Uzbekistan State University of World Languages, Uzbekistan
Received Date: May 05, 2017; Accepted Date: May 11, 2017; Published Date: May 16, 2017
Citation: Sanjar S (2017) Future Establishment of Competition among Political Parties in Uzbekistan. J Pol Sci Pub Aff 5: 250. doi: 10.4172/2332-0761.1000250
Copyright: © 2017 Sanjar S. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
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This scientific analyzes article the place and role of political parties in a society. Multi-party system and political competitive factors among political parties are set forth. The participation of political parties is analyzed as an essential institution of civil society as well as national and international experience. Moreover, the author shows scientific outlook about political parties’ start on competition, struggle of political ideas and ideology during preelection campaign and electoral activity.
Political party; Civil society; Electoral campaign; Political competition; Electorate; Political discourse; Ideology; Parliament
As it is known, one of the main principles of establishment of democratic republic and civil society is formation of state government bodies through public election and citizen participation in state and society issues directly or through representatives, whom they elected. In this matter, political parties, which is one of the indispensable institutions of civil society play important role, as they function as a “bridge” between state and society.
Political party is civil voluntary union participating in governing of public issues, and also which is established based on unanimity of interests and aims, striving for realization of political will of a particular sphere of society in establishing of state government bodies . Political parties represent political will of different layers and groups and take part in forming state government through their representatives, who are elected in a democratic way .
Political parties, initially, effect on decision making process according to their electoral interests, political ideology and position and through their representatives engage in setting public controlling over central and local executive branches of state.
Thus democratization of state control, law priority accomplishment in society and formation of own view point of political parties in effective provision of human rights and freedom in state, having capacity of moving forward programs aiming at development of state and society, ability of conducting meaningful discussions with its political opponents (other political parties), in a word, establishment of inter-party competition and developing multi-party system in state political system is plays an important role.
Only multi-party based social-political relations create favorable conditions in order to build civil society. The factors such as the position of political parties in the society in establishment of state representative and executive bodies, its participation in these processes, peoples attitude towards elections based on the multi-party system, “ideas struggle” among political parties are becoming essential indicators marking today’s democracy.
As world experience show, political parties’ role and importance increase in country’s “transition period”. Their competition in socialpolitical life is also going on increasing through essential tendency. In this process transformations also occur in the place of political parties in society, i.e. party changes from ordinary supporter union to representative democratic institution. Multi-party system also serves as debate area in solving problems and issues in social-political lives of a state and to come to a reasonable compromise .
If considering world experience in this matter dispute and mutual struggle among parties escalate especially on the eve of elections. Political parties try to achieve leadership in upcoming election processes and aim at promotion their ideas widely among electorate (Figure 1).
As it is shown from the table, political ideology dominates in the political system and pre-election campaigns of developed Western countries. That is to say, it is paid great attention to the ideology, unique state and society improving program of the political party. Electorate also votes for the alternative programs. Therefore proportional election system is applied in most European countries. In the next positions political parties and personal qualities of a candidate are taken into consideration.
Whereas in Eastern countries’ election process status of the individual stands as a main point. Identity of the candidate, his place in social life, his position, even charisma of his are considered as main factors, which are interesting to electors. In this process political ideology takes the last place.
This comparative table is arranged on the basis of analysis of election processes, scientific analyses of activity of political parties and multi-party system. It reflects only scientific outlook of the author.
Pre-election processes, political parties’ participation in parliament and their competition in regular activity are also based on such indicators. Electorate (voters), who is the main the subject of political processes, political parties, state and civil society institutions are established and conduct their activity according to this system.
As it can be shown from the comparative analysis, there are a lot of discrepancies in political thought, social-political systems of Western and Eastern societies. It can be considered as one of the main duties standing in front of society to study them scientifically and to maintain analyzing.
The political discourses conducted regularly among parties, which are discussed in solving actual contemporary social-political and social-economic issues, is of great importance.
Political discourse is political process establishing communicative relation among political parties (as well as among other civil society institutions) . Discourses in their turn are political means, which are controlled by political leaders, conducted to special audience and having its special language. Political discourse serves as a main factor in discussing internal and external policy of a state by political parties in election campaign, in debate processes related to state and society along with analyzing social-political processes.
Mass media plays an important role in processes of political parties’ debating. As it is seen from the developed countries’ experience, TV debates, briefings and press conferences are held not only during preelection campaigns, but also regularly about actual social-political and economic issues (Figure 2).
The vital aim of political discourse is not only to classify of current condition in a simple manner, but also to convince the electorate of own ideas and thoughts, to create positive image and to arise motivation in audience. As of these, political discourses are met in the forms of presentational, presenting their ideas and programs, constructive: showing their position towards current authority (or political party), i.e. putting forward of their position, confrontational: functioning as an opponent to current authority (or political party).
During the independence years there have been set up organizational, legal and institutional bases on establishing multi-party system and improving efficiency of its activity. In this regard, the system of legal arrangement of political parties’ activity is important to emphasize in our country. For instance, the Constitution of the Republic of Uzbekistan, the laws such as “On Public Organizations”, “On Political parties”, “On the elections of the Oliy Majlis of Uzbekistan”, “On the elections of region, district and city Councils of People’s deputies”, “On financing of political parties’ activity”, and the Constitutional Law of the Republic of Uzbekistan “On Renovation and further democratization of state governing, and increasing the role of political parties on state modernization” should be distinctly emphasized.
