease via erythropoietin hormone that is released from kidney under hypoxia [7]. These responses demonstrate profound adjustments at lower cell levels involving genomics, proteomics and metabolomics [1]. The working philosophy is that genes exposed to extreme environments considered risky for optimal cell physiology and embryo and foetus health, should be adapted steadily, can develop a type of physiology that performs even better than usual under normal conditions. The recent findings support this philosophy [8-10].
To sum, human genes and proteins construction during embryonic and foetal development are highly responsive and adaptable to the environments even when considered risky for normal cell physiology and overall health. Future research is required to gain further new insights into such adaptations that may be studied as a model to develop prevention strategies for adult diseases.
Acknowledgements
The Ministry of Science Research and Technology, National Elite Foundation, and University of Zanjan, Iran, are gratefully acknowledged for supporting the author’s global programs of optimizing science edification in the third millennium
References

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