alexa Brief Communication: French Maritime Pine Bark Extract (Pinus Pinaster) and Its Ophthalmic Use | Open Access Journals
ISSN: 2155-9570
Journal of Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology
Like us on:
Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700+ peer reviewed, Open Access Journals that operates with the help of 50,000+ Editorial Board Members and esteemed reviewers and 1000+ Scientific associations in Medical, Clinical, Pharmaceutical, Engineering, Technology and Management Fields.
Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our 3000+ Global Conferenceseries Events with over 600+ Conferences, 1200+ Symposiums and 1200+ Workshops on
Medical, Pharma, Engineering, Science, Technology and Business

Brief Communication: French Maritime Pine Bark Extract (Pinus Pinaster) and Its Ophthalmic Use

Sparshi Jain1, Savleen Kaur2*, and Nishant Sachdev3
1Guru Nanak Eye Centre, New Delhi, India
2Advanced eye center, PGIMER, India
3SGHSC Eye Hospital , Sohana, India
Corresponding Author : Savleen kaur
Room no 116, Advanced Eye Centre
PGIMER, Chandigarh, India
Tel: 919988167746
Email: [email protected]
Received: July 16, 2014; Accepted: August 28, 2014; Published: September 01, 2014
Citation: Jain S, Kaur S, Sachdev N (2014) Brief Communication: French Maritime Pine Bark Extract (Pinus Pinaster) and Its Ophthalmic Use. J Clin Exp Ophthalmol 5:353. doi:10.4172/2155-9570.1000353
Copyright: © 2014 Kaur S, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Related article at
DownloadPubmed DownloadScholar Google

Visit for more related articles at Journal of Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology

French Maritime Pine Bark Extract (Pinus Pinaster) and Its Ophthalmic Use

Bark extract of Pinus pinaster has a long history of medicinal use and is available commercially as herbal dietary supplement with proprietary name pycnogenol. It is used as a food supplement to overcome many degenerative conditions and has been ascribed a very diverse clinical pharmacology [1]. Although there are many potential uses for Pycnogenol, the well-studied use is for improving vascular health as a result of improved endothelial function and venous insufficiency [2,3]. It is known to demonstrate symptomatic improvement of blood circulation, blood pressure and platelet function normalization, and venous insufficiency [2,3].

Its diverse uses make pycnogenol a promising therapy for much ocular pathology (Figure 1).
 
Mechanism of Action

Its major actions include (I) antioxidant as radical scavenger, (II) anti-inflammatory effect and (III) action through stimulation of eNOS synthesis.

Studies prove that pycnogenol stimulates nitric oxide to facilitate vasodilatation, which in turn prevents ischemic conditions that trigger angiogenesis hence its use in diabetic retinopathy [4].

It possesses antioxidant activity and acts in synergy with Lutein for prevention of lipid oxidation in the eyes [5,6]. Anti-inflammatory activity for Pycnogenol has also been advocated [7].

Moreover, pycnogenol inhibits alpha-glucosidase, which was shown to lower blood glucose in diabetes [8].
 
Dosage

For Retinopathy: 20-160 mg/day is advised depending on the severity of disease and given for duration of about 2-3 months. For lowering blood glucose in patients with diabetes the manufacturer recommends taking 50 mg once or twice daily. Due to lack of published data, Pycnogenol should not be taken during the first 3 months of pregnancy.
 
Pycnogel in Diabetes

Vision-saving effects of pycnogenol for patients with preproliferative diabetic retinopathy, has been proven in a case series Schönlau and Rohdewald [9].

A multicenter study in Germany with 1,169 diabetic retinopathy patients showed that daily intake of 20–160 mg Pycnogenol, effectively halted progression of vision loss over a 6 months investigational period. Another study found that Pycnogenol reduced risk of bleeding and improved visual acuity in diabetic patients [10].

Forty-six diabetic patients were recruited for a study with a moderate degree of diabetic macular edema. The patients were randomly assigned to either the Pycnogenol treatment group or the placebo control group. The improvement of retinal thickness as well as edema score was found to be more prominent in those patients with more prominent macular edema. Treatment with Pycnogenol significantly improved retinal blood flow, both systolic and diastolic components, expressed as flow velocity at the central retinal artery [11].
 
Pycnogel and Glaucoma

Patented extracts from European blueberries pine bark or Pycnogenol comprise a nutritional supplement by the name of Mitrogenol. It is actually a combination of two phenolic extracts from bilberry (Mirtoselect) and French maritime pine bark (Pycnogenol). Mirtogenol (pine extract with Mirtoselect) was found to be a preventive agent of glaucoma by lowering the IOP and improving the ocular blood flow. Mirtoselect was shown to counteract hyperpermeability of ciliary capillaries [12], while pycnogenol improves endothelial function4. Hence dietary supplementation with Mirtogenol has previously been demonstrated to improve intraocular pressure (IOP) because of these combined effects [13]. The effect on IOP was attributed to significant ocular blood flow improvement.

In a study of twenty subjects by Steigerwalt et al [13], subjects were given Mirtogenol leaving 18 untreated as control. The mean IOP decreased from a baseline of 25.2 mmHg to 22.2 mmHg and 22.0 mmHg after two and three months of treatment respectively. After three months with Mirtogenol, IOP was significantly lowered (P<0.05) in comparison to control. No further change was observed after six months.
 
Side Effects

Minor side effects include gastrointestinal discomfort, dizziness, headache and nausea. At the dosage of 20–100 mg per day for a long period extended for months, and 100–300 mg for shorter periods is considered nontoxic [14]. While the drug increased retinal flow, no side-effects were observed amongst the 46 patients in the largest study on the subject [11].

It is our unpublished experience that pycnogel given to patients with early diabetic retinopathy improves visual potential. Also in end stage disease especially ischemic retinopathies, it improves retinal circulation in the long term. However larger studies and more importantly comparative trials to our current protocols for diabetic patients are required to prove the same.
 
References















Figures at a glance

Figure
Figure 1
Select your language of interest to view the total content in your interested language
Post your comment

Share This Article

Article Usage

  • Total views: 11755
  • [From(publication date):
    August-2014 - Sep 22, 2017]
  • Breakdown by view type
  • HTML page views : 7968
  • PDF downloads :3787
 

Post your comment

captcha   Reload  Can't read the image? click here to refresh

Peer Reviewed Journals
 
Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700 + peer reviewed, Open Access Journals
International Conferences 2017-18
 
Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our 3000+ Global Annual Meetings

Contact Us

Agri, Food, Aqua and Veterinary Science Journals

Dr. Krish

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9040

Clinical and Biochemistry Journals

Datta A

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9037

Business & Management Journals

Ronald

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Chemical Engineering and Chemistry Journals

Gabriel Shaw

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9040

Earth & Environmental Sciences

Katie Wilson

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Engineering Journals

James Franklin

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

General Science and Health care Journals

Andrea Jason

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9043

Genetics and Molecular Biology Journals

Anna Melissa

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9006

Immunology & Microbiology Journals

David Gorantl

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9014

Informatics Journals

Stephanie Skinner

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Material Sciences Journals

Rachle Green

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Mathematics and Physics Journals

Jim Willison

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9042

Medical Journals

Nimmi Anna

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9038

Neuroscience & Psychology Journals

Nathan T

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9041

Pharmaceutical Sciences Journals

John Behannon

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9007

Social & Political Science Journals

Steve Harry

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9042

 
© 2008-2017 OMICS International - Open Access Publisher. Best viewed in Mozilla Firefox | Google Chrome | Above IE 7.0 version
adwords