In the political arena of Uzbekistan have four political parties- People's Democratic Party of Uzbekistan, Social democratic party "Adolat" (“Justice”), Democratic Party "Milly Tiklanish" (“National revival”) and the Movement of entrepreneurs and businessmen-Liberal Democratic Party of Uzbekistan.
• The People's Democratic Party of Uzbekistan (NDPU) is the first political party formed after independence in 1991. It can be called the legal successor of the former Communist Party of the Republic of Uzbekistan. The party was established on November 1, 1991. According to the official data, the total number of members is about 360,000 people, and 11,162 primary organizations of the party which are functioning all over our Republic. The head of the central council is Khatamjon Ketmanov. The main goal of the party, described in the NDPU regulations, is the material and spiritual well-being of the person, family, and the reliable provision of equal opportunities, constitutional rights and civil liberties, the protection of honor and dignity, the peaceful life of people regardless of their nationality, social status, political convictions and religion. The Party's publication media is the newspapers "Uzbekiston Ovozi" and "The Voice of Uzbekistan";
• The Social Democratic Party of Uzbekistan "Adolat"-was founded on February 18, 1995 at the founding congress. The highest organs of the party: the Congress, the Political Council, the Presidium of the Political Council. Chairman of the Political Council-Narimon Umarov. The current Action Program of the Adolat SDP was adopted on December 17, 2005. The total number of members is over 75,000. There are 2.536 primary party organizations. The party's publication media is the social and political newspaper “Adolat”. The main goal of the party is to build a legal democratic state that meets the interests of all nations and nationalities living on the territory of Uzbekistan, including establishing social justice in the society, ensuring the rights and freedom of the individual, creating a moral and enlightened civil society;
• The Democratic Party of Uzbekistan "Milliy Tiklanish" was formed on June 20, 2008 by the decision of the united congress on the basis of the merger of the Democratic Party of Uzbekistan Milliy Tiklanish and the Fidokorlar Party. Chairman of the party Sarvar Atamuratov. The main goals of the party are: to create favorable conditions for the growth of national self-consciousness, to form and strengthen a sense of national pride of citizens of the Republic of Uzbekistan, devotion and love for the Motherland, uniting the patriots of their country, mobilizing intellectual and creative potential for serving for Uzbekistan and raising its international authority, making an effective contribution to the cause of patriotic education of youth in the spirit of respect, love and pride for their Motherland. The total number of party members is more than 108,000 people. The party's publication media is the political newspaper “ Milliy Tiklanish”
• The movement of entrepreneurs and businessmen-the Liberal Democratic Party of Uzbekistan (UzLiDeP)-was established on November 15, 2003 by the initiation of the country's President I. Karimov. The main goal of the Party is-consolidation, unification and coordination of owners in their activities. The leader of the party is Sodikzhon Turdiyev. The members of the party are more than 160,000 people. The party's publication media is the sociopolitical newspaper "XXI asr", (the 21st century-from the Uzbek one) established on November 18, 2003.
Necessity of establishing healthy and constructive competence is increasing among parties on step-by-step development of parliamentarism and development of election system and further democratization of state governing in Uzbekistan. The factor of competence among parties should be paid highly attention to parties’ rotation in government for effective performance as of being inseparable part of it.
If we analyze it as an example of Uzbekistan, the formation of political competence among the parties in the country is advancing gradually. The participation and particular experience gained during election processes of political parties in elections for the Oliy Majlis and local Councils of people’s deputies in 1994, 1999, 2004, 2009 and 2014 years serve to enhance their activity.
Moreover, interventions referred to the participation of political parties in elections, to show its power, to strengthen the role of political parties in modernizations of Uzbekistan is being established and come into realization . The issue of improving efficiency of political parties is regarded as actual matter in the activities of representative bodies of the authority. We can say that the activity of fractions in the parliament, their position from processes of making law projects to control-analysis assignments are the hallmark of political competence.
As the first President of the Republic of Uzbekistan Islom Karimov claimed: “Figuratively speaking, especially in parliament activity, it should make a regular appearance of competence of ideas and programs, each party should achieve their aims and targets through such a competence… The more intense and the stronger the competence among different political fractions in Legislative Chamber, the firmer and the more stable will be the guarantee of the realization of each parties’ ideas and duties, which reflects interests of society’s particular sphere.” .
In broad sense, establishment of multi-party system provides pluralism of thoughts, serves as a main factor in democratization of the society. As the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan Sh.M. Mirziyoev emphasized: “Strengthening of multi-party system, increasing the effect of political parties in the lives of state and society, the duty of forming healthy competence environment among them is today’s crucial task” .
Furthermore, there are several other issues in social-political modernization of the society and further democratization of state governing system, as well as intensification of the role and the position of political parties. They include:
There is a necessity of refining effectiveness of political parties, using of new and innovative methods in working with electorate and converting parties into literary representative democratic institution.
It should be effectually used methods and methodologies experience formed in world’s developed countries during the pre-election propaganda processes. On this matter it is better to use various briefings, debates, public relations campaigns and etc.
Time itself requires reformation of “analytic centres”(Think tanks), which regularly carries out research about issues of political parties in actual social-political and social-economic issues on forming state and society, makes proper and constructive programs on solutions of the problems and participates in realization of them in our life.