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ISSN: 2169-0111
Advancements in Genetic Engineering
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Gene-Directed Enzyme Pro-drug Therapy: A Promising Way for Cancer Treatment

Arnab Banerjee*

Department of Physiology, Serampore College, Serampore, Hooghly, West Bengal, India

*Corresponding Author:
Arnab Banerjee
Department of Physiology, Serampore College
Serampore, Hooghly 712201, West Bengal, India
Tel: +91-9836944762
E-mail: [email protected]

Received date: March 13, 2017; Accepted date: March 16, 2017; Published date: March 23,2017

Citation: Banerjee A (2017) Gene-Directed Enzyme Pro-drug Therapy: A Promising Way for Cancer Treatment. Adv Genet Eng 6:e116. doi:10.4172/2169-0111.1000e116

Copyright: © 2017 Banerjee A. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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Introduction

Gene-directed protein prodrug medical aid (GDEPT) may be a promising strategy that aims to limit the general toxicity associate degreed improve the property of therapy use through the expression of a factor that encodes associate degree catalyst that converts nontoxic prodrug into an activated cytotoxic agent. It offers a brand new approach to treating some cancers. Clinical trials are completed for brain and prostate cancers and also the initial product for post-surgical treatment of some brain tumors is awaiting selling approval. Recent innovations offer a glimpse into the doable future evolution of a brand new cistron medication [1].

GDEPT could be a two-step cistron medical aid approach wherever the cistron for a non-endogenous catalyst is directed to focus on tissues. First one is a factor of a far off catalyst is delivered to a tumour by a vector and second one is a prodrug is then administered that is property activated within the tumour site. Within the initiative, the cistron for a distant catalyst is run and is directed to the neoplasm, wherever it’s expressed by the utilization of specific promoters. Within the second step, injected prodrugs area unit activated by the foreign catalyst. The planning and synthesis of prodrugs able to bear protein activation in such systems is a vital part [2]. The catalyst is expressed intracellularly wherever it’s able to activate an afterwards administered prodrug. It’s a promising new treatment for cancer therapy. The planning and synthesis of prodrugs able to bear animate thing enzymic activation by foreign genes in such systems is a vital part [3]. The implementation of a prodrug strategy has associate degree improvement within the chemical science and pharmacokinetic properties over the pharmacologically active compounds. The foremost wide used enzyme/prodrug mixtures in GDEPT that are investigated for applications in cancer medical care embrace herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase enzyme with ganciclovir, and pyrimidine deaminase, the microorganism catalyst carboxypeptidase G2 and E. coli nitroreductase, that activates the prodrug CB1954 and connected mustard prodrug analogs: a number of which can be superior to CB1954. Synergies between totally different GDEPTs and alternative modalities area unit required to be explored to maximize therapeutic profit with tokenish toxicity. The main scientific attraction of GDEPT is the local bystander effect, that’s crucial for a palmy GDEPT strategy. The bystander effect is that the ability to kill any neighboring non-expressing cells, associate degree extension of the killing effects of the active drug to non-transduced cells passively or via gap junctions, resulting in their death. This leads to associate degree in place amplification of toxicity. It’s most popular that the activated drug be extremely diffusible or be actively concerned by adjacent nonexpressing cancer cells, as cell-cell contact isn’t needed for a witness impact. The killing ability of the anti-cancer drug system is increased by the bystander effect (Figure 1). Numerous GDEPT systems studied for treating cancer tumors and varied GDEPTs are developed and evaluated, careful thought of the properties of those systems like enzymes, prodrugs and venomous metabolites ought to be thought of once deciding the optimum systems, either alone or in combination for treating cancers. Researchers have ceaselessly designed new prodrugs with improved stability and multiplied effectivity. In the choice of prodrugs, there area unit several factors to be thought of for every specific activating accelerator like the high turnover by the accelerator and therefore the giant differential toxicity between the prodrug and its activated type.

advancements-genetic-engineering-enzyme-pro-drug-therapy

Figure 1: Scheme of gene directed enzyme pro-drug therapy (GDEPT).

Finally, the approaches ought to be thought of for testing so as to attain complete cure for this difficult sickness. Synergies between totally different GDEPTs and different modalities area unit to be explored for increasing therapeutic profit with a negligible toxicity [4].

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